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CHAPTER 3 POPULATION AND CULTURE. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Culture -- beliefs and actions that define way of life Culture -- beliefs and actions that define way.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 POPULATION AND CULTURE. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Culture -- beliefs and actions that define way of life Culture -- beliefs and actions that define way."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 3 POPULATION AND CULTURE

2 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Culture -- beliefs and actions that define way of life Culture -- beliefs and actions that define way of life Cultural Traits -- learned behaviors (language, eating) Cultural Traits -- learned behaviors (language, eating) Cultural Landscape -- when human beings use natural resources or alter the surface of the earth Cultural Landscape -- when human beings use natural resources or alter the surface of the earth Diffusion -- change of culture from outside Acculturation -- exchanging traits between cultures -- immigrants culture -- immigrants culture becomes mainstream becomes mainstream Cultural Hearth -- place where ideas begin (farming in M.E.)

3 CULTURE MATERIAL MATERIAL -- People make or build -- People make or build Examples: technology, food, clothing Examples: technology, food, clothing NON-MATERIAL NON-MATERIAL --Patterns of behavior and belief --Patterns of behavior and belief Examples: Examples: language, religion, Gov., education language, religion, Gov., education

4 POPULATION Worlds population billion Worlds population billion Population Density -- average # of people in a square mile Population Density -- average # of people in a square mile 2/3 of the earth is water 1/2 is uninhabitable (tundra,mt, desert) 2/3 of the earth is water 1/2 is uninhabitable (tundra,mt, desert) How do we figure Pop. Density? How do we figure Pop. Density? 1. Dividing total population by land area 1. Dividing total population by land area 2. Dividing total population by arable land -- land that can be farmed 2. Dividing total population by arable land -- land that can be farmed Birth Rate -- number of live births per year per 1,000 Birth Rate -- number of live births per year per 1,000 Death Rate -- number of deaths per year per 1,000 Death Rate -- number of deaths per year per 1,000 Zero Population Growth -- numbers are equal Zero Population Growth -- numbers are equal

5 Political and Economic Systems 196 independent / sovereign countries in the world – 192 in the U.N. 196 independent / sovereign countries in the world – 192 in the U.N. What is a country? What is a country? A unit with four characteristics: A unit with four characteristics: 1. Clearly defined territory 1. Clearly defined territory 2. Population lives there on an ongoing basis 2. Population lives there on an ongoing basis 3. Individual sovereignty -- freedom and power to decide the countries policies 3. Individual sovereignty -- freedom and power to decide the countries policies 4. An internationally recognized Government 4. An internationally recognized Government

6 GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE Relationship between the smaller units (states) and the larger units (Federal) Relationship between the smaller units (states) and the larger units (Federal) 3 TYPES OF GOV. STRUCTURE 3 TYPES OF GOV. STRUCTURE 1. Unitary -- one central Gov. runs the nation with limited local Gov. 1. Unitary -- one central Gov. runs the nation with limited local Gov. example -- Japan example -- Japan 2. Federalism -- Fed. Gov. has certain powers and reserves some for the state 2. Federalism -- Fed. Gov. has certain powers and reserves some for the state example -- United States example -- United States 3. Confederation -- smaller units have more power 3. Confederation -- smaller units have more power example -- Southern U.S. during the civil war example -- Southern U.S. during the civil war

7 Gov. structure continued Powers of a Federation Powers of a Federation A. Delegated power -- Federal Government A. Delegated power -- Federal Government example -- creating the armed services, immigration laws example -- creating the armed services, immigration laws B. Reserved power -- States B. Reserved power -- States example -- establishing schools example -- establishing schools C. Concurrent power -- Joint duties C. Concurrent power -- Joint duties example -- taxes, borrowing money example -- taxes, borrowing money

8 GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY WHO HOLDS THE POWER IN THE COUNTRY ? WHO HOLDS THE POWER IN THE COUNTRY ? 1. AUTHORITARIAN 1. AUTHORITARIAN leader holds the power leader holds the power TYPES OF AUTHORITARIAN TYPES OF AUTHORITARIAN A. Dictatorship -- gain and keep power by military A. Dictatorship -- gain and keep power by military B. Totalitarianism -- leaders control all parts of society B. Totalitarianism -- leaders control all parts of society C. Monarchy -- Kings and Queens C. Monarchy -- Kings and Queens

9 Government Authority - Cont. 2. CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY 2. CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY the monarch is only a figure head the monarch is only a figure head parliament has all the power parliament has all the power 3. DEMOCRACY 3. DEMOCRACY people choose their leaders and have the power to determine political policy people choose their leaders and have the power to determine political policy

10 ECONOMIC SYSTEMS TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS 1. Capitalist -- market economy 1. Capitalist -- market economy The system of supply and demand The system of supply and demand 2. Communism -- command economy 2. Communism -- command economy The state makes all economic decisions The state makes all economic decisions 3. Socialism -- mixed economy 3. Socialism -- mixed economy The state operates some industries but there is also some private ownership The state operates some industries but there is also some private ownership 4. Traditional Economy 4. Traditional Economy Subsistence (produce enough for family) Subsistence (produce enough for family)


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