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Ecology Video What's biology got to do with it?. Chapter 2 Section 1 Vocabulary 1.Ecology- the study of interactions of living organisms with one another.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology Video What's biology got to do with it?. Chapter 2 Section 1 Vocabulary 1.Ecology- the study of interactions of living organisms with one another."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology Video What's biology got to do with it?

2 Chapter 2 Section 1 Vocabulary 1.Ecology- the study of interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment (soil, water, climate, etc) 2.Biosphere- portion of the earth that supports life 3.Biotic factors- the organisms in a habitat (living factors) 4.Abiotic factors- the physical aspects of a habitat (non-living factors) 5.Population- all of the individuals of a species that live together in one place at one time 6.Ecosystem- aka ecological system; consists of a community and all the physical aspects of its habitat (soil, water, weather, etc) 7.Biome- a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climate and have similar types of communities 8.Habitat- the place where a particular population of a species lives 9.Niche- the functional role of a particular species in an ecosystem; how an organism lives; the job it performs within the ecosystem 10.Predation- the act of one organism killing another for food 11.Symbiosis- two or more species living together in a close, long-term association 12.Mutualism- a symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefits 13.Commensalism- a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped 14.Parasitism- one organism feeds on and usually lives on or in another, typically larger, organism; usually do not kill their prey (or host) because they depend on them for food and a place to live

3 Ecology- the study of interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment (soil, water, climate, etc)

4 Biosphere- portion of the earth that supports life

5 Biotic factors- the organisms in a habitat (living factors) Abiotic factors- the physical aspects of a habitat (non-living factors)

6 Sequence the abiotic and biotic factors. Write abiotic or biotic in each square. 1. lack of rainfall 6. the population of a species diminishes 5. animals do not reproduce 4. rivers dry up 3. certain plants die 2. dry soil

7 Sequence the abiotic and biotic factors. Write abiotic or biotic in each square. 1. lack of rainfall abiotic 6. the population of a species diminishes biotic 5. animals do not reproduce biotic 4. rivers dry up abiotic 3. certain plants die biotic 2. dry soil abiotic

8 Population- all of the individuals of a species that live together in one place at one time

9 Ecosystem - aka ecological system; consists of a community and all the physical aspects of its habitat (soil, water, weather, etc)

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11 Biome- a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climate and have similar types of communities

12 Habitat- the place where a particular population of a species lives

13 Niche- the functional role of a particular species in an ecosystem; how an organism lives; the job it performs within the ecosystem

14 niche A polar bear will wait by air holes dug in the ice for a seal to pop its head up for a breath; the polar bear then kills the animal quickly. Arctic foxes are small canines that feed on small mammals and birds; they also take carrion when found. When hunting is good, an Arctic fox will bury excess kills in the snow. This works as a freezer for leaner times. Ravens often raid these stockpiles of food.

15 Predation- the act of one organism killing another for food

16 Symbiosis- two or more species living together in a close, long-term association

17 Mutualism a symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefits -

18 mutualism

19 Commensalism- a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped

20 commensalism

21 Parasitism- one organism feeds on and usually lives on or in another, typically larger, organism; usually do not kill their prey (or host) because they depend on them for food and a place to live

22 Section 2 Vocabulary 1.Autotrophs/ Producers- Organisms that first capture energy and make energy storing molecules; plants, algae, and cyanobacteria 2.Heterotrophs /Consumers- those organisms that consume plants or other organisms to obtain the energy necessary to build their molecules 3.Herbivore- 4.Carnivore- 5.Omnivores- animals that are considered both herbivores and carnivores, such as bears 6.Detritovores- organisms that obtain their energy from the organic wastes and dead bodies that are produced at every trophic level (bacteria, fungi, worms) 7.Trophic level- a level in an ecosystem that organisms are placed in to show where they got their energy from and where their energy will then go; energy moves from one trophic level to another 8.Food chain- the path of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem (sun producers primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer) 9.Food web- complicated, interconnected group of food chains that shows the different trophic levels that individual organisms can feed at 10.Biomass- the dry weight of tissue and other organic matter found in a specific ecosystem; each level higher on the pyramid contains only 10% of the biomass found in the trophic level below it.

23 Autotrophs/ Producers- Organisms that first capture energy and make energy storing molecules; plants, algae, and cyanobacteria

24 Heterotrophs /Consumers- those organisms that consume plants or other organisms to obtain the energy necessary to build their molecules

25 Herbivore- herbivores: eat only plants

26 Carnivore- carnivores: eat only animals

27 Omnivores- animals that are considered both herbivores and carnivores, such as bears

28

29 Detritovores- organisms that obtain their energy from the organic wastes and dead bodies that are produced at every trophic level (bacteria, fungi, worms)

30 detritovore millipedes, woodlice, dung flies, slugs, many terrestrial worms, sea stars, fiddler crabs, and some sedentary polychaetesmillipedeswoodlicedung fliesslugswormssea starsfiddler crabspolychaetes

31 Scavengers obtain energy by eating dead animals Decomposers obtain energy by breaking down dead organic matter

32 Trophic level- a level in an ecosystem that organisms are placed in to show where they got their energy from and where their energy will then go; energy moves from one trophic level to another

33 Food chain- the path of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem (sun producers primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer)

34 Food web- complicated, interconnected group of food chains that shows the different trophic levels that individual organisms can feed at

35 Biomass- the dry weight of tissue and other organic matter found in a specific ecosystem; each level higher on the pyramid contains only 10% of the biomass found in the trophic level below it.

36 Food web

37 Copy this chart into you notes Table 2-1 AutotrophsHeterotrophs Herbivore, carnivore, or omnivore

38 Use the diagram to complete the Table. Classify each member of the food web as autotroph or heterotroph, and identify the heterotrophs as herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores

39 Section 3 Vocabulary 1.Biogeochemical cycle- the paths of water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous passing from the nonliving environment to living organisms and then back to the nonliving environment. Notes: Bio : for the living things it passes through Geo: for the non living things it passes into and out of… Cycle: that it continuously moves

40 2. Nitrogen fixation- the process of combining nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia. Notes: mostly bacteria that provide this process. Symbiotic bacteria can be found on the root nodules of plants. Lightning can also cause this. 3. Denitrification- when Nitrogen is released back into the cycle when denitrifying bacteria convert NO3- into N2 Notes: bacteria cause this. Releases gas.

41 Carbon Cycle Carbon is required for the building of all organic compounds. All living things contain carbon

42 Carbon cycle

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45 A. Burning of fossil fuels B. Death, decomposition C. Photosynthesis D. Respiration E. Industry & Agriculture F. Carbon Dioxide in atmosphere G. Carbon compounds converted to fossil fuels H. Carbon Dioxide dissolved in water I. Calcium carbonates in rocks and shells J. Precipitation B. Death, decomposition

46 Hydrologic Cycle (Water Cycle)

47 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is required for the manufacture of all amino acids and nucleic acids. (proteins) It is also found in DNA Nitrogen Fixation is a process which occurs in prokaryotes in which N2 is converted to (NH4+). Atmospheric nitrogen can also undergo nitrogen fixation by lighting and UV radiation and become NO3-. the average organism can not use atmospheric nitrogen for these tasks, but which is where most nitrogen is found!

48 Nitrogen Cycle

49 During nitrification, ammonia is converted into nitrite, and nitrite is converted into nitrate. Nitrification occurs in various bacteria. In the final stage, plants absorb ammonia and nitrate and incorporate it into their metabolic pathways..

50 Nitrogen Cycle

51 Once the nitrogen has entered the plant metabolic pathway, it may be transferred to animals when the plant is eaten. Nitrogen is released back into the cycle when denitrifying bacteria convert NO3- into N2 in the process of denitrification.

52 Finally, when detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back into ammonia the process of ammonification occurs, or when animals excrete ammonia, urea, or uric acid.

53 Nitrogen Cycle

54 Major steps of Nitrogen Cycle 1. Nitrogen fixation 2. Nitrification 3. assimilation 4. denitrification

55 Phosphorous Cycle

56 Biogeochemical Cycle activity: Each person will get a part or parts of one of the cycles. Draw what is happening in your part of the cycle on an index card. Then find members of your same cycle and put your parts together to make the entire cycle by placing the parts onto a poster with arrows between the drawings to make the cycle complete. You may use the pictures and information in your book to help you! Your group will then present the completed cycle to the class so make sure you understand the process! Good luck! Rotate to other cycles to learn them as well use the already drawn cards!

57 Water cycle 8 parts 1.Wc/ evaporation 2.Wc/condensation 3.Wc/precipitation 4.Wc/transpiration 5.Wc/ground water 6.Wc/oceans 7.Wc/runoff 8.Wc/percolation

58 Carbon cycle 13 parts 1.c/ combustion of fuels and industry and homes 2.c/ plants and animals on land 3.c/ photosynthesis 4.c/ respiration 5.c/carbon dioxide in the atmosphere 6.c/diffusion 7.c/dissolved carbon dioxide 8.c/ bicarbonates 9.c/ photosynthesis in water 10.c/ animals and plants in water 11.c/ deposition of dead materials under water 12.c/ fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) 13.c/ deposition of dead materials under ground

59 Nitrogen Cycle 14 parts 1.N/ atmospheric Nitrogen N2 2.n/ nitrogen fixing bacteria in the water 3.n/ aquatic animals 4.n/ land animals 5.n/plants 6.n/nitrogen fixing bacteria on plant roots 7.n/ excretion 8.n/ loss to deep sediment 9.n/ animal wastes 10.n/ decomposers in the soil 11.n/ nitrifying bacteria 12.n/ soil nitrates 13.n/ denitrifying bacteria ( convert back into nitrogen gas) 14.n/ nitrogen fixing soil bacteria ( so plants can use it)

60 Phosphorus cycle 12 parts 1.p/ decomposers (bacteria and fungi in the water ) 2.p/ animal wastes 3.p/ aquatic animals 4.p/ plants and algae ( under water) 5.p/ precipitates solids from the water 6.p/ rocks and minerals 7.p/ phosphates in solution 8.p/ plants on land 9.p/ land animals 10.p/ soil soluble phosphates 11.p/ animal wastes 12.p/ decomposers bacteria and fungi on land

61 Games!!! http://www.purposegames.com/games?t=7 50&so=mp&page=3http://www.purposegames.com/games?t=7 50&so=mp&page=3


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