Presentation on theme: "The Common Core State Standards Text Complexity"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Common Core State Standards Text Complexity Focus on Four Strands (reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language)The benefits of an integrated literacy approach (both in terms of reaching out to content areas beyond ELA and also in terms of research and media skills being integrated into the four strands)A focus on results rather than means (“the Standards leave room for teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed” (p. 4).)
2 Common Core State Standards Text Complexity The Common Core State Standards places a strong emphasis on the role of text complexity in evaluating student readiness for college and careers.“The Common CoreState Standards hinge on studentsencountering appropriatelycomplex texts at each grade level in order to develop the mature language skills and the conceptual knowledge they need for success in school and life.” (p. 3)
3 Advantages to Common Core Standards A focus on college and career readinessInclusion of the four strands of English Language Arts:ReadingWritingListening and speakingLanguageThe benefits of an integrated literacy approach – all educators have a shared responsibility for literacy instruction, regardless of discipline or content area.A focus on results rather than means – “the Standards leave room for teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed.” (p. 4)Efficiencies of scale – common standards allow for greater collaboration among states in the areas of:Professional developmentResource developmentTeaching toolsFocus on Four Strands (reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language)The benefits of an integrated literacy approach (both in terms of reaching out to content areas beyond ELA and also in terms of research and media skills being integrated into the four strands)A focus on results rather than means (“the Standards leave room for teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed” (p. 4).)
4 Text ComplexityIncluded within the Standards is an enhanced focus on text complexity.Specifically, within reading standard #10:Anchor Standard:R.CCR.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.Example Grade-level Standard (6th grade):RI.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.As stated in the Standards:Note on range and content of student readingTo build a foundation for college and career readiness, students must read widely and deeply from among a broad range of high-quality, increasingly challenging literary and informational texts. Through extensive reading of stories, dramas, poems, and myths from diverse cultures and different time periods, students gain literary and cultural knowledge as well as familiarity with various text structures and elements. By reading texts in history/social studies, science, and other disciplines, students build a foundation of knowledge in these fields that will also give them the background to be better readers in all content areas. Students can only gain this foundation when the curriculum is intentionally and coherently structured to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades. Students also acquire the habits of reading independently and closely, which are essential to their future success.
5 Guiding QuestionsWhat do the Common Core Learning Standards mean by text complexity? What is a text complexity band? and How do we ensure the texts our students are reading are in the appropriate text complexity band?This presentation seeks to answer these questions.
6 Overview of Text Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by:QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader.QuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software.Reader and TaskReader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment.
7 Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Common Core State StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsWhat is a text complexity band?
8 Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Common Core State StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsText ComplexityGrade BandsSuggestedLexile RangeSuggested ATOSBook Level Range**K-12-3450L – 790L2.0 – 4.04-5770L – 980L3.0 – 5.76-8955L – 1155L4.0 – 8.09-101080L – 1305L4.6 – 10.011-CCR1215L – 1355L4.8 – 12.0What is a text complexity band?
9 Where do we find texts in the appropriate text complexity band? We could….Choose an excerpt of text from Appendix B as a starting place:Use available resources to determine the text complexity of other materials on our own.or…(Even choosing excerpts from Appendix B is less effective because it removes the reader and task considerations from the equation.)
10 Determining Text Complexity A Four-step Process:Determine the quantitative measures of the text.QualitativeQuantitativeAnalyze the qualitative measures of the text.Reflect upon the reader and task considerations.Reader and TaskOverview of the protocolRecommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band.
12 Step 1: Quantitative Measures The Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity:This document outlines the suggested ranges for each of the text complexity bands using:Lexile Text Measures---or---ATOS Book Levels (Accelerated Reader)
13 Step 1: Quantitative Measures Let’s imagine we want to see where a text falls on the quantitative measures “leg” of the text complexity triangle, using either the Lexile text measures or the ATOS book level (or both).For illustrative purposes, let’s choose the text, Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass.
14 Step 1: Quantitative Measures Lexile Text Measure:1080LATOS Book Level:7.9In which of the text complexity bands would this text fall?
15 Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Common Core Learning StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsText ComplexityGrade BandsSuggestedLexile RangeSuggested ATOSBook Level Range**K-1100L – 500L*1.0 – 2.52-3450L – 790L2.0 – 4.04-5770L – 980L3.0 – 5.76-8955L – 1155L4.0 – 8.09-101080L – 1305L4.6 – 10.011-CCR1215L – 1355L4.8 – 12.0What is a text complexity band?* The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas.** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL:
16 Step 1: Quantitative Measures Remember, however, that the quantitative measures is only the first of three “legs” of the text complexity triangle.Our final recommendation may be validated, influenced, or even over-ruled by our examination of qualitative measures and the reader and task considerations.
17 Step 1: Quantitative Measures Additional ResourcesLexile Measures and the Common Core State StandardsAccelerated reader and the Common Core State StandardsCoh-MetrixCoh-Metrix calculates the coherence of texts on a wide range of measures. It replaces common readability formulas by applying the latest in computational linguistics and linking this to the latest research in psycholinguistics.
18 Step 2: Qualitative Measures Measures such as:StructureLanguage Demands and ConventionsKnowledge DemandsLevels of Meaning/Purpose
19 Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Structure (could be story structure and/or form of piece)Simple ComplexExplicit ImplicitConventional UnconventionalEvents related in chronological order Events related out of chronological order (chiefly literary texts)Traits of a common genre or subgenre Traits specific to a particular discipline (chiefly informational texts)Simple graphics sophisticated graphicsGraphics unnecessary or merely supplemental to understanding the text Graphics essential to understanding the text and may provide information not elsewhere provided
20 Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Language Demands: Conventionality and ClarityLiteral Figurative or ironicClear Ambiguous or purposefully misleadingContemporary, familiar Archaic or otherwise unfamiliarConversational General Academic and domain specificLight vocabulary load: few unfamiliar or academic words Many words unfamiliar and high academic vocabulary presentSentence structure straightforward Complex and varied sentence structuresThough vocabulary can be measured by quantifiable means, it is still a feature for careful consideration when selecting textsThough sentence length is measured by quantifiable means, sentence complexity is still a feature for careful consideration when selecting texts
21 Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Knowledge Demands: Life Experience(literary texts)Simple theme Complex or sophisticated themesSingle theme Multiple themesCommon everyday experiences or clearly fantastical situations Experiences distinctly different from one’s ownSingle perspective Multiple perspectivesPerspective(s) like one’s own Perspective(s) unlike or in opposition to one’s own
22 Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Knowledge Demands: Cultural/Literary Knowledge (chiefly literary texts)Everyday knowledge and familiarity with genre conventions required Cultural and literary knowledge usefulLow intertextuality (few if any references/allusions to other texts) High intertextuality (many references/allusions to other texts
23 Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Levels of Meaning (chiefly literary texts) orpurpose (chiefly informational texts)Single level of meaning Multiple levels of meaningExplicitly stated purpose Implicit purpose, may be hidden or obscure
24 Step 2: Qualitative Measures The Qualitative Measures Rubricsfor Literary and Informational Text:The rubric for literary text and the rubric for informational text allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software that tends to focus on more easily measured factors.
25 Step 2: Qualitative Measures Because the factors for literary texts are different from information texts, these two rubrics contain different content. However, the formatting of each document is exactly the same.And because these factors represent continua rather than discrete stages or levels, numeric values are not associated with these rubric. Instead, six points along each continuum is identified: not suited to the band, early-mid grade level, mid-end grade level, early-mid grade level, mid-end grade level, not suited to band.
26 Step 2: Qualitative Measures How is the rubric used?And how would Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass fair when analyzed through the lens of the Text Rubric?
28 Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations such as: Motivation Knowledge and experiencePurpose for readingComplexity of task assigned regarding textComplexity of questions asked regarding text
29 Step 3: Reader and Task Ten Guiding Principles Make close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons.Provide scaffolding that does not preempt or replace text.Ask text dependent questions from a range of question types.Emphasize students supporting answers based upon evidence from the text.Provide extensive research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).
30 Step 3: Reader and Task Ten Guiding Principles Offer regular opportunities for students to share ideas, evidence and research.Offer systematic instruction in vocabulary.Ensure wide reading from complex text that varies in length.9. Provide explicit instruction in grammar and conventions.10. Cultivate students’ independence.
31 Text Complexity Key to Student Reading Success Text complexity matters because….“making textbooks easier ultimately denies students the very language, information, and modes of thought they need most to move up and on.”-Marilyn Jager Adams
32 Text Complexity - ACT Study Purpose: Determine what distinguished the reading performance of students likely to succeed in college and not.Process:Set benchmark score on the reading test shown to be predictive of success in college (“21” on ACT composite score).Looked at results from a half million students.Divided texts into three levels of complexity: uncomplicated, more challenging, and complex.
33 Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Comprehension Level (Averaged across Seven Forms)In Reading: Between the Lines, ACT demonstrates that student performance cannot be differentiated in any meaningful way by question type. Students do not perform differently if they are answering literal recall items or inferential items.
34 Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Textual Element (Averaged across Seven Forms)ACT demonstrates that student performance cannot be differentiated in any meaningful way by question type. Students do not perform differently if they are answering vocabulary items or main idea.
35 Text Complexity Matters Performance on complex texts is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are more likely to be ready for college and those who are less likely to be ready.Texts used in the ACT Reading Test reflect three degrees of complexity: uncomplicated, more challenging, and complex.
36 Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Degree of Text Complexity (Averaged across Seven Forms)Test performance, according to ACT, is driven by text rather than questions. Thus, if students are asked to read a hard passage, they may only answer a few questions correctly, no matter what types of questions they may be. On the other hand, with an easy enough text, students may answer almost any questions right, again with no differences by question type.In this figure, performance on questions associated with uncomplicated and morechallenging texts both above and below the ACT College Readiness Benchmark forReading follows a pattern similar to those in the previous analyses.Improvement on each of the two kinds of questions is gradual and fairly uniform.3636
37 Recap of ACT FindingsQuestion type and level (main idea, word meanings, details) is NOT the chief differentiator between student scoring above and below the benchmark. The degree of text complexity in the passages acted as the “sorters” within ACT. The findings held true for both males and females, all racial groups and was steady regardless of family income level. What students could read, in terms of its complexity--rather than what they could do with what they read—is greatest predictor of success. FCAT has complex passages and highly cognitive demanding questions.The ACT report goes on to describe features that made some texts harder to understand, including the complexity of the relationships among characters and ideas, amount and sophistication of the information detailed in the text, how the information is organized, the author’s style and tone, the vocabulary, and the author purpose. ACT concluded that based on these data, “performance on complex texts is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are likely to be ready for college and those who are not”FCAT is made up of complex passages and high cognitive demand questions.
38 Text Requirements in Middle and High School Many students are engaged in shallow reading, skimming text for answers, focusing only on details and failing to make inferences in order to integrate different parts of the text. Years of reading in this superficial way will cause a student’s reading ability to deteriorate.For many students the decline of text demands in the courses that they take has both an immediate and long term impact on student achievement.
40 Just Read, Florida! New Professional Development The Comprehension Instructional Sequence An instructional model based upon research evidence introduced this year to Florida’s teachers.The model assists teachers of students in grades 6-12 in implementing whole-class examination of difficult texts and build students’ specialized knowledge.This sequence helps students grasp textual nuances they would not understand on their own.It is a “text-dependent” approach, ensuring the close examination of key text details and utilizes complex text.Last school year JRF developed a state of the art professional development that alters the way teachers plan and deliver instruction. The quality of the teacher matters. Teaching reading is the job of an expert.Middle and High school teachers need additional professional development on the following:• Close reading and rereading of text with text based questioning- a significant percentage of questions/tasks must be text dependent• Students are guided to analyze dense arguments and information at the heart of complex literary non-fiction• Questions and tasks require the use of textual evidence, including supporting logical inferences from the text.• Questions and tasks require careful comprehension of the text before asking for further connections, evaluation, or interpretation.• Rather than emphasizing more general strategies and questions, text specific questions and tasks reinforce focus on the text and cultivate independence. Teaching Students to Think as They Read
41 New: Next Generation Content Area Reading Professional Development Facilitates the type of instruction needed to yield high outcomes in literacy for all students.Uses close reading, text based questions, text based discussions, and writing in response to reading to focus students on reading text closely to draw evidence from the text.Emphasizes reading deeply in multiple disciplines.Comprehension strategies are taught in an integrated fashion with instructional coherence and direct application.Fosters respect for the discipline and content while providing the necessary scaffolds for students to extract the meaning with deep understanding of the content being taught.This summer staff from JRF provided 4 days of staff development to train cadres of teachers in every school district. This staff development is provided so that teachers can become the reading intervention teacher of record for many students scoring at Level 2 on FCAT Reading. This staff development is built on the Comprehension Instructional Sequence. Funding is needed for follow-up professional development.
42 Additional ResourcesAppendix A - Qualitative Rubric for Text ComplexityAppendix B - Common Core State Standards Text Exemplars