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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 5 Environment: The Science behind the Stories 4th Edition Withgott/Brennan
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. This lecture will help you understand: Environmental systems Ecosystems and their services How living and nonliving entities interact Landscape ecology, GIS and ecological modeling The water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles Human impacts on these cycles
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Case: The Gulf of Mexicos Dead Zone The Gulf of Mexico brings in a billion pounds/year of shrimp, fish, and shellfish Gulf dead zone = a region of water so depleted of oxygen -That marine organisms are killed or driven away Hypoxia = low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water -From fertilizer, fossil fuel emissions, runoff, sewage
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Earths environmental systems Our planets environment consists of complex networks of interlinked systems -Matter and molecules -Organisms, populations, interacting species -Nonliving entities (rocks, air, water, etc.) A systems approaches assesses questions holistically -Helping address complex, multifaceted issues -But systems can show behavior that is hard to understand and predict
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems show several defining properties System = a network of relationships among parts, elements, or components -They interact with and influence one another -They exchange energy, matter, or information Systems receive inputs of energy, matter, or information -They process these inputs and produce outputs Feedback loop = a circular process in which a systems output serves as input to that same system Negative and positive feedback loops do not mean bad and good
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative feedback loop Negative feedback loop = output from a system moving in one direction acts as input -That moves the system in the other direction Input and output neutralize one another -Stabilizes the system -Example: predator – prey interactions Most systems in nature
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative feedback
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive feedback loop Positive feedback loop = instead of stabilizing a system, it drives it further toward one extreme or another -Exponential growth in human population, erosion, melting sea ice Rare in nature -But is common in natural systems altered by humans
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive feedback
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems are active Dynamic equilibrium = system processes move in opposing directions -Balancing their effects Homeostasis = a system maintains constant (stable) internal conditions Emergent properties = system characteristics are not evident in the components alone -The whole is more than the sum of the parts It is hard to fully understand systems; they connect to other systems and do not have sharp boundaries
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental systems interact Environmental entities: complex, interacting systems For example, river systems consist of hundreds of smaller tributary subsystems -Impacted by farms, cities, fields, etc. Solving environmental problems means considering all appropriate components in the system of interest
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Eutrophication: a systems perspective Fertilizer from Midwestern farms adds nutrients to the Mississippi River, which causes… -Phytoplankton to grow, then… -Bacteria eat dead phytoplankton and wastes -Explosions of bacteria deplete oxygen, causing… -Fish and other aquatic organisms to suffocate Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus include: -Agricultural sources, nitrogen-fixing crops -Livestock manure, sewage treatment plants, street runoff, industrial and vehicle emissions
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Eutrophication The process of nutrient over-enrichment leads to: -Blooms of algae -Increased production of organic matter -Decomposition and hypoxia
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems are perceived in various ways Categorizing environmental systems helps make Earths dazzling complexity comprehensible For example, the Earth consists of structural spheres -Lithosphere = rock and sediment -Atmosphere = the air surrounding our planet -Hydrosphere = liquid, solid or vapor water -Biosphere = the planets living organisms and the abiotic (nonliving) portions of the environment Boundaries overlap, so the systems interact
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecosystems Ecosystem = all organisms and nonliving entities that occur and interact in a particular area at the same time -It includes abiotic and biotic components Biological entities are tightly intertwined with chemical and physical entities -Through interactions and feedback loops Ecosystems receive, process and transform inputs of energy -While cycling and recycling matter -Outputs produced include heat, water, wastes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems of interacting entities in ecosystems Energy from the sun flows in one direction -Arriving as radiation and leaving as heat Matter is recycled within ecosystem -Through food-web relationships and decomposition
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy is converted to biomass Primary production = conversion of solar energy to chemical energy in sugars by autotrophs Gross primary production (GPP) = assimilation of energy by autotrophs Net primary production (NPP) = energy remaining after respiration which is used to generate biomass -Available for consumption by heterotrophs Secondary production = biomass generated by heterotrophs from consuming autotrophs Productivity = rate at which ecosystems generate biomass
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Net primary productivity of ecosystems High net primary productivity = ecosystems whose plants rapidly convert solar energy to biomass
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. NPP variation causes global geographic patterns NPP increases with temperature and precipitation on land, and with light and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrients can limit productivity Nutrients = elements and compounds required for survival that are consumed by organisms Macronutrients = required in larger amounts -Nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus Micronutrients = nutrients needed in smaller amounts Nutrients stimulate plant production -Nitrogen and phosphorus are important for plant and algal growth Dramatic growth of algae in water treated with phosphate
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrient runoff is devastating aquatic systems Nitrogen is the more important limiting factor for primary productivity -In coastal ocean waters -Iron is an effective nutrient for open ocean waters Satellite imagery gives scientists an improved view of productivity at regional and global scales Phytoplankton blooms off the Louisiana coast
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Worldwide marine dead zones Over 400 dead zones occur globally -Most are off the coasts of Europe and the U.S. -Mostly due to farm, city and industrial pollution -Some are seasonal, others are permanent Fisheries and ecosystems are devastated -Causing over $2 billion/year in lost harvests
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecosystems interact spatially Ecosystems vary greatly in size -From a puddle of water to a bay, lake or forest The term ecosystem is most often applied to self- contained systems of moderate geographic extent Adjacent ecosystems may share components and interact -I.e. prairie and forests interact where they converge Ecotones = transitional zones between two ecosystems -Elements of each ecosystem mix
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Landscape ecology = studies how landscape structure affects the abundance, distribution, and interaction of organisms -Helpful for sustainable regional development Patches = form the landscape -Are spread spatially in complex patterns (a mosaic) -I.e. forested patches within an agricultural landscape -Widely spaced patches endanger organisms Landscape ecology
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Metapopulations and conservation biology Metapopulation = a network of subpopulations -Most members stay within patches -Some individuals may move among patches or mate with those of other patches -Individuals in small, isolated patches risk extinction Conservation biologists = study the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity Human development fragments habitat -Creating small, isolated patches -Habitat corridors that link patches protect biodiversity
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Remote sensing applies landscape ecology Remote sensing allows scientists to take a landscape perspective Geographic information system (GIS) = computer software used in landscape ecology research -Analyzes how elements of a landscape are arranged -Helps in planning and land-use decisions
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Modeling helps us understand systems A model = a simplified representation of a complex natural process -Helps us understand the process and make predictions Ecological modeling = constructs and tests models -To explain and predict how ecological systems work Researchers gather data and form a hypothesis about relationships -Models predict how the system will behave -New data refine and increase the models accuracy
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecological modeling Ecological modeling resembles the scientific method
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecosystems provide vital services Human society depends on healthy, functioning ecosystems -They provide goods and services we need to survive Ecosystem services = provided by the planets systems -Soil formation, water and air purification, pollination -Breakdown of some pollutants and waste -Quality of life issues (inspiration, spiritual renewal) -Nutrient cycling
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecosystem goods and services
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrients circulate through ecosystems Matter is continually circulated in ecosystems Nutrient (biogeochemical) cycles = the movement of nutrients through ecosystems -Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere Pools (reservoirs) = where nutrients reside for varying amounts of time (the residence time) Flux = the rate at which materials move between pools -Can change over time -Is influenced by human activities
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Main components of a biogeochemical cycle Source = a pool that releases more nutrients than it accepts Sinks = a pool that accepts more nutrients than it releases
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The hydrologic cycle Water is essential for biochemical reactions -It is involved in nearly every environmental system Hydrologic cycle = summarizes how liquid, gaseous and solid water flows through the environment -Oceans are the main reservoir Evaporation = water moves from aquatic and land systems into the atmosphere Transpiration = release of water vapor by plants Precipitation, runoff, and surface water = water returns to Earth as rain or snow and flows into streams, oceans, etc.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Transpiration
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Groundwater Aquifers = underground reservoirs of sponge-like regions of rock and soil that hold… -Groundwater = water found underground beneath layers of soil Water table = the upper limit of groundwater in an aquifer -Water may be ancient (thousands of years old) Groundwater becomes exposed to the air where the water table reaches the surface -Exposed water runs off to the ocean or evaporates
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The hydrologic cycle
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Human impacts on the hydrologic cycle Removing forests and vegetation increases runoff and erosion, reduces transpiration and lowers water tables Irrigating agricultural fields depletes rivers, lakes and streams and increases evaporation Damming rivers increases evaporation and infiltration Emitting pollutants changes the nature of precipitation The most threatening impact: overdrawing groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and industrial use -Water shortages create worldwide conflicts
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The carbon cycle Carbon is found in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bones, cartilage and shells Carbon cycle = describes the route of carbon atoms through the environment Photosynthesis by plants, algae and cyanobacteria -Removes carbon dioxide from air and water -Produces oxygen and carbohydrates -Plants are a major reservoir of carbon Respiration returns carbon to the air and oceans -Plants, consumers and decomposers
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sediment storage of carbon Decomposition returns carbon to the sediment -The largest reservoir of carbon -May be trapped for hundreds of millions of years Aquatic organisms die and settle in the sediment -Older layers are buried deeply and undergo high pressure -Ultimately, it may be converted into fossil fuels Oceans are the second largest reservoir of carbon
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The carbon cycle
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Humans affect the carbon cycle Burning fossil fuels moves carbon from the ground to the air Cutting forests and burning fields moves carbon from vegetation to the air Todays atmospheric carbon dioxide reservoir is the largest in the past 800,000 years -It is the driving force behind climate change The missing carbon sink: 1-2 billion metric tons of carbon are unaccounted for -It may be taken up by plants or soils of northern temperate and boreal forests
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The nitrogen cycle Nitrogen comprises 78% of our atmosphere -It is contained in proteins, DNA and RNA Nitrogen cycle = describes the routes that nitrogen atoms take through the environment -Nitrogen gas cannot be used by organisms Nitrogen fixation = lightning or nitrogen-fixing bacteria combine (fix) nitrogen with hydrogen -To form ammonium -Which can be used by plants
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nitrification and denitrification Nitrification = bacteria convert ammonium ions first into nitrite ions then into nitrate ions -Plants can take up these ions Animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants or other animals Decomposers get it from dead and decaying plants or other animals -Releasing ammonium ions to nitrifying bacteria Denitrifying bacteria = convert nitrates in soil or water to gaseous nitrogen -Releasing it back into the atmosphere
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The nitrogen cycle
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Humans affect the nitrogen cycle Haber-Bosch process = production of fertilizers by combining nitrogen and hydrogen to synthesize ammonia -Humans overcame the limits on crop productivity Fixing atmospheric nitrogen with fertilizers -Increases emissions of greenhouse gases and smog -Washes calcium and potassium out of soil -Acidifies water and soils -Moves nitrogen into terrestrial systems and oceans -Reduces diversity of plants adapted to low-nitrogen soils -Changed estuaries and coastal ecosystems and fisheries
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Humans put nitrogen into the environment Fully half of nitrogen entering the environment is of human origin
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The phosphorus cycle Phosphorus (P) is a key component of cell membranes, DNA, RNA, ATP and ADP Phosphorus cycle = describes the routes that phosphorus atoms take through the environment Most phosphorus is within rocks -It is released by weathering -There is no significant atmospheric component With naturally low environmental concentrations -Phosphorus is a limiting factor for plant growth
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The phosphorus cycle
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Humans affect the phosphorus cycle Mining rocks for fertilizer moves phosphorus from the soil to water systems Wastewater discharge also releases phosphorus Runoff containing phosphorus causes eutrophication of aquatic systems -Produces murkier waters -Alters the structure and function of aquatic systems -Do not buy detergents that contain phosphate
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Solutions to the dead zone The Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (1998) -Called for an assessment of hypoxia in the dead zone Solutions outlined included: -Reduce nitrogen fertilizer use in Midwestern farms -Apply fertilizer at times which minimize runoff -Use alternative crops and manage manure better -Restore wetlands and create artificial ones -Improve sewage treatment technologies -Evaluate these approaches
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Decreasing pollution Scientists, farmers and policymakers are encouraged to -Decrease fertilizer use -While safeguarding agriculture Offering insurance and incentives Using new farming methods Planting cover crops Maintaining wetlands There have been some successes -Despite a lack of funding
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Conclusion Thinking in terms of systems teaches us how to avoid disrupting Earths processes -How to mitigate any disruptions we cause Life interacts with its nonliving environment in ecosystems -Through which energy flows and matter recycles Understanding biogeochemical cycles is crucial -Humans are significantly changing the ways these cycles function Environmental systems have survived -Sustainability means learning from natural systems
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which of the following describes a negative feedback loop? a)It drives a system towards an extreme b)It stabilizes the system c)It causes the system to move in one direction at a time d)It is rare in nature
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which of the following statements is NOT correct? a)A system is a network of relationships among various components. b)In a dynamic equilibrium, system processes move in opposing directions to balance their effects. c)A system in homeostasis is not able to maintain constant (stable) internal conditions. d)A system with emergent properties has characteristics that are not evident in the components alone.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which of the following is a correct statement? a)Energy and matter flow in one direction only b)Energy and matter both cycle repeatedly c)Energy flows in one direction, while matter recycles d)Matter flows in one direction, while energy recycles
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review What is the definition of secondary production? a)Biomass generated by heterotrophs from consuming autotrophs b)Elements and compounds that are required for survival c)Energy remaining after respiration that is used to generate plant biomass d)Assimilation of energy by autotrophs
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which biogeochemical cycle uses photosynthesis and respiration to cycle its atoms? a)Carbon b)Nitrogen c)Water d)Phosphorus
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which biogeochemical cycle is being affected by increased fertilizer production through the Haber-Bosch process? a)Carbon b)Nitrogen c)Water d)Phosphorus
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which of the following is NOT a way to decrease hypoxia? a)Reduce fertilizer use in the Midwestern United States b)Apply fertilizer during spring rains c)Restoring wetlands d)Improving sewage treatment technologies
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Weighing the Issues Which of the following ecosystem services do you think is the most important? a)Providing services such as water purification b)Providing goods such as food c)Enhancing the quality of our lives, such as spiritual renewal d)All of these are fundamentally important
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data How many terrestrial patches are located in this figure? a) 5 b) 2 c)1 d)3
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