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QUALITY GRADES 1. Grade A: fluid milk 2. Grade B: processing/manufacturin g (cheese/butter); up to 3 million bacteria/ml
MAJOR PRODUCTS 1. fluid milk: whole milk, 2%, 1%, nonfat milk (less than.5% fat), chocolate milk. 2. Fermentation milk (grade A): cultured buttermilk, yogurt
MAJOR PRODUCTS 3. Creams (grade A): half & half (11% fat); cream (18%fat); whipping cream(30%fat); coffee cream (18%fat); heavy whipping cream(36%fat); sour cream (18%fat)
MAJOR PRODUCTS 4. Butter 5. Canned milk: evaporated milk (60%water removed); sweetened condensed milk 6. Dried milk
MAJOR PRODUCTS 7. Cheese 8. Ice cream
BY-PRODUCTS 1. Buttermilk: from butter, dried for baking 2. Whey - from cheese, dried or concentrated
COMPONENTS OF MILK n Water88% n Fat3.5% n Protein3.2% n Lactose4.6% (milk sugar) n Minerals.7%
INFLUENCES ON COMPONENTS n Breed of cow n Individual animal n Stage of lactation n Feed- age- climate n Frequency of milking
CALCULATING GROSS COMPONENTS % total solids: fat - 3.5% protein - 3.2% lactose - 4.6% minerals-.7% total solids 12%
CALCULATING GROSS COMPONENTS % Solids-not-fat 2 ways: 12.0%solidsprotein %fatlactose %fatlactose %mineral.7 8.5% 8.5%
CALCULATING GROSS COMPONENTS n Minimum legal composition of whole milk is not less than 3.25% fat and not less than 8.25 solids-not-fat
STEPS IN PROCESSING 1. Standardization- adjust fat 2. Clarification - remove foreign matter 3. Pasteurization - destroy bacteria by heat
STEPS IN PROCESSING 4. Homogenization - break-up fat globules so the cream doesnt float to top 5. Packaging 6. Dating-guaranteed drinkable 7 days beyond date 7. Storage
TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION n Prior to 1945: whole and condensed milk and butter most popular n After more ice cream and cheese
TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION n Since 1975 shift from whole to low fat lite cheese and from regular ice cream to ice milk n Recently yogurt and frozen yogurt
MILK PROCESSING. QUALITY GRADES 1. Grade A: fluid milk 2. Grade B: processing/ manufacturing; up to 3 million bacteria/ml.
MILK PROCESSING. QUALITY GRADES 1. Grade A: fluid milk 2. Grade B: processing/manufacturing (cheese/butter); up to 3 million bacteria/ml.
QUALITY GRADES Grade A: fluid milk Grade B: processing and manufacturing (cheese/butter)
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