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MMann/SAS Taxonomic Levels And Rubrics. MMann/SAS Desired Outcomes An awareness of taxonomic levels and its purpose An awareness of the relationship of.

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Presentation on theme: "MMann/SAS Taxonomic Levels And Rubrics. MMann/SAS Desired Outcomes An awareness of taxonomic levels and its purpose An awareness of the relationship of."— Presentation transcript:

1 MMann/SAS Taxonomic Levels And Rubrics

2 MMann/SAS Desired Outcomes An awareness of taxonomic levels and its purpose An awareness of the relationship of HCPS III benchmarks and taxonomic levels An opportunity to match benchmarks and tasks to the taxonomic levels An awareness of various types of performance assessment rubrics

3 MMann/SAS Why do I need to know the taxonomic levels? Aligning our instruction and assessment to the targets.

4 MMann/SAS Alignment – congruence or match between curriculum, instruction and assessment Curriculum Based on GLOs & HCPS III Instruction Implementation of the curriculum Assessment Multiple measures of proficiency of the curriculum STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

5 MMann/SAS curriculum with standards and assessment shows a strong relationship to student achievement. (Prince-Baugh, 1997; Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick, 1989) Research on Aligning

6 MMann/SAS Identify relevant content standards Determine acceptable evidence and criteria Determine learning experiences that will enable students to learn what they need to know and to do Teach and collect evidence of student learning Assess student work to inform instruction or use data to provide feedback Evaluate student work and make judgment on learning results and communicate findings Reteach, or repeat the process with the next set of relevant standards Teacher collaboration throughout the process. Student involvement throughout the process. Adapted from WestEds Learning from Assessment

7 MMann/SAS All targets, curriculum, instruction, activities and assessments involve some level of thinking. Definition = the science or technique of classification

8 MMann/SAS Cognition Type or cognitive demand - generally refers to a taxonomy and reflects a classification of thinking rather than a sequential hierarchy. (understanding prior to application and analysis) Cognitive demand is determined by analyzing the context of the lesson. (What support is provided and what are the students being asked to do?)

9 MMann/SAS Adapt or adopt a systematic method for assigning performance expectations. McREL Taxonomy of objectives = a system for identifying distinct levels of difficulty. Blooms Guilfords Three-Story Intellect Marzanos

10 MMann/SAS Marzanos Taxonomic Levels Level 1: Retrieval - recall, execution Level 2: Comprehension - integrating, representation, symbolizing Level 3: Analysis - matching, classifying, error analysis, generalizing, specifying Level 4: Utilization - decision making, problem solving,experimental inquiry, investigation

11 MMann/SAS Not used with performance standards, but part of taxonomy Level 5: Metacognitive System - goal setting, process monitoring, monitoring clarity, monitoring accuracy Level 6: Self System - examining importance, examining efficacy, examining emotional response, examining motivation. Adapted from Marzano (2001). Designing A New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

12 From Marzano (2001). Designing a New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The Three Systems and Knowledge Self-System –Decides to engage Metacognitive System –Sets goals and strategies Cognitive System –Processes relevant information Knowledge Continue current behavior New Task

13 MMann/SAS Marzanos Taxonomic Levels (Cognitive System) Level IVLevel IIILevel IILevel I Knowledge Utilization AnalysisComprehension Knowledge Retrieval Use ___ to determine ___ Judge the validity of ___ Use___ to solve Generate/Test hypotheses Analyze using evidence Investigate Compare/ contrast Differentiate Categorize Find what is common among Categorize Determine reasonableness of information Predict Determine what comes next/later Describe and explain Explain the concept Demonstrate and explain Diagram Illustrate/ describe how ___ is related to ___ Represent Recognize Select from a list Recall Give/Provide examples List Name Read Perform mathematical operation (by following a set algorithm)

14 MMann/SAS

15 Standards Implementation Process Model Identify Relevant Standards Determine Acceptable Evidence and Criteria Determine Learning Experiences that will Enable Students to Learn what they need to Know & Do Teach and Collect Evidence of Student learning Assess Student Work to Inform Instruction or Use Data to Provide Feedback Evaluate Student Work and Make Judgment on Learning Results and Communicate Findings ¸ · Ï Í Î Congruence of Content, Context & Cognitive Demand

16 MMann/SAS Lets Identify Taxonomic Levels 1.Retrieve (Marzano) Recognize, Recall, Execute 2.Comprehension Integrate, Symbolize 3.Analysis Match, Classify, Analyze, Generalize, Specify 4.Knowledge Utilization Decision Making, Problem Solving, Inquire Experimentally, Investigate

17 MMann/SAS Topic The Universe Benchmark ES.8.10 Compare different theories concerning the formation of the universe. Topic Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems Benchmark BS.4.1 Describe different cell parts and their functions. Level 1 - Knowledge Retrieval Level 3 - Analysis

18 MMann/SAS Drill and Practice Work with your table group Read each card Group by taxonomic level

19 MMann/SAS Level of thinking helps determine the appropriate assessment method

20 MMann/SAS Analyze plot, setting, characterization, or conflict to interpret theme in a literary text. Describe the setting of the story. Explain how the author uses his characters to convey a message. Compare the plot of this story to the plot of the previous story. Chooses a literary element (e.g., conflict). Describes how the author treats this element in the story. Assess how this element relates to the theme.

21 MMann/SAS Knowing a taxonomy also helps in… scaffolding instruction. Identify Explain Compare Create

22 MMann/SAS Three Tiers of Skill and Assessment Work Drill & Practice Rehearsal & Scrimmage Authentic Performance Thanks to Heidi Hayes Jacobs

23 MMann/SAS The level of thinking in the benchmark is the level of thinking required to meet proficiency.

24 MMann/SAS Balanced Assessment Model

25 MMann/SAS Performance Assessment is an assessment (product or performance) based on observation and judgment about its quality. the activities, problems, projects, and assignments students are asked to perform. anything from a special task at the end of instruction as in a culminating event, or naturally occurring events during regular instruction.

26 MMann/SAS The Importance of Criteria Teachers [frequently] ask the wrong question first … What do we do? - putting the focus immediately on designing tasks - when they need to ask, What do we want kids to know and be able to do? How well? What does quality look like? [We} need to ask these questions very clearly first. Mike Hibbard, Education Update, 38(4). p.5, ASCD, June, 1996.

27 MMann/SAS To Know Criteria Requires... Being exposed to the criteria from the beginning of instruction. Having terms defined. (lots of details) Samples of strong and weak performances. Practice with feedback using the vocabulary of the criteria. Focused revision of work. Practice articulating the vocabulary for quality and applying it to many situations. Instruction consciously focused on subparts of the criteria. Judy Arter, ATI

28 MMann/SAS What is a Rubric? A scoring guide designed to provide constructive feedback to students Designed to show how important elements of a task would look in a progression from less well developed to exceptional along a continuum (Tomlinson, 2003). A Latin word that means red.

29 MMann/SAS A Rubric = Dimensions (essential qualities) + Continuum (Scale) + Descriptors of points on the scale + Work samples illustrating those points.

30 MMann/SAS Holistic Rubrics Holistic rubrics have one performance expectation description at each numerical level on the rubric. The product or performance is evaluated as a whole, and given a single score. Used to obtain the overall impression of the quality of a performance or product. (Wiggins and McTighe, 1999)

31 MMann/SAS Holistic Rubrics Quicker to write and to use. –Summative because they evaluate work at the end of the process. Fails to communicate to students, especially low performing students, what their shortcomings are

32 MMann/SAS Holistic Rubric Example Fiction Writing Content Rubric 5 The plot, setting, and characters are developed fully and organized well. The who, what, where, when, and why are explained using interesting language and sufficient detail. 4 Most parts of the story mentioned in a score of 5 above are developed and organized well. A couple of aspects may need to be more fully or more interestingly developed. 3 Some aspects of the story are developed and organized well, but not as much detail or organization is expressed as in a score of 4. 2 A few parts of the story are developed somewhat. Organization and language usage need improvement. 1 Parts of the story are addressed without attention to detail or organization.

33 MMann/SAS Analytical Rubrics Use multiple descriptors for each criterion evaluated. Type of task analysis where teachers award points on a criterion-by-criterion basis. Described as teaching rubrics because their design helps students improve their own performance.

34 MMann/SAS Analytic Rubric Example Fiction Writing Content Rubric Criteria4321 PLOT: "What" and "Why" Both plot parts are fully developed. One of the plot parts is fully developed and the less developed part is at least addressed. Both plot parts are addressed but not fully developed. Neither plot parts are fully developed. SETTING: "When" and "Where" Both setting parts are fully developed. One of the setting parts is fully developed and the less developed part is at least addressed. Both setting parts of the story are addressed but not fully developed. Neither setting parts are developed. CHARACTERS: "Who" described by behavior, appearance, personality, and character traits The main characters are fully developed with much descriptive detail. The reader has a vivid image of the characters. The main characters are developed with some descriptive detail. The reader has a vague idea of the characters. The main characters are identified by name only None of the characters are developed or named.

35 MMann/SAS Holistic or Analytical Trait Holistic Use : Quick snapshot of overall status When speed of scoring is important Simple products or performances Disadvantages: 2 students can get same score for different reasons Cant identify strengths & weaknesses Not useful for students Analytical Use: Planning instruction - show relative strengths & weaknesses Details to teach student quality Detailed feedback Precision more important that speed : Disadvantages: Scoring is slower Takes longer to learn

36 MMann/SAS Descriptive Terms for Differences in Degree Degrees of Understanding Degrees of Frequency Degrees of Effectiveness Degrees of Independence Degrees of Accuracy Degrees of Clarity

37 MMann/SAS Descriptive Terms for Differences in Degrees UnderstandingFrequencyAccuracyClarity thorough/ complete consistentlycompletely accurate exceptionally clear substantialgenerallygenerally accurate generally clear partial/ incomplete sometimesinaccuratelacks clarity misunder- standing rarelymajor inaccuracies unclear

38 MMann/SAS Options for Selecting Rubrics Create your own - build from scratch Adopt - use an existing rubric Adapt - Modify or combine existing rubrics –Reword parts –Drop or change one or more scales –Omit irrelevant criteria –Mix and Match rubrics –Change a holistic rubric into an analytic rubric –Modify for different grade levels

39 MMann/SAS Guidelines for Rubrics Rubrics are effective when teachers utilize the following criteria: –Use specific numbers like 2 or 3 or more rather than vague words like some, many, or few. –Use specific descriptors, rather than general descriptors like good or excellent. –Use the vocabulary of the standards and benchmarks. –State clear expectations for work so that all teachers, students, and parents know the criteria for quality and the requirements for earning a grade. Burke, 2006

40 MMann/SAS Resources Anderson, L.,Krathwohl, D. et al. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing. New York: Longman. Curriculum Associates:Assessing Levels of Comprehension. Lewin, L. & Shoemaker, B.J. (1998). Great Performances. Virginia: ASCD. Marzano, R.J. (2001). Designing a New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. Popham, W. J. (2002). Classroom Assessment. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Stiggins, R.J. et al. (2004). Classroom Assessment for Student Learning. Portland: ATI. Wahlstrom, D. (2002). Designing & Using High- Quality Paper-and- Pencil Tests. Virginia: Successline. pubdocs/WERA/WERA2005_Webversion.pp

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