Presentation on theme: "Video What's biology got to do with it?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Video What's biology got to do with it? EcologyVideoWhat's biology got to do with it?
2 Chapter 2 Section 1 Vocabulary Ecology- the study of interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment (soil, water, climate, etc)Biosphere- portion of the earth that supports lifeBiotic factors- the organisms in a habitat (living factors)Abiotic factors- the physical aspects of a habitat (non-living factors)Population- all of the individuals of a species that live together in one place at one timeEcosystem- aka ecological system; consists of a community and all the physical aspects of its habitat (soil, water, weather, etc)Biome- a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climate and have similar types of communitiesHabitat- the place where a particular population of a species livesNiche- the functional role of a particular species in an ecosystem; how an organism lives; the “job” it performs within the ecosystemPredation- the act of one organism killing another for foodSymbiosis- two or more species living together in a close, long-term associationMutualism- a symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefitsCommensalism- a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedParasitism- one organism feeds on and usually lives on or in another, typically larger, organism; usually do not kill their prey (or “host”) because they depend on them for food and a place to live
3 Ecology-the study of interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment (soil, water, climate, etc)
4 Biosphere- portion of the earth that supports life
5 Biotic factors- the organisms in a habitat (living factors) Abiotic factors- the physical aspects of a habitat (non-living factors)
6 Sequence the abiotic and biotic factors Sequence the abiotic and biotic factors. Write abiotic or biotic in each square.1. lack ofrainfall3. certainplants die2. dry soil4. riversdry up5. animals donot reproduce6. the populationof a speciesdiminishes
7 Sequence the abiotic and biotic factors Sequence the abiotic and biotic factors. Write abiotic or biotic in each square.1. lack ofrainfallabiotic3. certainplants diebiotic2. dry soilabiotic4. riversdry upabiotic5. animals donot reproducebiotic6. the populationof a speciesdiminishesbiotic
8 Population-all of the individuals of a species that live together in one place at one time
9 Ecosystem- aka ecological system; consists of a community and all the physical aspects of its habitat (soil, water, weather, etc)
11 Biome-a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climate and have similar types of communities
12 Habitat-the place where a particular population of a species lives
13 Niche-the functional role of a particular species in an ecosystem; how an organism lives; the “job” it performs within the ecosystem
14 nicheA polar bear will wait by air holes dug in the ice for a seal to pop its head up for a breath; the polar bear then kills the animal quickly.Arctic foxes are small canines that feed on small mammals and birds; they also take carrion when found. When hunting is good, an Arctic fox will bury excess kills in the snow. This works as a freezer for leaner times. Ravens often raid these stockpiles of food.
15 Predation-the act of one organism killing another for food
16 Symbiosis-two or more species living together in a close, long-term association
17 Mutualism-a symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefits
21 Parasitism-one organism feeds on and usually lives on or in another, typically larger, organism; usually do not kill their prey (or “host”) because they depend on them for food and a place to live
22 Section 2 VocabularyAutotrophs/ Producers- Organisms that first capture energy and make energy storing molecules; plants, algae, and cyanobacteriaHeterotrophs /Consumers- those organisms that consume plants or other organisms to obtain the energy necessary to build their moleculesHerbivore-Carnivore-Omnivores- animals that are considered both herbivores and carnivores, such as bearsDetritovores- organisms that obtain their energy from the organic wastes and dead bodies that are produced at every trophic level (bacteria, fungi, worms)Trophic level- a level in an ecosystem that organisms are placed in to show where they got their energy from and where their energy will then go; energy moves from one trophic level to anotherFood chain- the path of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem (sun producersprimary consumersecondary consumertertiary consumer)Food web- complicated, interconnected group of food chains that shows the different trophic levels that individual organisms can feed atBiomass- the dry weight of tissue and other organic matter found in a specific ecosystem; each level higher on the pyramid contains only 10% of the biomass found in the trophic level below it.
23 Autotrophs/ Producers- Organisms that first capture energy and make energy storing molecules; plants, algae, and cyanobacteria
24 Heterotrophs /Consumers- those organisms that consume plants or other organisms to obtain the energy necessary to build their molecules
37 Copy this chart into you notes Table 2-1AutotrophsHeterotrophsHerbivore, carnivore,or omnivore
38 Use the diagram to complete the Table Use the diagram to complete the Table. Classify each member of the food web as autotroph or heterotroph, and identify the heterotrophs as herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores
39 Section 3 VocabularyBiogeochemical cycle- the paths of water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous passing from the nonliving environment to living organisms and then back to the nonliving environment.Notes:Bio : for the living things it passes throughGeo: for the non living things it passes into and out of…Cycle: that it continuously moves
40 2. Nitrogen fixation- the process of combining nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia. Notes: mostly bacteria that provide this process. Symbiotic bacteria can be found on the root nodules of plants. Lightning can also cause this.3. Denitrification- when Nitrogen is released back into the cycle when denitrifying bacteria convert NO3- into N2Notes: bacteria cause this. Releases gas.
41 Carbon CycleCarbon is required for the building of all organic compounds. All living things contain carbon
45 A. Burning of fossil fuels F. Carbon Dioxide in atmosphereE. Industry & AgricultureI. Calcium carbonates in rocks and shellsA. Burning of fossil fuelsB. Death, decompositionC. PhotosynthesisD. RespirationJ. PrecipitationH. Carbon Dioxide dissolved in waterG. Carbon compounds converted to fossil fuelsB. Death, decomposition
47 Nitrogen CycleNitrogen is required for the manufacture of all amino acids and nucleic acids . (proteins) It is also found in DNANitrogen Fixation is a process which occurs in prokaryotes in which N2 is converted to (NH4+). Atmospheric nitrogen can also undergo nitrogen fixation by lighting and UV radiation and become NO3-.the average organism can not use atmosphericnitrogen for these tasks, but which is where most nitrogen is found!
49 During nitrification, ammonia is converted into nitrite, and nitrite is converted into nitrate. Nitrification occurs in various bacteria. In the final stage, plants absorb ammonia and nitrate and incorporate it into their metabolic pathways..
51 Once the nitrogen has entered the plant metabolic pathway, it may be transferred to animals when the plant is eaten. Nitrogen is released back into the cycle when denitrifying bacteria convert NO3- into N2 in the process of denitrification.
52 Finally, when detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back into ammonia the process of ammonification occurs, or when animals excrete ammonia, urea, or uric acid.
56 Biogeochemical Cycle activity: Each person will get a part or parts of one of the cycles. Draw what is happening in your part of the cycle on an index card. Then find members of your same cycle and put your parts together to make the entire cycle by placing the parts onto a poster with arrows between the drawings to make the cycle complete. You may use the pictures and information in your book to help you! Your group will then present the completed cycle to the class so make sure you understand the process! Good luck!Rotate to other cycles to learn them as well use the already drawn cards!
57 Water cycle 8 parts Wc/ evaporation Wc/condensation Wc/precipitation Wc/transpirationWc/ground waterWc/oceansWc/runoffWc/percolation
58 Carbon cycle 13 parts c/ combustion of fuels and industry and homes c/ plants and animals on landc/ photosynthesisc/ respirationc/carbon dioxide in the atmospherec/diffusionc/dissolved carbon dioxidec/ bicarbonatesc/ photosynthesis in waterc/ animals and plants in waterc/ deposition of dead materials under waterc/ fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)c/ deposition of dead materials under ground
59 Nitrogen Cycle 14 parts N/ atmospheric Nitrogen N2 n/ nitrogen fixing bacteria in the watern/ aquatic animalsn/ land animalsn/plantsn/nitrogen fixing bacteria on plant rootsn/ excretionn/ loss to deep sedimentn/ animal wastesn/ decomposers in the soiln/ nitrifying bacterian/ soil nitratesn/ denitrifying bacteria ( convert back into nitrogen gas)n/ nitrogen fixing soil bacteria ( so plants can use it)
60 Phosphorus cycle 12 parts p/ decomposers (bacteria and fungi in the water )p/ animal wastesp/ aquatic animalsp/ plants and algae ( under water)p/ precipitates solids from the waterp/ rocks and mineralsp/ phosphates in solutionp/ plants on landp/ land animalsp/ soil soluble phosphatesp/ decomposers bacteria and fungi on land