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Orbits and Orbitals KLM vs spdf

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KLM and spdf??? KLM – old style lettering for the “shells” or “orbits”. K is closest to the nucleus, L is next, M (N,O,P etc) Now we know that KLM is “really” the “Principle Quantum Number” 1,2,3 for the energy levels spdf – refers to the shape of the “orbital” – according to Pauli (the Pauli Exclusion Principle) no orbital can have more than 2 e- in it. (one spin up, one spin down)

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Magic Numbers 2 – 8 – 8 – 2 – 6 – 10 – 14 (1,3,5,7)

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Aufbau principle

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**Bonding Covalent – equal sharing of electrons**

Polar Covalent - unequal sharing of electrons Ionic -total stealing / giving of electrons (it’s all about the electronegativity)

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covalent

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ionic

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electronegativity

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Disclaimer Aloha I put together these power points for use in my science classes. You may use them in your classes. Some images are public domain, some are used under the fair-use provisions of the copyright law, some are mine. Copyright is retained by the owners! Ted Brattstrom

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