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Slide 0 Copyright © 2005. Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 6 The Skeletal System.

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1 Slide 0 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 6 The Skeletal System

2 Slide 1 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 6 Lesson 6.1 Chapter 6 Lesson 6.1

3 Slide 2 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Functions of Bone Supports and gives shape to the body Protects internal organs The skull protects the brain; the breastbone and ribs protect the heart and lungs. Helps make movements possible Stores calcium Hemopoiesis the process of blood cell formation is carried on in the red bone marrow.

4 Slide 3 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Types of Bones Long example: humerus (upper arm) Short example: carpals (wrist) Flat example: frontal (skull) Irregular example: vertebrae (spinal cord)

5 Slide 4 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Structural components Diaphysis or shaft Medullary cavityhollow area inside diaphysis containing yellow marrow Epiphyses or ends of the bonespongy bone contains red bone marrow Structure of Long Bones

6 Slide 5 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Longitudinal section of a long bone Structure of Long Bones (contd.)

7 Slide 6 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Microscopic Structure of Bone and Cartilage Bone types Spongy Texture results from needlelike threads of bone called trabeculae surrounded by a network of open spaces Compact (Dense) Structural units are called osteons or Haversian systems

8 Slide 7 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Microscopic Structure of Bone and Cartilage (contd.) Cartilage Cell type called chondrocyte Has the flexibility of firm plastic Matrix is gel-like and lacks blood vessels Has no blood vessels, so nutrients must diffuse through the matrix to reach cells

9 Slide 8 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Microscopic Structure of Bone and Cartilage (contd.) Microscopic structure of bone

10 Slide 9 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Bone Formation and Growth The process of remodeling A newborns skeleton has many bones that have not completely ossified Cartilage models replaced by calcified bone matrix Osteoblasts form new bone Osteoclasts resorb bone As long as the epiphyseal plate remains between epiphyses and diaphysis, growth continues Epiphyseal line marks where two centers of ossification have fused together

11 Slide 10 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Bone Formation and Growth (contd.) Endochondral ossification

12 Slide 11 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 6 Lesson 6.2 Chapter 6 Lesson 6.2

13 Slide 12 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton Skeleton: two divisions and their subdivisions Axial skeleton Skull Spine Thorax Hyoid bone Appendicular skeleton Upper extremities, including shoulder girdle Lower extremities, including hip girdle

14 Slide 13 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) Axial Skeleton Skull Spine (Vertebral Column) Consists of a series of separate bones called vertebrae Sections called: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx Curves of the spine give strength to support body

15 Slide 14 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) The skull

16 Slide 15 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) The spinal column

17 Slide 16 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) Axial Skeleton Thorax Formed by: 12 pairs of ribs The sternum (breastbone) Thoracic vertebrae

18 Slide 17 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) Bones of the thorax

19 Slide 18 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) Appendicular Skeleton Upper Extremity Formed by: Scapula (shoulder blade) Clavicle (collarbone) o Attached by sternoclavicular joint Humerus Radius and ulna Wrist and hands27 bones in all

20 Slide 19 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Bones of the arm, elbow joint, and forearm Divisions of Skeleton (contd.)

21 Slide 20 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) Appendicular Skeleton Lower Extremity Two coxal (pelvic) bones Femur; longest bone in the body o Articulates proximally with coxal bone in socket called the acetabulum Patella (kneecap) Tibia (shinbone) Fibula (slender bone in the lower leg) Phalanges, composed of metatarsals and tarsals

22 Slide 21 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Bones of the thigh, knee joint, and leg Divisions of Skeleton (contd.)

23 Slide 22 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divisions of Skeleton (contd.) Bones of the right foot

24 Slide 23 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Differences Between a Mans and a Womans Skeleton Sizemale skeleton generally larger Shape of pelvismale pelvis deep and narrow, female pelvis broad and shallow Size of pelvic inletfemale pelvic inlet generally wider, normally large enough for babys head to pass through it Pubic angleangle between pubic bones of female generally wider

25 Slide 24 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Differences Between a Mans and a Womans Skeleton (contd.) Comparison of the male and female pelvis

26 Slide 25 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Joints (Articulations) Kinds of joints Synarthrosis (no movement) Fibrous connective tissue grows between articulating bones Example: sutures of skull Amphiarthrosis (slight movement) Cartilage connects articulating bones Example: symphysis pubis

27 Slide 26 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Joints (Articulations) (contd.) Diarthrosis (free movement)most joints belong to this class Structures of freely movable jointsjoint capsule and ligaments hold adjoining bones together but permit movement at joint Articular cartilagecovers joint ends of bones and absorbs jolts Synovial membranelines joint capsule and secretes lubricating fluid Joint cavityspace between joint ends of bones

28 Slide 27 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Joints (Articulations) (contd.) Joints of the Skeleton

29 Slide 28 Copyright © Elsevier, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Joints (Articulations) (contd.) Types of diarthrotic joints


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