2 Periodization Revolutions Industrialization Imperialism Enlightenment and Scientific RevolutionIndustrializationImperialismContinuities and BreaksNeed for raw materials (exploitations)Coerced laborEurope Dominating
3 Changes is Global Commerce, Communication and Technology PPMMMR ChartsSmall local industries destroyed by imported manufactured goods (ex. India)China and Japan forced open to tradeTruly global trade, world linked but dependentSpreads from West to non-west (some specialization that will lead to industrialization like in Canada, Uruguay, South Africa) (profit returns to industrial nations)
4 Commonalities Industrialization begins with textiles Need for Steam and IronRailroads and Canals needed (specifically the Suez Canal)
5 Slave Trade Atlantic Slave trade ends Denmark 1792 US 1807 (continue shipping but not to US)Britain 1808Brazil 1830 (smuggles until 1850)
6 Demographic Changes Demographic Transition: Shifting patterns Mortality rate falls faster than birth rate so there is a population increaseDemographic stability is achieved when birth rate also slowsVoluntary birth controlNo major outbreaks of diseaseBy % of population live in citiesAgricultural Revolution: New crops like peanuts (China and Africa) increase populationCash crops cause famine
7 Social and Gender Structure UrbanizationCommercial Developments: Monopoly, Cartel, and TrustAbolition: women and free blacks are the force behind abolition. Reasons for ending slavery were humanitarian and economic. William Wilberforce, Frederick DouglassBrazil liberals want to end slavery on Enlightened ideals. Slavery ends for economic and democratic reasons.Caribbean Islands have small slave population, so its ending is not violent socially
8 Political Revolutions and Independence Movements American RevolutionCauses: beneficial neglect…..Documents: Articles of Confederation….Effects: representative democracy…….FrenchCauses: social inequality….Documents: Declaration of Rights of Man….Effects: Napoleon…..
9 Haiti: Latin America Causes: homeland rule….. Documents: Enlightened writersResults: successful slave revoltLatin AmericaCauses: Mercantilism…..Documents:Results: few….
10 Things to think about Phases of Revolution Leaders Outside forces Long-term effectsWho benefitsPopular Sovereignty
11 Nationalism and Nation-States Rise of NationalismNapoleonCongress of ViennaGreeceGermanyItaly
13 Rise of the WestEconomic (industrialization, Mercantilism, Capitalism)Political (democracy)Social (growing middle class, mobility, westernization)Expansion; imperialism and colonialismCultural and Artistic (Impressionism)
15 Reaction to the West Russia (reform: Westernizes) India (resist: Mugal to Sepoy)Ottoman (reform: Young Turks)China (resist: Taiping and Boxer)Japan (reform: Meiji Restoration)Imperialism causes Nationalism in subservient countries
16 Diverse Interpretations Modernization is positive, it’s better for everyone so don’t resist. Accept science, accept enlightenment, accept industrialization, a free market. (Western Theory).Slave Emancipation Reasons: Fear Factor, Humanitarian Factor and Economic Factor.Women: should they have more rights because of their role in revolutions? Roles more defined. Settler colony more equality
17 Major Comparisons and Snapshots Compare Industrial Revolution in Western Europe and JapanComparative Revolutions Reaction to foreign domination in Ottoman, China, India and JapanColonialism vs Neo-colonialism