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Thomas Hobbes The condition of man . . . is a condition of war of everyone against everyone.”

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1 Thomas Hobbes The condition of man is a condition of war of everyone against everyone.”

2 ( ) English philosopher and political theorist one of the first modern Western thinkers to provide a secular justification for the political state. The philosophy of Hobbes marked a departure in English philosophy from the religious emphasis of Scholasticism.

3 Born in Malmesbury, Hobbes was educated at Magdalen Hall, University of Oxford.
In 1608 he became the tutor of William Cavendish, later earl of Devonshire. During his travels Hobbes met and discussed the physical sciences with several leading thinkers of the time, including Italian astronomer Galileo and French philosophers René Descartes and Pierre Gassendi.

4 Hobbes's best-known work, Leviathan; or, The Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651), is a forceful exposition of his doctrine of sovereignty. The work was interpreted by the followers of the exiled prince as a justification of the Commonwealth and aroused the suspicions of the French authorities by its attack on the papacy. Again fearful of arrest, Hobbes returned to England. 1651 Publication of Leviathan. Returns to England and begins his dispute with John Bramall, bishop of Derry, on the issue of free will.

5 In 1660, when the Commonwealth ended and his former pupil acceded to the throne, Hobbes again came into favor. In 1666, however, the House of Commons passed a bill including Leviathan among the books to be investigated on charges of atheistic tendencies (Hobbes argued for a distinction between knowledge and faith and suggested that one could not gain a knowledge of God—see Atheism; Agnosticism).

6 The measure caused Hobbes to burn many of his papers and to delay publication of three of his works: Behemoth: The History of the Causes of Civil Wars of England; Dialogues Between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England; and a metrical Historia Ecclesiastica

7 Within the next three years he translated into English verse the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer.

8 Developing his politics and ethics from a naturalistic basis of self-interest (see Naturalism; Egoism), Hobbes held that since people are fearful and predatory they must submit to the absolute supremacy of the state, in both secular and religious matters, in order to live by reason and gain lasting preservation. Within psychology, he proposed that all human actions are caused by material phenomena (see Materialism), with people motivated by what he termed appetite (movement toward an object; similar to pleasure) or aversion (movement away from an object; similar to pain).

9 The frontispiece of Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes, 1651
The frontispiece of Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan was a justification for absolutism (the exercise of unrestricted power by a government). In it, Hobbes argued that human beings have an inherent tendency toward aggressiveness and competitiveness that puts one and all in a life-and- death struggle and that requires the intervention of a monarch whose powers are unlimited. Hobbes? most innovative aspect was his presentation of human nature, rather than divine right, as the basis of royal rule. This engraving shows the symbols of civil and ecclesiastical power.

10 Hobbes Quotes “There is no such thing as perpetual tranquillity of mind while we live here; because life itself is but motion, and can never be without desire, nor without fear, no more than without sense.” It is not wisdom but Authority that makes a law” Leisure is the Mother of Philosophy

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