Best Practices in Secondary Reading Instruction Kevin Smith, M. Ed. Reading Specialist, 6-12
from Reading Instruction through Strategy Enhancement (RISE) by Evan Lefsky, Ph.D. Executive Director, Just Read, Florida!
Questions for Reflection Are all my students provided with many books they can read and want to read? When my students read/write, do they get to write about what they know and care about? Are my students given plenty of time to explore topics and themes through reading and writing? When I want my students to read/write content information, do I show them how to do it? Do all of my students get opportunities to demonstrate and use their strengths in reading and writing, or do reading and writing activities in my class only accentuate their weaknesses?
Challenges of FCAT Endurance Reading and writing for 160 minutes Text Length average=900 words No connection to text MOTIVATION!
Components of RISE Independent Reading Practice Fast-Paced Decoding Practice (Especially polysyllabic words) Text Sets Explicit Comprehension Instruction Instruction supported by reading coach
Whole Group Instruction 15-20 minutes daily Teacher modeling of reading strategies Focus on comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency
Rotations Four groups of ~five students Four stations Two to three rotations each day Each rotation is 15-20 minutes
Teacher Led Group Reinforce whole group instruction Specific areas of student need
Research Listening Centers Content area connections Individual assignments based on needs demonstrated through small group instruction Independent Work Reciprocal Teaching Text-based discussion
Technology FCAT Explorer Reading Plus 3 days per week 20 minutes per day
Text Sets Unit of study organized around a theme or standard or concept Collection of instructional materials related to the theme Must take into account students independent reading level as well as the reading level of any texts you ask them to read
Types of Text that Can Be Used in Instruction Pictures/Photographs Young adult novels/historical fiction Primary source documents/artifacts Expository pieces Magazine articles Newspaper articles (Current Events) Journals/Diaries Question and answer books Picture books Poetry Web sites
Choosing Appropriate Text Engaging reading style Connection to current events Connection to pop culture Humor Teen or young adults as central character Action or adventure Fantasy or science fiction
Utilization of Texts Hooks Read aloud Independent reading Guided reading Shared reading Research
Typical Text Set Text 1: Activate prior knowledge through brainstorm, current events, or media Text 2: Narrative teacher read-aloud or student read easy-to-access text Text 3: Well-written expository text guided by the teacher with direct instruction in decoding and comprehension skills Text 4: Independent and successful practice and extensive writing
Text Set Concept/Theme Media/Current Event (HOOK=Draw Kids In) Read-Aloud (Upper-level= Too Difficult for Kids OR Picture Book) Leveled Independent Reading (Many different books to meet the levels of many kids) Guided Reading (Insertion of Vocabulary and Comprehension Instruction) Link to Text (Textbook or Main Piece of Difficult Literature) Research/Writing (Product=High Interest Topic to Students) ALL TEXTS MUST RELATE BACK TO THE THEME OR CONCEPT
Focus of Text Set Unit How will you facilitate: –Reading –Writing –Discussion EVERY DAY?
Text Set Topics Religious Conflict Underground Railroad The Crucible Ecosystems Computer Ethics Civil Rights World Religions French Speaking African Countries EcologyVolcanoes School Violence Disabilities Horrors of War Civil Rights The American Revolution Great Mathematical Thinkers Gangs
Unit Specifications Unit will include a day-by-day plan including: Key ideas/big ideas Concepts/key terms to be taught and how they will be taught Discussion points/provocative questions (small group/whole group) Research opportunities (Small group/individual) Writing opportunities (Journals, quick writes, exit notes) Comprehension strategies and where they will be inserted (Mini-lessons) Community building Group projects Assessment
Choosing High Impact Vocabulary Identify key concepts and terms (vocabulary) to be learned during the unit How will they be taught? Explicitly (direct instruction)? Implicitly (through reading practice and discussion)?
Strategy Instruction For readings that are to be completed using guided instruction: Which reading strategies will you model for the students? Be sure to use strategies before, during, and after reading.
Discussion How will you stimulate discussion before, during, and after reading? Will you use provocative questions? Will the discussion be small group or whole group? How will you keep the discussion going?
Writing What writing opportunities will students have before, during, and after reading? What form will they take (journals, quick writes, exit notes, etc.)? What form will they take (journals, quick writes, exit notes, etc.)? What will be their purpose (assessment, reflection, etc.)?
Research What research opportunities will you include during the course of the unit? Will they be small group or individual? How will topics be assigned? (Note: It is important to have two research opportunities in a unit. The first is a group project for which the teacher assigns the topic. This usually comes somewhere towards the beginning of the unit, allowing them to further build their background knowledge and vocabulary. The second is an individual research assignment for which the student chooses his or her own topic based on interests developed during the course of the unit. This would come at the end of the unit.)
Assessment How will you assess reading gains? How will you assess the learning taking place? Objective tests? Written assignments? Individual or group projects?
Fluency What is fluency? What skills does it include?
Fluency The ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression (NRP). Rate, Accuracy, Prosody
Rate Automaticity: Quick, accurate, effortless recognition of letters and words Speed: fluid pace in reading connected text
Accuracy Correctly decoding unknown words Recognizing high-frequency and familiar words
Prosody Making reading sound natural like spoken language Using appropriate intonation Using appropriate expression Pausing appropriately at phrase boundaries
Whats wrong with round robin? Embarrassing to poor readers Teaches very little Rarely engages students Typically only focuses on oral reading performance, not understanding Little connection to real life Reduces time that could be spent on more valuable reading practice
Fluency Instruction How can you provide fluency instruction?
Model Fluent Reading Frequent teacher read-alouds Listening to books on tape Books read by fluent peers
Words mean more than what is set down on paper. It takes the human voice to infuse them with the shades of deeper meaning. -Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
Why Read-Aloud? Students: See reading as emotionally powerful Are motivated to read more Witness fluent reading Are exposed to multiple genres Explore sophisticated words and text structures Observe teachers use of comprehension strategies through think aloud
When To Read Aloud When hearing the text will help students process or enjoy it in a more effective way When introducing new or difficult texts When reading poetry or plays When you want to expose students to text without copying and distributing When you want to focus students attention As an opener or wrap-up
Types of Materials to Read Aloud Directions Class books (novel you read from each day) Literature (to help students grasp relationships and hear the sound of language) Observations (from a scientific report used to begin a discussion) Random items you think are fun, powerful, or useful to share
Choosing A Read Aloud Does this book meet the needs of the students at this time? Can I read this book in such a way that students will not be bored by it? (ie. Pace, Voice, and Inflection) Do I enjoy this book? Does this book match my instructional goals? (Not necessarily tied to the curriculum)
Text Difficulty Independent Level: 95-100% accuracy Can read text independently without assistance Instructional Level: 90-94% accuracy Can read text with instructional assistance Frustration Level: Below 90% accuracy Has great difficulty reading text, even with assistance
Determining Text Difficulty To determine a students reading level for a specific text, calculate: Correct number of words read ÷ Total number of words read = Percent accuracy Example: 48 ÷ 50 =.96 (96%) Independent level
Fluency Assessment One minute timed reading Total words read - errors = Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM)
Fluency Assessment: Putting It All Together Start timer when student says first word Give student word if they cant decode after 3 seconds and count as error Slash words read incorrectly –Skipped words –Mispronounced words –Word substitutions, including incorrect forms of word –Words in wrong order –Struggling that lasts 3 seconds or more
Fluency Assessment: Putting It All Together Do not count as an error: –Added words –Varying pronunciation due to accent, dialect, or speech impediment –Repetitions of a correctly read word –Self-correction of a mistake Mark text at one minute WCPM=Total words-errors (slashes)/min. Accuracy=Word Correct/Total words
Motivation is the Key! Student Choice –Gives students ownership of the outcome Clear goals –What they are supposed to learn… Academically safe environment –Reading materials at the students independent reading level.
Classroom Library Display Books on Display Print Books Print Books Audio books Audio books Print-rich Environment –Word webs –Examples of figures of speech –Student work examples –Classroom library –Magazines –Periodicals Various Kinds of Literature and non-fiction texts Various Kinds of Literature and non-fiction texts Teacher Modeling the Love of Reading Teacher Modeling the Love of Reading
Alternative Assessments Student produced cartoons Student book talks PostersPlays Character Reflections JournalsPortfolios
Books in the Classroom Have appropriately leveled books and materials in the classroom. Have a variety of reading material available. Have teacher book talks to introduce books the students might enjoy. Have reading materials that address life situations of students.
How To Make Independent Reading Work in the Classroom Teacher Monitoring (Clipboard cruising) –Asking questions –Student read-alouds –Book talks Two-point rubric Classroom expectations 10-20% of class grade (recommended) Provide lots of classroom books Incentive program for teachers and students
Independent Reading Rubric 1 Point--In your seat with your independent reading book when the tardy bell rings + 1 Point--Reading for the FULL ten minutes (9 minutes, 59 seconds=NO POINT!) = 2 Points + Reading Success
Conferencing with Students How is the reading going? What do you like/dislike about this book? What makes this a good choice for you? Are there parts that confuse you? Have students read a section of text they liked and one that is new.
Vocabulary/Word Study Think about the vocabulary instruction that takes place in your classroom. What instructional strategies and activities do you use?
Goals of Vocabulary Instruction To build interest in words To connect words found in texts to students life experiences To clarify and extend word meanings across multiple curriculum areas To develop strategies for learning new words To give students many opportunities to use and receive feedback on correct and incorrect word use
What We Know from Research The scientific research on vocabulary instruction reveals that most vocabulary is learned indirectly and that some vocabulary must be taught directly. (National Reading Panel, 2001)
Indirect Vocabulary Learning Students learn vocabulary indirectly when they hear and see words used in many different contexts – for example, through conversations with adults, through being read to, and through reading extensively on their own.
Direct Vocabulary Learning Students learn vocabulary directly when they are explicitly taught both individual words and word-learning strategies. Direct vocabulary instruction aids reading comprehension.
Four Stages of Word Knowledge Stage 1: No Knowledge-never saw it before (example: Radeon) Stage 2: Vague familiarity-heard it but doesnt know what it means (example: cache) Stage 3: Contextualized knowledge-Recognizes it in context as having something to do with_____. (example: microprocessor) Stage 4: Rich and flexible-knows it well (example:keyboard)
Vocabulary Instruction How do you select words for vocabulary instruction?
Vocabulary Instruction Choose interesting words with mileage Create student-friendly explanations Decontextualize the words; provide examples Create follow up activities that prompt students to interact with meanings Create ways to maintain the words over time
What Words Should I Teach Directly teach those words that are important for understanding a concept or the text Teach words that students are likely to see again and again Provide instruction for words that are particularly difficult for your students
Choosing Words to Teach: Three Tiers Tier One: Most basic words-rarely require instructional attention to their meanings in school (clock, baby, happy, walk) Tier Two: High frequency words that are found across a variety of domains-instruction toward tier two words is most productive (coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate) Tier Three: Words whose frequency use is quite low and often limited to specific domains- probably best learned when needed in content area (isotope, lathe, peninsula, refiner)
Identifying Tier Two Words Importance and utility: Words that are used by more mature language users and are frequently found in a variety of texts Instructional potential: Words that can be used in a variety of ways so that students can build deep understandings and representations of them and make connections to other words and concepts Conceptual understanding: Words that deepen a students understanding of a general concept by providing precise and specific words for describing that concept
Name That Tier forlornceiling triumphantoboe absurdhungry hostilecorner colonialbreak
Dictionary Definitions Looking up dictionary definitions is not an effective practice
Student-Friendly Explanations Provide student-friendly explanations that tell what a word means in everyday connected language. Example: unanticipated Dictionary:Friendly: Not anticipated,If something is unexpectedunanticipated you are surprised about it
Questions, Reasons, Examples If you are walking around a dark room, you need to do it cautiously. Why? What are some other things that need to be done cautiously? What is something you could do to impress your teacher? Which of these might be extraordinary? Why or why not? –A shirt that was comfortable or a shirt that danced across the room?
Sentence Stems The newspaper called Mr. Brown a philanthropist because… I told my teacher I wanted to be a spectator at the play because… I scrutinized my moms face because…
Word Lines How surprised would you be if: 1. you saw your friend vault over the moon? 2. your teacher commended you for doing good work? 3. a dog started bantering with you? 4. a coach berated his football team for fumbling? 5. a rabbit trudged through school? ________________________________________ Least surprisedMost surprised
Word Lines How much energy does it take to… 1. meander down the hall? 2. vault over a car? 3. banter with you best friend for an hour? 4. berate someone at the top of your voice? 5. stalk a turtle? ________________________________________ Least EnergyMost Energy
Relationships Among Words If someone were arguing vehemently, why might it make sense that he was using wild gesticulations? Could an acute sense cause derision? Why? If someone introduces herself with suavity, would she likely have the audacity to insult her guest? Why?
Put Into Students Own World Why might a new male student introduce himself with sauvity to all the females? Why might a student speak to the principal with suavity? As Melinda prepared for her final exam, she sensed a feeling of acute anxiety? Why?
Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction Emphasizes the importance of wide reading. Students learn much of their vocabulary from reading. Emphasizes the importance of wide reading. Students learn much of their vocabulary from reading. Includes instruction on individual words. Instruction can assist students in learning specific words, improve comprehension of selections from which the words are taken, and show students the value of words. Includes instruction on individual words. Instruction can assist students in learning specific words, improve comprehension of selections from which the words are taken, and show students the value of words. Provides instruction in learning words independently since students learn much of their vocabulary on their own. Provides instruction in learning words independently since students learn much of their vocabulary on their own. Promotes activities leading to word consciousness. If students are interested in words, value them, and find them intriguing they are likely to develop full and rich vocabularies. Promotes activities leading to word consciousness. If students are interested in words, value them, and find them intriguing they are likely to develop full and rich vocabularies. (Graves, Juel, & Graves, 2001)
Vocabulary Instruction Do Connect words to prior knowledge Extend instruction to promote active engagement Read aloud to students Encourage independent wide reading Promote word consciousness Teach word learning strategies Provide multiple exposures to words Use words in context Connect words to concept development Provide real experiences for learning new concepts Dont Use arbitrary word lists Rely solely on dictionaries Rely too heavily on context to determine meaning Use words out of context
Word Study Word sorts Word study notebook Alphabet books Play with words Study etymologies of words
Word Study Affixes are word parts that are fixed to either the beginnings of words (prefixes) or the ending of words (suffixes). The word disrespectful has two affixes, a prefix (dis-) and a suffix (-ful). Base words are words from which many other words are formed. For example many words can be formed from the base word migrate: migration, migrant, immigration, immigrant, migrating, migratory Word roots are the words from other languages that are the origin of many English words. About 60% of all English words have Latin or Greek origins
Prefixes and Suffixes Four prefixes, un, re, in, dis, account for 58% of all prefixed words. Add 16 more prefixes-en/em, non, in/im, over, mis, sub, pre, enter, fore, de, trans, super, semi, anti, mid, under -- and you account for 97% of all prefixed words. For suffixes, s/es, ed, ing, account for 65% of all suffixed words. Learning to read, spell, and understand these prefixes and suffixes gives readers a huge advantage with multi-syllabic words
Comprehension What are the characteristics of your proficient readers?
Characteristics of Proficient Readers Search for connections between what they know and new information Ask questions of themselves, the authors, and the texts they read Draw inferences during and after reading Distinguish important from less important ideas Synthesize information Repair faulty comprehension Monitor their comprehension Visualize and create mental images
Scaffolding Instruction with Comprehension Strategies Teacher modeling –Explaining the strategy –Demonstrating how to apply the strategy correctly –Thinking aloud to model the mental processes Guided practice –Releasing responsibility gradually –Practicing the strategy together –Scaffolding attempts, supporting student thinking, and providing feedback –Sharing thinking processes in pairs, small groups, or whole class settings Independent practice –Applying the strategy on their own –Receiving feedback Application of strategy –Applying a clearly understood strategy to a new genre/format –Demonstrating the effective use of the strategy in more difficult text
Construct Background Knowledge by… Encouraging conversations Using real objects, videos, and other books Modeling your connections when reading aloud Oh, that reminds me of… Using sticky-notes in books to indicate connections Making personal responses orally or written in reading response journals
Connecting Begins With… I remember when… This is like… One time I… That reminds me of…
Questions to Ask That Foster Making Connections As you read, did anything remind you of your own life? How does you background knowledge help you predict what will happen next? How did thinking about what you already know help you figure out this word? How does thinking about what you already know help you understand this part of the reading?
Create visuals by… Modeling through the use of think alouds Discussing –What do you see? –How does it make you feel? Acting out what is being read Drawing pictures of sensory images Reading aloud together or take turns and discuss the images each create
Questions to Ask to Build Comprehension Through Visualization What did you see when you read those words? Can you describe the picture these words brought to mind? Where is that picture in your head coming from? What words helped you to make that picture? Why do you think your camera shut off? What will you do to get it back on track? Have your sensory images changed as you read? How do these images help you understand what you read?
Questioning begins with… Why? How come…? What does this mean? I wonder… Im confused… Your question made me think of…
Questioning continued… Do you have a question even before you started to read this book? Do you notice yourself asking questions when you reading does not make sense? What questions do you have now that you have reread this passage? How did rereading change your questions? After reading the passage, which questions are still unanswered? Do you have any new questions?
Inferring Readers infer when they merge text clues with prior knowledge, elaborate upon what is read, draw conclusions, and go beyond the text on the page. Inferring involves: –Making predictions before and during reading –Connecting points/evidence –Figuring out an unknown word –Asking questions
Predicting A student who predicts before reading has a stake in whats to come. They want to see if their guess is correct.
Encourage inferring by… Playing word games Playing charades Reading riddle books Using cartoon strips Stopping to think Rereading Understanding new words Marking clues with sticky notes to figure out the big picture
Begin with… I predict… I think that… My guess is… That is just what I thought… Now, this is a surprise… My conclusion is…
Continue With Questions to Reveal Thinking Look at the title. What prediction popped in your head? After reading this far, have you confirmed your prediction? What did it sound like in your head when you found the answer? This is a difficult word. What word would make sense here? How did you infer its meaning from its place in the sentence?
Determining Essential Ideas Before reading –Decide the purpose for reading –Consciously search for facts –Read with specific questions in mind –Understand the layout
Determining Essential Ideas by… (Synthesizing) During reading, stop intermittently to consider what is important to remember Distinguish between facts that are interesting and those that are important Look for signal words in the text Selectively highlight important facts and take marginal notes as to why it is important Use graphic organizers to support thinking and record main facts and details Code text for new learning, important details, and main ideas (SEE INSERT STRATEGY)
Repairing Understanding Rereading Reading ahead Raising new questions Drawing inferences Making predictions Figure out unknown words Stop to think Connect to background knowledge Create a mental picture Look at sentence structure Look at supporting pictures Identify the purpose for reading Readers use fix-up strategies to clear up confusion.
SignalsReactions The voice in my head changes. I am bored and confusion may have set in The camera in my head shuts off. My understanding has been interrupted My mind wanders and I am thinking about other things. I need to go back and reconnect I cannot remember what I just read. I need to go back, concentrate and focus more on understanding I am not asking or answering questions as I go. I need more background knowledge for connections I encounter characters and have no idea when they were introduced. I have not kept track of what has been happening
Comprehension Instruction Do Explicitly teach comprehension strategies at ALL grade levels (listening level for non- readers) Help students use strategies that work for them before, during, and after reading Scaffold questions from lower to higher level to promote higher order thinking skills Promote wide reading for a variety of purposes Incorporate a variety of routines that systematically improve comprehension Use different types of text at appropriate reading level Model higher level thinking Dont Forget that non- readers need to have explicit instruction on comprehension strategies Forget the importance of activating prior knowledge and teaching vocabulary