Presentation on theme: "US National Grid (USNG)"— Presentation transcript:
1US National Grid (USNG) FGDC-STDFor information, see:Harnessing a national grid as apreferred language of location ...… optimized for local applications.
2Please note, there are many ways to describe a location with coordinates.The US National Grid being discussedhere is just one of them.
3Non-Standard Grids Problems & Impact We’ve long used map grids. A Survey of Washington, DCCommercial Street MapsFound 35 different maps…… with 31 different grids.None worked with GPS receivers.We simply haven’t used a standard map grid until now,We’ve long used map grids.one that works with GPS, GIS, etc!Non-Standard GridsProblems & ImpactSame street names,but different grids.
4A Standard Grid... - A communications enabler. - Geoaddress on maps. …a consensus based standard.- A communications enabler.- Geoaddress on maps.- Universal Map IndexAn enabler… a bridge betweenhardcopy maps and digital.- Frictionless interoperability… a nationally consistent language of location.Point of InterestStreet AddressUSNG Grid:18S UJTelephone:(202)Subway Sandwich & Salads2030 M St., NW430 8th St., SEth St., NE1500 Benning Rd, NE
5USNG… framing issues. USNG is an FGDC process standard - It is a presentation process standard.It is not intended to define internal storage structureof any GIS or to the transfer of coordinates betweendatabases or appliances.Intended for ground operations. For the general public,public safety, and commerce.- For maps generally >1:1,000,000-scale.Not applicable to aeronautical and nautical operationsas such.
6MGRS Grid Zone Designations 08/27/98UTM/USNG Grid Zone Designations126°120°114°108°102°96°90°84°78°72°66°1011121314151617181924°N32°N40°N48°N18SSRUTJefferson Pier: 18S UJ (NAD 83)MGRS Grid Zone DesignationsHow to read the USNG…The world is further broken down into 8° bands of latitude. Combined with UTM Grid Zones, these 8° latitude by 6° longitude blocks are known as Grid Zone Designations. (Note, the USGS does not portray the latitude letter designation.)In the northern hemisphere these start with the letter N at the equator and proceed consecutively northward in 8° increments (with the omission of the letter O).MGRS Grid Zone Designation 18S ranges from 32°N to 40°N and 72°W to 78° W.Washington, DC is located in UTM/MGRS Grid Zone Designation 18S.2205/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
8The Power of Truncated USNG Values Jefferson Pier, Washington, DCGrid: UJ= repeat of UJEach 2 letter/8 digit USNG value(10-m posting) in the outlined area is unique.The world is further broken down into 8° bands of latitude. Combined with UTM Grid Zones, these 8° latitude by 6° longitude blocks are known as Grid Zone Designations. (Note, the USGS does not portray the latitude letter designation.)In the northern hemisphere these start with the letter N at the equator and proceed consecutively northward in 8° increments (with the omission of the letter O).MGRS Grid Zone Designation 18S ranges from 32°N to 40°N and 72°W to 78° W.Washington, DC is located in UTM/MGRS Grid Zone Designation 18S.2205/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
9Reading Grid Coordinates… “ Read Right, Then Up.” The Jefferson Pier is located at grid(think 2337 / 0651)Reading Grid Coordinates… “ Read Right, Then Up.”Read RIGHT to grid line 23Then measure right another370-meters.Then, read UP to grid line 06, and measure UP another 510-meters.Principal DigitsmN0607322000mE2324USNG: 18S UJUTM values.Grid: 2306Datum: NAD 83Scale1,000-m052218S UJJefferson Pier4-digit: = 1,000m6-digit: = 100m8-digit: = 10m10-digit: = 1m precision18SUJGrid:
10Jefferson Pier: 18S UJ 2337 0651 US National Grid 300 05 20 15 10 90 THUHTJUJ300052015109095353025mN4300285000mEDatum: North American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)Grid Zone Designation: 18SScale:mN4085345000mEJefferson Pier: 18S UJ
11Often asked question: Why not use Lat/Long, state plane, 5’ grids, 2.5’ grids, etc, instead of UTM/USNG, etc….?1. Latitude / Longitudea. Many different position reporting formats.b. Just how far is 1 minute of longitude anyway?c. Ever tried to accurately fix a position to within10-m using a paper map and lat/long?10 out of 12 authors of GPS “How to” booksrecommend UTM over Lat/Long.,Ease of use, fewer human errors.2. But we have GPS!!!a. GPS is wonderful at providing a position (PNT).b. As a map… not so good!Small GPS screen: 1,600-mm2 Small, low resolution screenLarge 7.5’ quad: 256,000-mm2 Large synoptic, high res view.c. Applying GPS position to map in the field.– See 1.c. above.Map and GPS same relative size.- But the # 1 REASON IS THAT THE US NATIONAL GRID IS ANATIONAL STANDARD! Why? See Reason 1.c. above!
13“Lack of a uniform method for describing incident locations has long been a major impediment to rapidand effective emergency response in diverse metropolitan and rural areas...…the immediate impact of USNG will be to ensure that GPS is directly usable with properly gridded map products to quickly enable multi-agency and multi-jurisdictional emergency responders, and the public in general, to precisely identify geolocations in the real world.…the USNG will be a principal integrating mechanism to create spatial interoperability nationwide...among multi-jurisdictional civil emergency response organizations and when necessary, between those organizations and the military to support any and all domestic emergency response and disaster relief operations.”- Appendix E Spatial InteroperabilityDefense Science Board Task Force on the Future of theGlobal Positioning System, October 2005.
14Local areas by geographic features is good, but no standard spatial reference grid.Many civil sector polygon and reference systemsin Hurricane KATRINA 2005One approach: Cartographic anarchy.Many non-standard grids & spatial ref. systems.
15Multiple non-standard reference systems: = Not compatible with GPS, C2 systems, etc.= Does not enable trained forces or interoperability.= Operational friction during mutual assistance.Local (state) quadrangle reference system.
16Grids are good but......a standard grid reference system is essential.The alternative is operational friction.
17Location, location, location... What exactly is a 911 Grid Map?
18KATRINA Lessons Learned in Mississippi: “3. The implementation of a standardized referencesystem. We recommend the use of the US National Grid(USNG). We made the mistake of initially improvising asearch and rescue grid and then modifying that grid forlocal use. Hundreds of copies of each were published.The USNG is a readily available standard that is yet tobe adopted by emergency response agenciesdue to lack of education.”From proposed:Joint Emergency Mapping System for Mississippi (JEMS),Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information TechnologiesDelta State University, Mississippi19 November, 2005
20The value of an alternative approach: Results of Research at an ABCA ConferenceHypothesis: Standards, doctrine, and training basedon a standard grid will substantially reduce operationalfriction and improve operational effectiveness.Scenario: Disaster has struck Blues City in Blue Land, requiringformation of a coalition to support civil authorities in disasterresponse.Part I: Without prior notice or special training coalition officersare provided a 1:50,000 topographic map of Blues City, romerscale, and requested to locate features provided by USNG/MGRS grid coordinates.Part II: Given rapid planning requirements, coalition countriesmust produce their own maps of Blues City located on a UTMzone junction.
21The value of an alternative approach: Results of Research at an ABCA ConferencePart I: Without prior notice or special trainingcoalition officers are provided a 1:50,000 topographicmap of Blues City, romer scale, and requested to locatefeatures provided by USNG/MGRS grid coordinates.Results: Of 64 attempts, 63 points located.
22Results: Within an hour street data had been Part II: Given rapid, disbursed planning requirements,coalition countries must produce their own maps ofBlues City located on a UTM zone junction.Results: Within an hour street data had beendownloaded from Blues City web site and aproperly gridded map prepared per normalprocedures.
23Data is in MD SPCS, USNG functions for public. Auto-complete capability.DC GIS users can 1) lookup the USNG value for a street address or 2) zoom to a location with a USNG value.
28Motorcycle accident, Sept 10, 2003, 7:55AM. Arlington Co. VA Operator;‘We can’t use a GPS coordinate.”USNG readout for cursor
29Done Four Pillars of Implementation Maps with USNG grids. - Education. (hard copy& digital)Legend- Education.CommunityConsensusDoneUS National GridFGDC’s(Public/Business/Government)- UserFriendly GPS/Internet andWireless Connectivity- GeoaddressAvailabilityUS National Grid
30www.fgdc.gov/usng Questions? Comments? For information, see: Analog Bridge DigitalFor information, see:
37Organization of UTM zone 18 EQUATOR75° W72° W0°78° W84° N80° S500,000-mE0-mN10,000,000-mNEssential to understanding why participants preferred UTM over lat/long is the nature of spherical coordinates when they are portrayed as a map.1) Lines of lat/long form quadrangles of varying size. As one moves away from the equator, the linear value of 1 arc second of longitude decreases.2) The counting system of 360°60'60.0" is complex and contributes greatly to the difficulty found in using this system.These negative attributes are compounded at large scale. The resulting complexity makes it difficult for people to measure precise locations accurately at large scale as compared with the task on a plane using symmetrical squares and a counting system with a base of 10.1305/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
38UTM Zone Junction - Zones 15 - 16 87° W84° W78° W84° N80° S500,000-mE0-mN10,000,000-mN0°EQUATOR93° W72° W96° WUTM grid lines7.5’ quads90° WZone 15Zone 16Essential to understanding why participants preferred UTM over lat/long is the nature of spherical coordinates when they are portrayed as a map.1) Lines of lat/long form quadrangles of varying size. As one moves away from the equator, the linear value of 1 arc second of longitude decreases.2) The counting system of 360°60'60.0" is complex and contributes greatly to the difficulty found in using this system.These negative attributes are compounded at large scale. The resulting complexity makes it difficult for people to measure precise locations accurately at large scale as compared with the task on a plane using symmetrical squares and a counting system with a base of 10.1305/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
39UTM Zone Junction - Zones 15 - 16 500,000-mE500,000-mE7.5’ quads96° W84° W87° W93° WUTM grid lines0-mN0°EQUATOR0°PointoftangencyEssential to understanding why participants preferred UTM over lat/long is the nature of spherical coordinates when they are portrayed as a map.1) Lines of lat/long form quadrangles of varying size. As one moves away from the equator, the linear value of 1 arc second of longitude decreases.2) The counting system of 360°60'60.0" is complex and contributes greatly to the difficulty found in using this system.These negative attributes are compounded at large scale. The resulting complexity makes it difficult for people to measure precise locations accurately at large scale as compared with the task on a plane using symmetrical squares and a counting system with a base of 10.500,000-mE90° W90° W80° S1305/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
40USNG Zone JunctionNew Orleans, LAGIS technician training requirements emerge from Hurricane KATRINA, 2005.Additional issue. It has been suggested that MGRS/USNG cannot be used by aircraft supporting ground operations.FGDC US National Grid (WG84) = Military Grid Reference System (WGS84)See for additional information
41USNG Zone JunctionNew Orleans, LATraining requirements emerge from Hurricane KATRINA, 2005.- “We tried to implement the USNG in New Orleans early on but based on the visual confusion of the product (see Doug’s example), it was dropped for a Lat/Long grid.” - FEMA, GIS Coordinator, DHS/FEMA Region X,of Friday, May 5, 2006, 11:00Next slide depicts how the grid was used.
42and this method does not work with low-cost GPS receivers. (“Doug’s FEMA Example”)Sample of how FEMA GIS depicted the USNG at the zone junctionin New Orleans, LA during Hurricane KATRINA, 2005.Warning: This is not how the USNG zone junction is cartographically handledand this method does not work with low-cost GPS receivers.
43USNG Zone Junction Proper way to handle the grid at zone junction: Survey ops: Uses UTM numerical coordinates. Extend one zone across into the other (not both). Carry survey across and then establish control in new zone.Position referencing: Uses USNG alpha-numeric format.Do not extend zones across into adjacent zones. Each point has an absolute value based on the zone that point is located in.
44Sample of NGA produced map with properly depicted USNG/MGRS grid at the junction of UTM zones 15 / 16.15R YP16R BU90°W
45Examining use of the USNG/MGRS in the field across a range of technologies;paper to integrated GPS/INSat the UTM Zone Junction.air/ground operations.New Orleans, LA, 22 August 2006
4611 Ground location scaled from paper USGS 1:24,000 topo: Grid: or 16R BUNote the UTMZone Junction.This presents noproblem for themap user.
4711 10 19 Using an NGA issued map with standard grid, the helicopter crew easily identified the precisegrid location: 16R BU101119123456
48The helicopter crew also loaded the coordinates into their integrated GPS/INS navigation system,grid 16R BUThe FLIR can be slaved to the GPS/INS tostare at the point.
49The crew looks from big to little features on the map and ground as they orient themselves to the point of interest.The FLIR can aid in situational awareness.
50The grid zone junction was immaterial to the success of this evolution.
51Situations the US National Grid will remedy... Miami, FL -- The story of a lady’s drowning quickly gained Nationalcoverage after she dialed on her wireless phone from hersinking car in a Miami, FL canal. Not able to escape the car andwith dispatchers unable to locate the accident scene, the womanperished before emergency help could reach her.Fort Lauderdale, FL – A lady was forced to wait seven minutesand make three separate calls from her cellular phonebefore help was dispatched after her daughter was impaled bya three-foot steel rod that had crashed through their windshield.The lady was forced to exit the interstate and find a majorintersection in order to give the dispatchers her location.From National Emergency Number Association web siteand other sources.
52Day County, SD – A lady spent 40 hours in temperatures that dropped to -30° F when a blizzard stranded her in her pickup truck.Although she was able to dial 9-1-1, she was unable to tell herrescuers where she was. While the Day County Sheriff’s officewas eventually able to locate the car, it took them five hours toplace the vehicle within a 35-mile radius.Rural Michigan – A lady was rear-ended and suffered minordamages while driving in rural Michigan. While no one wasinjured, she did call She informed the dispatcher of herlocation and then waited 30 minutes for the cruiser to arrive.When he failed to materialize, she called again. The two roadsthat she had given to the dispatcher to help them locate heractually crossed twice, and the cruiser was looking at thewrong intersection.From National Emergency Number Association web siteand other sources.
53Washington, DC – In 2001, a visitor to the FDR Memorial was struck with a heart attack. A passing police officer and thedispatcher could not agree on an appropriate address for theincident location at this large campus like memorial.Eventually an intersection several blocks away was selected,but the ambulance was never able to find the incident.Arlington County, VA. - In 2003, a motorcyclist was seriouslyinjured after being thrown over the guardrails of an overpass.A pedestrian nearby immediately called but had troubledetermining an address for the incident. He did have a GPSreceiver, and finally asked in frustration if the operatorcould use a coordinate from it. The operator replied that no,they did not use that technology.From National Emergency Number Association web siteand other sources.
54Fairfax County, VA – A caller to 9-1-1 reported having been stung by a bee, and was beginning to have trouble breathing. The 9-1-1operator could see clearly on the map where the caller waslocated with Phase II wireless location technology, but had noactionable way of describing the caller’s location in the 493 acrepark to first responders.From National Emergency Number Association web siteand other sources.
55Two perspectives on using coordinates... In Rhode Island, cell phones equipped with GPS chip sets can be rapidly located to within 15-m of true position organizations remain focused on conventional addresses, yet only about a fifth of the street addresses have been correlated to a coordinate. For incidents where the provided coordinate cannot be correlated to a street address there is no way to readily communicate a location to first responders who can only use street addresses to find places. As the Rhode Island Director Ray LaBelle stated, "If I give an ambulance driver latitude and longitude coordinates, he's going to tell me where to go." (Lagesse, 2003).“...In Iraq, Coalition Forces (particularly the U.S. Govt and U.S. Military) are using MGRS coordinates almost exclusively. They have GIS software and data that allows them to search for a particular address (building #, street # and house #) within the 9 districts of Baghdad and in a few other cities/regions of Iraq. The operators in the field will get intel about a person of interest being located at a particular address. We will use the GIS sw/data to locate that address on a map or imagery of the city. Then, using our data, we can provide an MGRS coordinate for that location. The operator can then plug that coordinate into his GPS and easily navigate to the building of interest in order to do surveillance.” - US Government person, December 2005
56…synergistically using analog and digital tools. The Modern Devil Dog….…synergistically using analog and digital tools.“The map was my most important tool.With that, a compass, and a radio,I was God in the wilderness.Preserving the map from the weather,I had learned from bitter experience,was a lifesaving effort,…”- 1st Lt Michael C. Hodgins, USMCReluctant Warrior, Vietnam, March 1970- Billet holders will begetting D-DACT.A GPS receiverin the pocket.Paper map: Does notmanipulate orcommunicate data.- Allows basic geospatial analysis (KOCOA)- Provides a synoptic view.- Batteries never die.A paper mapin hand.
57Briefing and rehearsal Digital 3D modelingand simulations,interconnectedsimulators,but sometimes...Briefing and rehearsalNote sand table/terrain model.
60FGDC US National Grid resource site: Relevant URLsDC Master Address Repository1620 L St NWUSNG:DC GISSt. Louis, MO Parcel Data by AddressThe National MapFGDC US National Grid resource site:
61GeoaddressA two-dimensional earth referenced address based on the U.S. National Grid (USNG) that supplements conventional one-dimensional street addresses. Geoaddresses unambiguously communicate the surface location at which an organization or person can be reached, and act as a universal map index for properly gridded topographic, street, highway, and general purpose maps. Geoaddresses may serve a temporary (i.e.reporting an accident location), or permanent purpose, (i.e. associated with cultural features). Away from the road network, or in the event of major disaster, geoaddresses may be the only readily usable ‘address’. Geoaddresses enable the widespread use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in society, and enhance the use of web based/digital and hardcopy maps.Example: USGS National Center18S TJ
62Value of a Standardized Grid User friendly way to describe precise locations for all users.Easier to use than lat/long. Reduced training requirements.Provides a cross check between a street address and geoaddress toensure information is not garbled in transmission.Increase the speed and accuracy with which places can be identified ona map or in a GIS. No ambiguity. Includes all places--not just roads.Enables creation of a universal map index of places and facilities.Improves navigation to, and within, incident areas by respondingexternal forces/mutual assistance situations.Sets a presentation format standard. USNG does not replace GIS datastorage formats or SPCS in survey and engineering operations.Improves coordination between different responding agencies(to include local, state, federal, and general public).Nonproprietary standard facilitates rapid implementation bycommercial maps and software applications.Facilitates use of simple, digital, communications systems such asShort Messaging Service (SMS) when cell phone voice circuits areoverloaded during crisis.ENABLES THE USE OF GPS! USNG now used in commercial GPS.
63“Why not lat/long instead of plane coordinates.” From research into,“Why not lat/long instead of plane coordinates.”Human factors: Types & Percentages of Positional Errors08/27/98UTM full gridLat/long full graticuleUTM tic marks0.0%20.0%40.0%60.0%80.0%100.0%120.0%73%13%12%57%32%34%66%Pos Errors - Type & %150+m = blunders15m to <150m<15m~ NMASThis chart gives a feeling for the magnitude of errors using different coordinate treatments.The <15m category is the only one that falls within the designed accuracy of the map and near-term GPS. All other samples fell outside that level of accuracy which is reasonably obtainable by people and to which our mapping and GPS systems are designed (and no small amount of money has been spent to achieve). Note that users successfully achieved the reasonably obtainable level of accuracy over 6 times as often when using full UTM grids as compared to when they worked with full lat/long grids.Complimentary to this issue is the need for maps with a full grid. All map users preferred a full grid as compared to only tick marks and they NEVER achieved the level of accuracy that should be obtainable when they only had tick marks to work with.Green (15m) equatesapproximately to (12m)the National MapAccuracy Standard (NMAS).Terry, 1994, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol 63, No. 4, Apr 1997, p1205/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
64State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS). Occasionally the option to use SPCS or other local system as the preferred spatial address instead of UTM/MGRS is raised. The SPCS is another earth referenced coordinate system and it too is just as accurate as UTM or lat/long. There is a mistaken belief by some that it is more accurate which is not true.Today the largest constituency for SPCS is among surveyors and in turn some state and local officials. The SPCS was developed in 1935 by the US Coast & Geodetic Survey (now the National Geodetic Survey) before there was an internationally accepted system found in UTM. Because of its historical legacy, SPCS will continue to have a role in surveying and cadastral work. Nevertheless, there are drawbacks to selecting SPCS as a preferred national spatial address system.These drawbacks include:- It is not a uniform national system. It consists of 50 different systems with over 111 zones as depicted above. Some states use the foot while others use the meter, and different map projections are used. Compared to UTM, the zones of SPCS are very complex .- Low cost GPS receivers do not use SPCS and the growing list of local systems.- USGS is producing (in cooperation with the states) large and medium scale maps with full UTM grids and the new digital orthophoto quarter quadrangle series uses the UTM projection.SPCS and local systems do not contribute to national and international communications interoperability. Consider the discontinuity that occurs at state (and even county) boundaries.Given a choice between a single system or multiple systems for spatial addressing, what will the public prefer? A single system is almost essential to effectively teach this subject in the public school system.08/27/98UTM or SPCS?1405/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
65Geodetically Referenced 08/27/98Public DomainGeodetically ReferencedPlane Coordinate SystemSeamless at Political BoundariesPossess Powerful Truncation FeaturesThe Requirements of a United States National Grid (USNG)for Geoaddressing...NPCRS RequirementsIn this brief we have seen how spatial addresses can be used, and many of the issues involved in their use. From these issues we can identify characteristics required of a United States National Grid (USNG) that is to be used as a preferred spatial address system by the community. Those requirements are;- In the public domain.- It must be geodetically referenced.- It should be a plane coordinate system.- It should be seamless at political boundaries.- It should possess powerful truncation features.As we look for a USNG it should, if possible, be an off-the-shelf system.3005/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
66USNG = UTM?MGRS/NAD 83 - Why? Filtering Requirements MGRS SPCS 08/27/98USNG = UTM?MGRS/NAD 83- Why?Geodetically ReferencedPlane CoordinateSeamless at PoliticalBoundariesSimple/PowerfulTruncationSPCSPLSSPublic DomainLatitude/LongitudeProprietaryMGRSLat/LongOff the ShelfOptionsUTM/MGRSUTM/MGRS/NAD 83 = Why?Now onconsumerGPSreceiversFilteringRequirementsUTMWhen we filter currently available, off-the-shelf, coordinate and addressing systems through the requirements process, we find UTM/MGRS offers the best option for a USNG. This raises the question of why not simply use the UTM/MGRS? The references for MGRS are defined through a standards process which responds to the needs of the international military community of the western nations. And while MGRS as currently defined may be a solution for the civil community’s USNG, the MGRS itself is subject to change driven by a set of needs that may be different from the civil community’s. Thus a USNG needs to be defined in it’s own right.3105/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
67Meets National Map Accuracy Standard 08/27/98 Empirical results confirmed the user's preference. Participants were asked to scale the coordinate values for precise points on 1:24,000-scale maps. Using these large scale maps, similar to a city map, test participants achieved three times the accuracy, with fewer blunders, and in one-third the time using UTM, as compared to using lat/long.The need for maps with a full grid was also clearly evident.Results:Gridded UTM: 86% of the samples were less than 150 meters in positional error. Of those, their avg positional error was 10.2m.Gridded lat/long: 63% of the samples were less than 150 meters in positional error. Of those, their avg positional error was 31.7m.Ungridded UTM: 34% of the samples were less than 150 meters in positional error. Of those, their avg positional error was 100.1m.08/27/98Terry, 1994, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol 63, No. 4, Apr 1997, pPos Accuracy Bullseye1105/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
68In a research project comparing the two systems in 1996, 91% of the participants preferred UTM over lat/long. Reasons given were the ease of learning and using, speed with which UTM grids can be plotted, and how much easier it was to commit blunders with lat/long as compared to using the simple counting system of UTM.Additionally, most of the popular literature aimed at teaching the general population how to use GPS also suggest UTM over lat/long as the preference for use on land.Note: This test was accomplished prior to the increased availability of GPS receivers with UTM/MGRS. Test participants were taught how to truncate UTM coordinates using the MGRS method so for practical purposes the test was of UTM/MGRS.08/27/98Terry, 1994, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol 63, No. 4, Apr 1997, pUser’s Preference (91%)1005/20/2000 ã 2000 N.G.Terry, Jr.
69Think of it as a “street sign-in-a-box” Threshold Automobile GPS InitiativeTAGI
70United States National Grid FGDC-STDUnited States National Grid“We should promote voluntary standards thatenhance the effective coordination of disaster responses, such as the U.S. National Grid mapstandard for geospatial information system;”- The Honorable John H. Marburger, IIIDirector, Office of Science and Technology Policy.Testimony of Dec 5, 2001 before the Subcommittee on Science,Technology and Space Committee on Commerce, Science, andTransportation, United States Senate.
71“Problems/Issues/Gaps: Responders’ lack ability to share information between the MAC (Multi-Agency Coordination Entities) andarea command posts is partially due to weak communications and interoperability standards.This is evidenced by situations where MAC and area commands may both be utilizing digital maps, but with different indexing standards. The result may be an inability to easily exchange map coordinates.”A Project Responder Report: Technology Opportunities for Implementing the National Incident Management System (NIMS)Of October 2005, p. 31, by Hicks and Associates, Inc., for The MemorialInsitute for the Prevention of Terrorism and the United States Department of Homeland Security.
72A Brief MGRS - USNG History WW I: Convergence of technologies. Necessity motherof invention. French develop use of grids. Lat/Long toohard for average soldier. WW I Lesson: Grids are great.Everybody develops one.1940’s WW II: Many different grids in use. Projection issues.Operational friction.WW II Lesson: Get everyone on standard grid.: US and British armies develop and implementUTM and Military Grid Reference System (MGRS).Great success story; Used in combat ever since.USNGMid ’s: No standard civil grid equiv. GPS arrives. 9/11.USNG development at FGDC. MGRS could answer therequirement, no need to be original… but NAD27 US issue.USNG/WGS84 = MGRS/WGS USNG/NAD27 not = MGRS/27