Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs Christina Richmond West Virginia Department of Agriculture."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs Christina Richmond West Virginia Department of Agriculture
Outline What is an Animal Feeding Operation? CAFO Updates Pasture Based Cattle Operations Nutrient Management and Recordkeeping Technical Assistance Chesapeake Bay ORSANCO The Future
Animal Feeding Operation (AFO) Your operation is an animal feeding operation (AFO) if animals are stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in a 12 month period and where crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility
Animals needed to be defined a Large CAFO 700 mature dairy cows 1,000 beef cattle 1,000 veal calves 10,000 sheep or lambs 500 horses 2,000 swine (>55 lbs.) 10,000 swine (<55 lbs.) 30,000 ducks (non- liquid storage) 5,000 ducks (liquid manure storage) 30,000 laying hens or broilers (liquid manure storage) 125,000 broilers (dry manure storage) 82,000 laying hens (dry manure storage) 55,000 turkeys
Animals needed to be defined a Medium CAFO 200 mature dairy cows 300 beef cattle 300 veal calves 750 swine (>55 lbs.) 3,000 swine (<55 lbs.) 3,000 sheep or lambs 150 horses 10,000 ducks (non liquid manure handling) 1,500 ducks (liquid manure handling) 9,000 laying hens or broilers (liquid manure) 37,500 broilers (dry manure) 25,000 laying hens (dry) 16,500 turkeys
The final part of the puzzle Pollutants are discharged into waters of the State from production areas through a man-made ditch, flushing system, or other man-made device; OR Pollutants are discharged directly into waters of the State that originate outside a production area and pass over, across or through production areas or otherwise come into direct contact with the confined animals.
Designated CAFO Any AFO may be designated as a CAFO by the Director of Water and Waste Management, no matter what the number of confined animals or the size of operation.
Six steps the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection must take to designate an AFO a CAFO Must be a Significant contributor of pollution Inspection Size of operation Amount of waste reaching stream AFO location relative to stream Means of conveyance of waste to stream Slope, vegetation, rainfall, other relevant factors
Pasture Based Cattle Operations
Pasture Cattle Operations A pasture-based operation generally will not be required to obtain a permit. However, if the operation includes a confinement area, this part of the operation may be considered an Animal Feeding Operation (AFO). Confinement areas can include holding pens, calving areas and some feeding pads.
Tips to Avoid Becoming an AFO Do: Keep gates open and allow free access to pastures and rangeland. Do not: Confine animals for more than 45 days in a 12-month period. Allow animals to completely destroy vegetation in a lot or confined area that could be considered a confinement.
Nutrient Management Planning The objective of Nutrient Management Planning is to apply the proper amount of nutrients at the proper time to achieve the desired yield and minimize entry of nutrients into surface or groundwater supplies.
What is A Nutrient Management Plan? A guide, for the farmer to follow that utilizes : the nutrients within animal waste and commercial fertilizer in a manner that supplies the crops nutritional needs protects the environment
Components of a CAFO Nutrient Management Plan Manure, litter, and process wastewater storage Mortality Management Clean Water Diversion Prevention of Direct Contact of Animals with Waters of the State Chemical Disposal Site specific conservation practices Identify protocols for waste and soil testing Establish protocols for land application in accordance with site specific nutrient management practices Identify specific records to be maintained
What is the West Virginia Department of Agriculture Doing about CAFOs? CAFO Coordinator Nutrient Management Planner Outreach Program Fact Sheets Agency Training Producer Information Sessions
Who can provide technical assistance? Natural Resources Conservation Service West Virginia Conservation Agency West Virginia Department of Agriculture WVU Extension Service Any WV Certified Nutrient Management Planner West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection
Chesapeake Bay TMDL West Virginias Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay Basin Over 14% of West Virginia drains into the Potomac River and on to the Chesapeake Bay --thats 2,294,349 acres The Chesapeake Bay watershed in West Virginia includes Berkeley, Grant, Hampshire, Hardy, Jefferson, Mineral, Morgan, and Pendleton, and small portions of Preston and Tucker counties A small area of Monroe County also forms the headwaters of the James River
Will affect the rest of West Virginia Compact of eight states (Drainage is fourteen states) Ohio river drainage is 200,000 sq miles (5% of US land mass) Goal is to reduce hypoxic (dead zone) in the Gulf of Mexico Some modeling after Chesapeake Bay Program
The Future Air Quality issues Phosphorus Index Groundwater Protection
Questions? Christina Richmond CAFO Coordinator WVDA