Presentation on theme: "ITB How did it all come to be?. The Science Version as interpreted by the DOE Science and Religion –The explanations being offered are the science ones."— Presentation transcript:
ITB How did it all come to be?
The Science Version as interpreted by the DOE Science and Religion –The explanations being offered are the science ones - some of them are outdated as the evidence accumulates. –Even the best one is still being worked on, as new evidence is seen with the telescopes of the world.
Three Models SSOUHBB Steady State – 1950s Hot Big Bang – the Standard Model 1950s to today Oscillating Universe Big Bang / Big Crunch
Steady State Hoyle - Bondi - Gold 1950s No longer considered valid The universe is expanding –(Hubble proved that!) The universe had no beginning and will have no end. The universe always looks similar To fill the empty spaces, new matter arises via continuous creation
Oscillating Universe Older subset of the Big Bang no longer considered valid there is not enough mass to make it collapse This universe has a beginning – Big Bang and will collapse into a Big Crunch at the end. A new universe will arise in a new Big Bang – which will collapse again – etc. This fits in with Hindu cosmology!
The Hot Big Bang (the standard model) Developed in the late 1940s by Gamow– named by Hoyle as an insult – it is the current basic model. Out of nothingness; the universe has a tiny, hot, beginning – then expands. As the energy-universe expands, it cools enough for matter to form (E=mc 2 ), then atoms to form. Mutual gravity pulls the Hydrogen and Helium into stars / galaxies – which continue to expand.
A little more on the Big Bang The first matter to form and stay stable consists of neutrinos ( 0 ), electrons (e - ), protons (P + ) and neutrons (N 0 ). These particles formed in the first few minutes. The first atoms to form were; Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), Lithium (Li), and Beryllium (Be) These formed after ~ 600,000 years.
Evidence for an Expanding Universe I Hubble The Graph is Velocity vs. magnitude The faster it is, the fainter it is.
Evidence for an Expanding Universe II Olber Everywhere you look you see stars – a sky of eternal light! But – its not that way, so the universe began sometime.
Penzias & Wilson CMB … used this as a telescope and found there was a background "noise" (static) that seemed to come from all directions. Everyone assumed it came from the telescope itself. So, they had to get rid of it to make the observations they planned. They checked everything to rule out the source of the excess radiation. They pointed the antenna towards New York City - it wasn't interference from the city. It wasn't radiation from our galaxy or extraterrestrial radio sources. It wasn't even the pigeons living in the big, horn-shaped antenna. They kicked them out and swept out all their droppings. The source remained the same through four seasons, so it couldn't have come from the solar system or even from a 1962 above-ground nuclear test, because in a year that fallout would have shown a decrease. They had to conclude it was not the machine and it was not random noise causing the radiation. Dicke said- the residue of the explosion of the Big Bang, should by now take the form of a low-level background radiation throughout the universe. Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize in 1978
COBE - CMB More evidence was desired, so COBE, Cosmic Background Explorer was launched. Image 1 shows our motion in the cosmos. 2 shows the Milky Way – minus the motion 3 takes the galaxy out for just the Cosmic Microwave Background Smoot and Mather received the Nobel Prize in 2006
COBE - CMB Another version – looking at the small change in temperature
Telescopes are Time Machines Light travels 299,729 km/s If you are on the Moon, you are 1.3 light seconds away from the Earth. The Earth is 8.3 light minutes away from the Sun. –So, the Sun you see is 8.3 minutes old! Centauri is 4 light years away from the Earth. Centauri is 4 light years away from the Earth. –You are seeing the star as it was 4 years ago!
A Light Year 299,729 km/s x 60 s/min x 60 min/hr x 24 hr/day x day/year = 9,458,727,890,400 km = 9,458,727,890,400 km About 10 trillion km About 10 trillion km
Some Distances = Times Sirius 9 Light Years 9 Light Years Betelgeuse 425 Light Years Center of the Milky Way 30,000 Light Years Andromeda Galaxy 2,200,000 Light Years
Hubble Deep Field North Galaxies from the Beginning
Hubble Deep Field South Galaxies from the Beginning
Disclaimer Aloha I put together these power points for use in my science classes. You may use them in your classes. Some images are public domain, some are used under the fair-use provisions of the copyright law, some are mine. Copyright is retained by the owners! Ted Brattstrom