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Chapter 19 Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 Section 1

2 Metals

3 Properties of Metals Where do you find metals on the periodic table?
Left of the stair step line What are main properties of metals? Good conductors of heat Good conductor of electricity All but Mercury are solid at room temp.

4 Properties of Metals Other properties:
Luster: Reflect light Malleable Can be rolled thin into sheets Ductile Can be drawn into wires These properties make metals suitable for use in objects like eyeglasses, computers, and buildings.

5 Properties of Metals

6 Luster

7 Malleable

8 Ductile

9 Ionic Bonding How many electrons do metals have in their outer energy level? Hint: If it helps write out the electron configuration! 1 to 3 Do metals tend to give up or gain electrons? Give up

10 Electron Dot Diagrams

11 Ionic Bonding When metals combine with nonmetals what type of bond forms? Ionic bond The metal and the nonmetal are now more stable as an ion Take on the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas

12 Ionic Bonding

13 Alkali Metals What group are alkali metals in?
They have the same properties as other metals! What properties make them different? Softer than most metals Most reactive!

14 Alkali Metals Why do you think alkali metals are the most reactive?
They have only 1 electron to give up to become stable! Since they are so reactive they don’t occur in nature in their element form

15 Alkali Metals When an alkali metal reacts with a nonmetal does it have a + or – charge? + charge It has to gain an electron back to get its original electron configuration back

16 Uses of Alkali Metals We need potassium and sodium compounds to stay healthy Lithium keeps chemicals important to mental healthy within a narrow range Francium is rare and radioactive Radioactive: Nucleus breaks down and gives off particles and energy

17 Alkaline Earth Metals Which group are the alkaline earth metals in?
Same properties as other metals Combine easily with other metals so they are not found free in nature

18 Alkaline Earth Metals How many electrons are in the outer energy level? 2 electrons They combine with nonmetals and lose 2 electrons +2 charge

19 Alkaline Earth Metals and Fireworks
Magnesium is used to produce the white color in fireworks Strontium compounds produce the red Magnesium is also used in cars, planes, spacecraft, ladders, and bats. Chlorophyll is a magnesium compound that plants need

20 Alkaline Earth Metals and Your Body
Calcium phosphate makes your bones strong Barium sulfate is used to diagnose digestive problems because it absorbs x-ray radiation Radium was once used to treat cancer

21 Transition Elements Transition metals are what we think of as being actual metals. Iron, cobalt, and nickel Occur in nature as uncombined elements

22 Iron Triad What three transition metals make up the iron triad?
Iron, cobalt, and nickel All 3 are used in the process to create steel and other metal mixtures

23 Iron Triad Iron is the most widely used of all metals
Main component of steel 2nd most abundant element in Earth’s crust Nickel is added to some metals to give them strength Also used to give a shiny, protective coating to other metals

24 Copper, Silver, and Gold All 3 were once used to make coins
Silver and gold are so expensive they are rarely used in coins anymore Gold stopped in 1993 Silver in 1964 Coins today are mostly nickel and copper

25 Copper, Silver, and Gold Today they are used in:
Copper: electrical wiring Silver compounds: when exposed to light they break down and create an image – used for photographs and movies Silver and gold: Jewelry

26 Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury
All three are found in Group 12 Zinc: used to coat other metals because of its protective quality Cadmium: Rechargeable batteries Mercury: Used in thermometers, thermostats, switches, and batteries. Only metal that is liquid at room temperature Poisonous and can accumulate in the body People have died of mercury poisoning after eating fish in mercury contaminated water

27 Inner Transition Metals
What are the two groups called? Lanthanides Actinides All are radioactive and unstable

28 Metals in Earth’s Crust
Earth’s crust contains many compounds and a few uncombined metals like gold and copper Metals must be mined and separated from their ores Most of our chromium is imported from S. Africa, Turkey, and the Philippines. It is used to harden steel

29 Ores Ore: Metal in Earth’s crust that combine with other elements
Most are a mixture of a metal compound, or mineral, within a mixture of clay or rock After an ore is mined it is the rock is separated from the mineral Then the mineral is converted to another physical form Then the metal is refined to its pure form

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