2 The land and Its Regions Chapter 12 - section 1Brazil is the largest country in area and population in South America (slightly smaller in area than the U.S.)2 landforms of Brazil:1. Plains - along the coast and Amazon River BasinCoast - climate humid subtropical2. Interior plateaus with steep cliffs that separate the plateaus from the plains -- Escarpments
3 Colonizing of BrazilBrazil was colonized by the Portuguese who built up sugar plantations on the northeastern coastal plainsThey enslaved many Africans for work there. The interior plains of Brazil are called sertao Farmers raise chickens and cattle and grow corn.Tropical wet/dry climate
4 Climates Sertao region - tropical wet and dry Southeast region - humid subtropical climate and fertile soil
5 Southeast RegionCrops are rice, sugar, cotton and cocoa beans (chocolate)The most important crop is coffee -- Brazil grows 1/4 of the worlds coffee
6 Major Cities of Brazil Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro coastal cities -- many people have migrated to these cities but haven’t found work.Favelas -- poor areas of the city, often built on the hillside
7 End of section 1 notes Brasilia -- capital of Brazil since 1960 Moved inland to keep people away from the coastal areasAmazon River Basin is over 1/2 the country but only 10% of the people -- mostly indigenous and some are very primitive
8 SECTION 2 -- Brazils Quest For Economic Growth Unequal distribution of wealth -- small % control the plantations and therefore the wealthIn 1940 the Brazil Government starts 2 programs1. Boast Brazils economy - steel mills, dams, oil refineries2. Develop the infrastructure of the interior to help move people from the coastroad buildingmillion people moved to the Amazon Basin (Gov. was giving away grants of land).
9 Sect. 2 continued Gasohol - gasoline and ethanol Ethanol - fermentation of sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural products used to make fuelBrazil - sugar cane is used for ethanolBrazil /3 of pop. were working in ag.less than 1/31/3 in manufacturing and another 1/2 in service industriesThis causes a lot of problems with over population and unemploymentNegative effects:1. Poor people flocking to already over populated cities2. Deforestation - leading to erosion and soil depletion3. Hardships for indigenous people - disease and homeless
10 Sect. 2 notes90 % of Brazils electricity is generated by falling waterEcotourism is helping the economy of Brazil - tourism that encourages environmental awarenessNatural resources - gold, iron ore, and nickelArable land - 5%Currency the “Real” - $1.8 to $1 dollar
11 End of Sect. 2 notesBrazil is a republic with a President, cabinet, Leg. Branch, and Jud. branchOct. 27, 2002 and President Luis Lula de Silva was elected26 states in Brazil
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