Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Gavin Hellier/The Image Bank/Getty Images Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:Thinking Like a Geographer Section 2:Section."— Presentation transcript:
Gavin Hellier/The Image Bank/Getty Images Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:Thinking Like a Geographer Section 2:Section 2:The Earth in Space Summary
Chapter Intro 1 Human-Environment Interaction The world is a large place. To better understand the Earthits people, places, and environmentswe must develop certain geography skills. Geography skills can help us decide where to live, how to predict the weather, and how to find solutions to environmental problems such as pollution and global warming. By understanding geography, we can better understand the complex relationships between people and the land. Why is it important to have geography skills?
Chapter Intro 2 Section 1: Thinking Like a Geographer Geography is used to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future. Geography is the study of the Earth. It is used to analyze the Earths physical and human features. People can use geographic information to plan, make decisions, and manage resources.
Chapter Intro 2 Section 2: The Earth in Space Physical processes shape Earths surface. Earth has different seasons because of the way it tilts and the way it rotates around the sun. The warmth of the suns rays makes life on Earth possible.
Section 1-Main Idea Geography is used to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future.
Section 1-Key Terms Content Vocabulary geography absolute locationabsolute location relative locationrelative location environment decade century millennium Global Positioning System (GPS)Global Positioning System (GPS) Geographic Information Systems (GIS)Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Do you agree that technology has played an important role in the study of geography? A.Agree B.Disagree
Section 1 The foundation of todays map-making is technology, but maps still require the human touch for accuracy. Map-checking teams include a car and driver, a passenger/checker, computers, global positioning systems, and video cameras. While the driver drives, the checker compares the most recent map to what actually exists. Physical changes, such as a new street, are entered into the computer and later added to the map.
Section 1 The Five Themes of Geography Geographers use the Five Themes of Geography to help them study the Earth.
Section 1 The Five Themes of Geography (cont.) Geography is the study of the Earth and its people, and people who study geography are geographers.Geography
Section 1 Location is the position of a place on the Earths surface. –Absolute location is the exact spot on Earth where a geographic feature, such as a city or mountain, is found.Absolute location –Relative location describes where that feature is in relation to the features around it.Relative location The Five Themes of Geography (cont.)
Section 1 Place describes the characteristics of a location that make it unique, or different. –A place can be defined by physical features, such as landforms, plants, animals, and weather patterns. –Other characteristics of a place, such as the language spoken there, describe the people. The Five Themes of Geography (cont.)
Section 1 Human-environment interaction describes how people affect or change their environment, or natural surroundings, to meet their needs, and how their environment affects them through conditions they cannot control. environment The Five Themes of Geography (cont.)
Section 1 Movement explains how and why people, ideas, and goods move from place to place. Regions refers to areas of the Earths surface that have several common characteristics, such as land, natural resources, or population. The Five Themes of Geography (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Which of the following is best defined by common characteristics? A.Place B.Region C.Location D.Human-environment interaction
Section 1 A Geographers Tools Geographers use many different tools to help them study and analyze Earths people and places.
Section 1 A Geographers Tools (cont.) Physical geographers study Earths land areas, bodies of water, plant life, and other physical features. They also study an areas natural resources, such as water, forests, land, and wind, and help people decide how to manage the resources.
Section 1 Human geographers look at peoples religions, languages, and ways of life; compare different places to see how they are similar and different; and help plan cities and aid in international business. Similarly, studying history helps geographers understand how places appeared in the past and changed over time. A Geographers Tools (cont.)
Section 1 History is divided into blocks of time known as periods. –A period of 10 years is called a decade.decade –A period of 100 years is known as a century. century –A period of 1,000 years is a millennium.millennium A Geographers Tools (cont.)
Section 1 Satellites circling the Earth provide information for maps in the form of detailed digital images, photographs, and measurements of temperatures and the amount of pollution in the air or land. A Geographers Tools (cont.)
Section 1 Other satellites make up the Global Positioning System (GPS), or a system using radio signals to determine the exact location of every place on Earth.Global Positioning System (GPS) A Geographers Tools (cont.)
Section 1 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are computer hardware and software that gather, store, and analyze geographic information and then display it on a screen.Geographic Information Systems (GIS) It can display maps and even show information such as types of soil and vegetation. A Geographers Tools (cont.)
Section 1 Governments at all levels hire geographers for different kinds of tasks, such as helping decide how land and resources might be used and for analyzing population trends. A Geographers Tools (cont.)
Section 1 In business, geographers often work as researchers and analysts, helping companies decide where to locate new buildings or providing information about other places and cultures where companies do business. As more schools recognize the importance of geography education, the demand for geography teachers is expected to grow. A Geographers Tools (cont.)
Section 1 Do you agree that geography plays an important role in your everyday life? A.Agree B.Disagree A.A B.B
Section 2-Main Idea Physical processes shape Earths surface.
Section 2-Key Terms Content Vocabulary solar system orbit revolution leap year rotate axis atmosphere summer solstice winter solstice equinox Tropics
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2-Polling Question Which is your favorite season? A.Spring B.Summer C.Fall D.Winter
Section 2 Leap years are the only years in which January 1 and December 31 of the same year do not fall on the same day of the week. In 2009, for example, both dates fall on Thursday. In 2010, both fall on Friday, and in 2011, they both fall on Saturday. But 2012 is a leap year; January 1 falls on Sunday, and December 31 falls on Monday. In 2013, the dates will again fall on the same day of the week.
Section 2 The Solar System The Earth is one of eight planets in the solar system. It rotates on its axis every 24 hours and takes a year to orbit the sun.
Section 2 The Solar System (cont.) Earth, seven other major planets, thousands of smaller bodies, and the sun form our solar system.solar system –The inner planetsMercury, Venus, Earth, and Marsare relatively small and solid. –The outer planetsJupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptuneare larger and composed mostly or entirely of gases.
Section 2 Pluto was once considered a major planet, but an international group of scientists in 2006 decided to call it a minor planet. Each planet follows its own path, or orbit, around the sun.orbit The Solar System (cont.) The Solar System
Section 2 Earth takes almost 365¼ days, or one year, to make one revolution, or a complete circuit, around the sun.revolution –Every four years, the extra fourths of a day are combined and added to the calendar as February 29th. –A year that contains one of these extra days is called a leap year.leap year The Solar System (cont.)
Section 2 The Solar System (cont.) As Earth orbits the sun, it rotates, or spins, on its axis.rotates –The axis is an imaginary line that passes through the center of Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole.axis –Earth rotates in an easterly direction, making one complete rotation every 24 hours.
Section 2 As Earth turns, different parts of the planet are in sunlight or in darkness. The part facing the sun experiences daytime, and the part facing away has night. We do not feel Earth moving as it rotates because the atmosphere, the layer of oxygen and gases that surrounds Earth, moves with it.atmosphere The Solar System (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 Which planet orbits the sun in the shortest period of time? A.Jupiter B.Neptune C.Earth D.Mercury
Section 2 Sun and Seasons The tilt of Earth and its revolution around the sun lead to changing seasons during the year.
Section 2 Sun and Seasons (cont.) Because Earth is tilted 23½ degrees on its axis, seasons change as Earth makes its year-long orbit around the sun. –Sunlight falls directly on the northern or southern half of Earth at different times of the year. –Direct rays cause the warmth of summer in a hemisphere, and indirect rays allow the cold of winter.
Section 2 Four days in the year are significant because of the position of the sun in relation to Earth. These days mark the beginnings of the four seasons. Sun and Seasons (cont.) The Sun and Earths Seasons
Section 2 On or about June 21, the North Pole is tilted toward the sun. –On noon of this day, the sun appears directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer. –In the Northern Hemisphere, this day is the summer solsticethe day with the most hours of sunlight and the beginning of summer. summer solstice –In the Southern Hemisphere, that same day is the day with the fewest hours of sunlight and marks the beginning of winter. Sun and Seasons (cont.)
Section 2 Six months lateron or about December 22the situation is reversed. The North Pole is tilted away from the sun. –At noon, the suns direct rays strike the Tropic of Capricorn. –In the Northern Hemisphere, this day is the winter solsticethe day with the fewest hours of sunlight and the beginning of winter. winter solstice –This same day marks the beginning of summer in the Southern Hemisphere. Sun and Seasons (cont.)
Section 2 Spring and autumn each begin on a day that falls midway between the two solstices. These days are the equinoxes, when day and night are of identical length in both hemispheres.equinoxes Sun and Seasons (cont.) The Sun and Earths Seasons
Section 2 On or about March 21, the spring equinox occurs. On or about September 23, the fall equinox occurs. On both days, the noon sun shines directly over the Equator. Sun and Seasons (cont.) The Sun and Earths Seasons
Section 2 Earths temperatures also are affected by the sun. The suns rays directly hit places in the Tropics, the low-latitude areas near the Equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Tropics As a result, temperatures in the Tropics tend to be very warm. Sun and Seasons (cont.) The Sun and Earths Seasons
Section 2 At the high latitudes near the North and South Poles, the suns rays hit indirectly, so temperatures in these regions are always cool or cold. Sun and Seasons (cont.) The Sun and Earths Seasons
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 What is the longest day in the southern hemisphere? A.Summer solstice B.Winter solstice C.Spring equinox D.Fall equinox
VS 1 Themes of Geography Geography is the study of the Earth and its people. In their study of people and places, geographers use five themes: location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and regions.
VS 2 Kinds of Geography Physical geography examines physical aspects of the Earth, such as land areas, bodies of water, and plant life. Human geography focuses on people and their activities, including religions, languages, and ways of life.
VS 3 Geographers at Work To study the Earth, geographers use maps, globes, photographs, the Global Positioning System (GPS), and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). People can use information from geographers to plan, make decisions, and manage resources.
VS 4 Solar System The sun, eight planets, and many smaller bodies form our solar system. Earth takes almost 365 ¼ days to make one revolution around the sun. Earth spins on its axis, causing day and night.
VS 5 Sun and Seasons The Earths tilt and its revolution around the sun cause the changes in seasons. Four days in the year mark the beginning points of the four seasons.
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Vocab1 geography study of the Earth and its people
Vocab2 absolute location exact spot where a place is found
Vocab3 relative location description of where a place is in relation to the features around it
Vocab4 environment natural surroundings of people
Vocab5 decade a period of 10 years
Vocab6 century a period of 100 years
Vocab7 millennium a period of 1,000 years
Vocab8 Global Positioning System (GPS) group of satellites that uses radio signals to determine the exact location of places on Earth
Vocab9 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) combination of computer hardware and software used to gather, store, and analyze geographic information and then display it on a screen
Vocab10 solar system planets, along with their moons, asteroids and other bodies, and the sun
Vocab11 orbit specific path each planet follows around the sun
Vocab12 revolution one complete circuit around the sun
Vocab13 leap year year with 366 days, which happens every fourth year to make calendars match Earths movement around the sun
Vocab14 rotate to spin on an axis
Vocab15 axis imaginary line that passes through the center of Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole
Vocab16 atmosphere layer of oxygen and other gases that surrounds Earth
Vocab17 summer solstice day that has the most daylight hours and the fewest hours of darkness
Vocab18 winter solstice day of the year that has the fewest hours of sunlight and the most hours of darkness
Vocab19 equinox either of the days in spring and fall in which the noon sun is overhead at the Equator and day and night are of equal length in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Vocab20 Tropics area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which has generally warm temperatures because it receives the direct rays of the sun for much of the year
Vocab21 theme topic
Vocab22 physical related to natural science
Vocab23 significant important
Vocab24 reverse opposite
Vocab25 identical exactly the same
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