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The Roman Empire 27BC-476AD. Fall of Rome Economic Causes Economic Causes Heavy taxes. Population decline. Social Causes Social Causes Erosion of traditional.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roman Empire 27BC-476AD. Fall of Rome Economic Causes Economic Causes Heavy taxes. Population decline. Social Causes Social Causes Erosion of traditional."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roman Empire 27BC-476AD

2 Fall of Rome Economic Causes Economic Causes Heavy taxes. Population decline. Social Causes Social Causes Erosion of traditional values. Self-serving upper class. Bread and circuses. Political Causes Oppressive government. Corrupt officials. Divided empire. Military Causes Germanic invasions. Weakened Roman legions.

3 Augustus Augustus was the first emperor of Rome Augustus was the first emperor of Rome His real name was Octavian but he was given the name 'Augustus' by the senate as an honour for his great achievements His real name was Octavian but he was given the name 'Augustus' by the senate as an honour for his great achievements He defeated Mark Anthony together with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra He defeated Mark Anthony together with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra With the senate of Rome, He created a new constitution for the great empire With the senate of Rome, He created a new constitution for the great empire Augustus built roads, aqueducts and buildings for Rome Augustus built roads, aqueducts and buildings for Rome

4 Marcus Cocceis Nerva 96 AD – 98 AD Born November 8, 30 AD Born November 8, 30 AD Became emperor in September 18 th, 96 AD Became emperor in September 18 th, 96 AD Since the prior emperor, Domitian, had no sucessors, this was the first time the senate had to decide who became the new emperor. Nerva was appointed as ruler in 96 AD. He was elected in his late sixties and was wise and couragous. Since he had no heir to the throne, he took it upon himself to appoint his next ruler. In 97 AD, he chose Marcus Ulpius Trajanus. Nervas became remembered for the nomination of Trajan to rule the empire. Since the prior emperor, Domitian, had no sucessors, this was the first time the senate had to decide who became the new emperor. Nerva was appointed as ruler in 96 AD. He was elected in his late sixties and was wise and couragous. Since he had no heir to the throne, he took it upon himself to appoint his next ruler. In 97 AD, he chose Marcus Ulpius Trajanus. Nervas became remembered for the nomination of Trajan to rule the empire. Nerva died in 98 AD Nerva died in 98 AD

5 Marcus Ulpius Trajanus 98 AD- 117 AD Born on September 18 th, 53 AD Born on September 18 th, 53 AD Became emperor on January 28 th, 98 AD Became emperor on January 28 th, 98 AD Trajan was a man of character and who spent most of his life in the military service. He specialty was in battles and using strategy against the enemy. Trajan was a man of character and who spent most of his life in the military service. He specialty was in battles and using strategy against the enemy. New laws Trajan set New laws Trajan set Senate must always be informed about what is going on Senate must always be informed about what is going on Sovereigns right to rule was compatible with freedom for those who were ruled Sovereigns right to rule was compatible with freedom for those who were ruled No senators could be put to death No senators could be put to death Financial Problems Financial Problems During Trajans reign the treasury ran low and must be refilled. Most emperors would just put heavy taxation on the citizens, but Trajan instead took money from the luxury of his own household and public departments. He also suppressed monopolies which largely reduce corruption in the economy. During Trajans reign the treasury ran low and must be refilled. Most emperors would just put heavy taxation on the citizens, but Trajan instead took money from the luxury of his own household and public departments. He also suppressed monopolies which largely reduce corruption in the economy.

6 Marcus Ulpius Trajanus Military Action Military Action Campaign of Danube (101AD to 106AD) Campaign of Danube (101AD to 106AD) 101 AD, Trajan organized first Dacian expedition 101 AD, Trajan organized first Dacian expedition Forced his way through rough terrain and got past iron gates. Forced his way through rough terrain and got past iron gates. Captured the Dacian capital Captured the Dacian capital 103 AD Trajan went to battle again 103 AD Trajan went to battle again Destroyed the Dacians kingdom in 104 AD Destroyed the Dacians kingdom in 104 AD Battle for Armenia (113 AD to 116 AD) Battle for Armenia (113 AD to 116 AD) Trajan headed east to the Euphrates where the Parthians settled. Trajan headed east to the Euphrates where the Parthians settled. King Chosroes pleaded for peace but Romans took Armenia and Mesopotamia King Chosroes pleaded for peace but Romans took Armenia and Mesopotamia

7 Marcus Aurelius 161 AD- 180 AD Born April 26 th, 121 AD Born April 26 th, 121 AD Became emperor in March 7 th, 161 AD Became emperor in March 7 th, 161 AD Miliatry Action Miliatry Action War against Parthia War against Parthia Roman victories at Dura Europa, Ctesiphon Roman victories at Dura Europa, Ctesiphon First Marcomanni War First Marcomanni War Marcus Aurelius defeats Marcomanni and Quadi by 174. Marcus Aurelius defeats Marcomanni and Quadi by 174. Second Marcomanni War Second Marcomanni War Marcus Aurelius advances to Bohemia and Carpathian mountains. There he dies. Marcus Aurelius advances to Bohemia and Carpathian mountains. There he dies. Avidius Cassius Avidius Cassius Roman general under Marcus Aurelius Roman general under Marcus Aurelius he was sent to the East to counter the Parthian threat from 162 AD-165 AD. He defeated the Parthians, and was made by Aurelius the head of all military east of Egypt. he was sent to the East to counter the Parthian threat from 162 AD-165 AD. He defeated the Parthians, and was made by Aurelius the head of all military east of Egypt. Later on, Cassius lead a revolt against Rome but was defeated Later on, Cassius lead a revolt against Rome but was defeated

8 Lucius Aurelius Commodus 180 AD- 192 AD Born on august 31th, 161 AD Born on august 31th, 161 AD Became emperor in March 17 th, 180 AD Became emperor in March 17 th, 180 AD Commodus began what is known as the downfall for Rome Commodus began what is known as the downfall for Rome Made peace with the bordering barbarians Made peace with the bordering barbarians Returned to Rome where he lived for the entertainment Returned to Rome where he lived for the entertainment Plots against were found out and suppressed Plots against were found out and suppressed Commodus was strangled in his bed by a paid assassin in 192 AD Commodus was strangled in his bed by a paid assassin in 192 AD

9 Constantine the Great Constantine the great was the first Christian emperor of the Roman empire Constantine the great was the first Christian emperor of the Roman empire He defeated all the other would-be emperors and re-united the empire, which had been divided between many rulers He defeated all the other would-be emperors and re-united the empire, which had been divided between many rulers He also decided to move the capital of the empire from Rome to a town called Byzantium, which he renamed after himself - Constantinopolis He also decided to move the capital of the empire from Rome to a town called Byzantium, which he renamed after himself - Constantinopolis He also called together many bishops for the Council of Nicaea at which the exact nature of the Christian religion was defined He also called together many bishops for the Council of Nicaea at which the exact nature of the Christian religion was defined

10 Nero Nero was crazy Nero was crazy He became emperor because his mother murdered his step- father, emperor Claudius He became emperor because his mother murdered his step- father, emperor Claudius During his rule much of Rome burnt down in the Great Fire of Rome During his rule much of Rome burnt down in the Great Fire of Rome After this he built himself a magnificent palace on the land cleared by the fire After this he built himself a magnificent palace on the land cleared by the fire There were rumours that he had started the fire himself, he blamed the Christians for it and then had many captured and thrown to the lions in the circus There were rumours that he had started the fire himself, he blamed the Christians for it and then had many captured and thrown to the lions in the circus

11 Justinian Justinian was considered the last great emperor Justinian was considered the last great emperor Western part of Rome had fell to the barbarians Western part of Rome had fell to the barbarians His great generals Belisarius and Narses reconquered many parts of the empire His great generals Belisarius and Narses reconquered many parts of the empire Manages to obtain even the city of Rome Manages to obtain even the city of Rome Justinian also gathered all the roman laws and created a unified code of laws Justinian also gathered all the roman laws and created a unified code of laws These laws were known to set the basis for the western half of the world These laws were known to set the basis for the western half of the world He also built many great buildings in his capital, Constantinople He also built many great buildings in his capital, Constantinople Justinians most well known work is the great church Santa Sophia, which today is the famous mosque 'Aya Sophia' in the Turkish city of Istanbul. Justinians most well known work is the great church Santa Sophia, which today is the famous mosque 'Aya Sophia' in the Turkish city of Istanbul.

12 Early Politics & Economics Two Systems Two Systems Civil Law. Civil Law. Foreigners. Foreigners. Law of Nations. Law of Nations. Roman citizenship. Roman citizenship. Senate Senate 300 Patricians. 300 Patricians. 2 Consuls. 2 Consuls. Dictator. Dictator. Plebeians. Plebeians. Tribunes. Tribunes. Veto. Veto. Trade Routes Trade Routes Loot, taxes, commerce. Loot, taxes, commerce. Latifundia. Latifundia. Gap between rich and poor. Gap between rich and poor. Virtues replaced. Virtues replaced.

13 Empire Politics & Economics Augustus Foundation Augustus Foundation Senate with civil service. Senate with civil service. High-level jobs. High-level jobs. Self-government. Self-government. Economic Reforms Economic Reforms Census. Census. Postal Service. Postal Service. New Coins. New Coins. Roads, temples, farmland. Roads, temples, farmland. Crisis Crisis Emperors. Emperors. High taxes and bureaucracy. High taxes and bureaucracy. Diocletian division. Diocletian division.

14 Military Expansion

15 Roman Religion Early Republic Early Republic Gods and Goddesses. Gods and Goddesses. Etruscans and Greeks. Etruscans and Greeks. Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Poseidon, Mars. Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Poseidon, Mars. Feasts & Celebrations. Feasts & Celebrations. Temples. Temples. Statues. Statues. Festivals. Festivals. Early Empire Early Empire Christianity. Christianity. Jesus and his followers. Jesus and his followers. Expanding through Paul. Expanding through Paul. Persecution. Persecution. Nero and scapegoat. Nero and scapegoat.

16 Timeline 509BCRoman Republic BCNavy battles Carthage. Gained Sicily, Corsica, Sardina. 236BCConquered Gauls in Po Valley. 218BCHannibal invades during Punic Wars. 203BCCarthaginians defeated in Zama. Gained territories in Spain. 149BCOvertake Macedonia in third Macedonia War. 146BCControlled Greeks. 133BCKingdom of Pergamum given to Rome. 49BCCeasar crosses Rubicon River. Civil War begins. 44BCCeasar assasinated. 31BCJulius Caesars son Octavious defeats Atony and Cleopatra at Battle of Actium. Annexation of Egypt. 29BCPax Romana begins. 27BCRoman Republic ends. Empire begins under Octavious Augustus. Three Roman Legions slaughetered by Arminius. 25BCCeltic kingdom, Galatia join empire. 6BCPaphlagania joined empire. 9ADVarus legions destroyed in Germany. 41ADClaudius invades Britain in Battle of Medway. 66ADJewish Revolt. Vespasian legions in Judaea. Josepheus surrenders. 69ADCivil War, fight for throne ADDomitian built forts in Germany. 114ADArmenia became Roman province. 116ADAdiabene and Mesopotamia conquered. 117ADTrajan builds wall across N.Britain to protect frontier from Caledonia. 251ADDefeated by Goths. Took Balkans and Anatolia ADAurelian abandons Dacia to Germans. Empire divides. 392ADChristianity becomes official religion by Theodosius. 400ADBattle Huns and Germans. Alaric invades Italy. 410ADLose British and Gaul assistance. Sacked by Alaric. 476ADOdoacer. Germanic leader seizes Rome.

17 Bibliography Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today.Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, p


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