Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Jeremy Horner/CORBIS Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:Physical Features Section 2:Section 2:Climate Regions Summary."— Presentation transcript:
Jeremy Horner/CORBIS Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:Physical Features Section 2:Section 2:Climate Regions Summary
Chapter Intro 1 Movement Latin America stretches from Mexico in North America to the southernmost tip of South America. The region has a great variety of physical contrasts. Steamy tropical forests, thundering waterfalls, cold mountain peaks, and peaceful island beaches make up Latin America. How might a wide variety of physical features affect transportation and communications within a region?
Chapter Intro 2 Section 1: Physical Features Geographic factors influence where people settle. In Latin America, vast river systems provide transportation and support fishing. The regions rugged mountains and thick forests, however, have been obstacles to transportation and trade.
Chapter Intro 2 Section 2: Climate Regions The physical environment affects how people live. Latin Americas vast expanse of rain forest is the largest in the world and contains valuable resources. In mountainous areas, climate and vegetation are affected more by altitude than by latitude.
Section 1-Main Idea Geographic factors influence where people settle.
Section 1-Key Terms Academic Vocabulary transport reside
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Does your town you live in have many mountains? A.Yes B.No
Section 1 Before the construction of the Panama Canal, a ship sailing from New York City to San Francisco had to go around South Americaa trip of 13,165 miles (21,187 km). The Canal route is 5,300 miles (8,529 km)a shortcut of 7,865 miles (12,657 km).
Section 1 Landforms Mountains are prominent features in many parts of Latin America.
Section 1 Landforms (cont.) Geographers divide the region of Latin America into three subregions: Middle America, the Caribbean, and South America.subregions Middle America is made up of Mexico and Central America. Central America is an isthmus, or a narrow piece of land that links North America and South America. isthmus
Section 1 Mountain ranges run along Mexicos eastern and western coasts with a high plateau between. Central America has mountains and lowlands along its coasts. Thick forests, rugged mountains, and coastal marshes make it difficult to transport goods in that country. Landforms (cont.)
Section 1 The islands of the Caribbean Sea, also known as the West Indies, are divided into the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas. The Greater Antilles include the largest islandsCuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. Landforms (cont.)
Section 1 The Lesser Antilles is an archipelago, or group of islands, curving from the Virgin Islands to Trinidad.archipelago The third group is the Bahamas, another archipelago. Landforms (cont.)
Section 1 Cuba has about half of the Caribbeans land area. Some islands are low-lying, but others, formed by volcanoes, have rugged mountains. Some volcanoes are still active and can be damaging, but the fertile volcanic soil is good for growing sugarcane and tobacco. Landforms (cont.)
Section 1 The Andes mountain ranges and the vast Amazon Basin are South Americas major landforms. The Andes, the worlds longest mountain system, are a cordillera and stretch along the Pacific coast of South America for about 5,500 miles (8,851 km). Between the mountain chains lie plateaus and valleys, where most people live and farm. Landforms (cont.)
Section 1 The Amazon Basin is a low-lying area formed the Amazon River and covering 2.7 million square miles (7.0 million sq. km). Highlands to the north and south border the basin. The Brazilian Highlands end in an escarpment, a series of steep cliffs that drop down to the Atlantic coastal plain. escarpment Landforms (cont.)
Section 1 Tropical grasslands known as the Llanos stretch through eastern Colombia and Venezuela.Llanos Another well-known plain, the Pampas, covers much of Argentina and Uruguay and provides grazing land for beef cattle and fertile soil for growing grains.Pampas Landforms (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 How many tectonic plates do Mexico and Central America lie on? A.2 B.3 C.4 D.5
Section 1 Waterways Latin Americas waterways provide important transportation routes.
Section 1 Waterways (cont.) The Amazon, Latin Americas longest river, starts in the Andes and flows east about 4,000 miles (6,437 km) to the Atlantic Ocean. Heavy rains and many tributaries, or small rivers that flow into a larger river, feed the Amazon.tributaries
Section 1 Three other riversthe Paraná, Paraguay, and Uruguayform Latin Americas second-largest river system. These rivers flow into the Rio de la Plata a broad estuary, or area where river currents and ocean tides meetwhich meets the Atlantic Ocean.estuary Waterways (cont.)
Section 1 The Orinoco River flows through Venezuela to the Caribbean Sea, carrying fertile soil into the Llanos region. Venezuelas Lake Maracaibo is South Americas largest lake and contains some of Venezuelas oil fields. Waterways (cont.)
Section 1 Lake Titicaca lies between Bolivia and Peru. About 12,500 feet above sea level, it is the worlds highest lake that can be used by large ships. Waterways (cont.)
Section 1 The Panama Canal, a human-made waterway, stretches across the narrow Isthmus of Panama. Ships use the canal to shorten travel time between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Waterways (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 What is Latin Americas longest river? A.Amazon B.Paraná C.Paraguay D.Uruguay
Section 1 Latin America has vast natural resources, but political and economic troubles have kept some countries from fully using them. A Wealth of Natural Resources
Section 1 A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.) Latin Americas largest country, Brazil, is more than 55 percent forest, including a large area of tropical rain forests. –The rain forests provide timber, rubber, palm oil, and Brazil nuts.
Section 1 Brazil has large amounts of bauxite, gold, and tin but limited oil and natural gas reserves. Its deposits of iron ore and manganese help support one of the worlds largest iron and steel industries. To reduce its dependence on oil imports, Brazil uses alcohol produced from sugarcane and gasoline to produce a fuel for cars called gasohol.gasohol A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
Section 1 Venezuela has the regions largest oil and natural gas reserves, and Mexico has large amounts of oil and natural gas along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Both countries use the supplies for their own energy needs as well as for exports. Bolivia and Ecuador also have valuable oil and natural gas deposits. A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
Section 1 Silver is mined in Mexico and Peru, and Venezuela has rich iron ore deposits. Colombian mines produce the worlds finest emeralds, while Chile is the worlds largest exporter of copper. A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
Section 1 The Caribbean islands generally have relatively few mineral resources, although Jamaica has large deposits of bauxite. Cuba mines nickel, and the Dominican Republic mines gold and silver. The Central American countries of Nicaragua and Guatemala have rich gold deposits, but political conflicts and transportation problems make mining these deposits difficult. A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 What is combined with gasoline to produce gasohol? A.Iron ore B.Alcohol from sugarcane C.Bauxite D.Alcohol from palm oil
Section 2-Main Idea The physical environment affects how people live.
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Do you know what the El Niño effect is? A.Yes B.No
Section 2 Two of Latin Americas concerns about climate change are related to agriculture and health. Because bananas must have temperatures around 80ºF (27ºC) and plenty of rainfall, a climate change could destroy this crop. And a warming climate change could increase the area of the hot, moist environment of the Anopheles mosquitothe carrier of the deadly disease malaria.
Section 2 Hot to Mild Climates Much of Latin America is located in the Tropics and has year-round high temperatures and heavy rainfall.
Section 2 Hot to Mild Climates (cont.) Most of Latin America lies within the Tropicsthe area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Tropics This area has generally warm temperatures because it receives the direct rays of the sun for much of the year. However, mountain ranges and wind patterns create a variety of climates in the region. Latin America: Climate Zones
Section 2 A tropical wet climate is found in some Caribbean islands and much of Central America and South America. –This climate is marked by year-round hot temperatures and heavy rainfall. –Vast areas of rain forest cover much of this climate zone. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.) Latin America: Climate Zones
Section 2 A rain forest is a dense stand of trees and other plants that receives high amounts of precipitation.rain forest –Warm temperatures and heavy rains facilitate the growth of rain forests. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.) Latin America: Climate Zones
Section 2 South Americas Amazon Basin is home to the worlds largest rain forest with more species of plants and animals per square mile than anywhere else on Earth. Trees there grow so close together that their tops form a dense canopy, an umbrella-like covering of leaves.canopy Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
Section 2 From June to November, hurricanes often strike the Caribbean islands. –The heavy winds and rain of these storms can cause considerable damage. –Still, many Caribbean islands have used their warm climate and beautiful beaches to build a strong tourist industry. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
Section 2 Temperate climates are found in the parts of South America that lie south of the Tropic of Capricorn. A humid subtropical climate dominates much of southeastern South America, from southern Brazil to the Pampas of Argentina and Uruguay. This means that winters are short and mild, and summers are long, hot, and humid. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
Section 2 Central Chile has a Mediterranean climate that features dry summers and rainy winters. –Farther south is a marine coastal climate zone. –In this area, rainfall is heavier and falls throughout the year. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
Section 2 Along the Pacific coast of northern Chile and in the rain shadow of the Andes lies the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth. Winds from the Atlantic Ocean bring rain to the regions east of the Andes, but they carry no moisture past them. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
Section 2 The cold Peru Current in the Pacific Ocean does not evaporate as much moisture as a warm current does. As a result, only dry air hits the coasts. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
Section 2 Weather in South America is strongly influenced by the El Niño effect. This is a set of changes in air pressure, temperature, and rainfall that begins in the Pacific Ocean. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
Section 2 When El Niño takes place, the Pacific waters off Perus coast are unusually warm. As a result, winds blowing toward land carry heavy rains that lead to severe flooding along Perus coast. El Niño can also bring a long dry season to northeastern Brazil, causing crop failures. Hot to Mild Climates (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 In what climate zone is most of Latin America located? A.Tropics B.Dry C.Temperate D.Desert
Section 2 Elevation and Climate In tropical Latin America, altitude causes great changes in climate and vegetation.
Section 2 Elevation and Climate (cont.) Mountains and highlands cover much of Latin America. –Altitude, a places height above sea level, affects climate in these rugged areas.Altitude Altitude Climate Zones
Section 2 Elevation and Climate (cont.) –Mountains and highlands cover much of Latin America. –The Andes, for example, have four altitude zones of climate. Altitude Climate Zones
Section 2 The tierra caliente, or hot land, refers to the hot and humid elevations near sea level. –The average temperature range is between 75ºF to 80ºF (24ºC to 27ºC). –There is little change from one month to another. Elevation and Climate (cont.) Altitude Climate Zones
Section 2 Higher up the mountainsfrom 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet (914 m to 1,829 m)the air becomes cooler. Abundant rainfall encourages the growth of forests. Elevation and Climate (cont.) Altitude Climate Zones
Section 2 This zone of moist, pleasant climates is called the tierra templada, or temperate land. The mild temperaturesbetween 65ºF and 75ºF (18ºC and 24ºC)make it the most densely populated of the climate zones. Elevation and Climate (cont.) Altitude Climate Zones
Section 2 The next zone is the tierra fria or cold land. It begins at 6,000 feet (1,829 m) and stretches up to 10,000 feet (3,048 m). –Average yearly temperatures here can be as low as 55ºF (13ºC). Elevation and Climate (cont.) Altitude Climate Zones
Section 2 –The tierra fria has forested and grassy areas. –Farming can take place in this zone in the warmer summers. Elevation and Climate (cont.) Altitude Climate Zones
Section 2 The tierra helada, or frozen land, is the zone of highest elevation. –It lies above 10,000 to 12,000 feet (3,048 m to 3,658 m). –Conditions here can be harsh. The climate is cold, and the temperature can be as low as 20ºF (–7ºC). –Relatively few people live at these heights. Elevation and Climate (cont.) Altitude Climate Zones
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 What is an important export crop in the tierra templada zone? A.Sugarcane B.Coffee C.Potatoes D.Barley
VS 1 Landforms Geographers divide Latin America into three subregionsMiddle America, the Caribbean, and South America. Middle America, which joins North America and South America, has central mountains and narrow coastal plains.
VS 1a Landforms Caribbean islands can be low-lying or mountainous. Many have volcanoes. The towering Andes and the vast Amazon Basin are South Americas major landforms. Highlands border the Amazon Basin. Lowland plains cross parts of Colombia, Venezuela, Uruguay, and Argentina.
VS 2 Waterways Latin Americas waterways provide food and transportation. The Panama Canal, a human-made waterway, links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Large reserves of oil are found near Venezuelas Lake Maracaibo.
VS 3 Resources of Latin America Venezuela, Mexico, and Bolivia export oil and natural gas. Mineral resources from Latin America include iron ore, copper, tin, silver, and emeralds. Political conflicts and transportation difficulties keep some countries from fully using their resources.
VS 4 Climate Regions Latin Americas tropical rain forest and savanna climates have warm temperatures. Rain forests, such as those in the Amazon Basin, have a great variety of plant and animal life. The El Niño effect brings heavy rain or drought to parts of South America. Climates tend to be drier and cooler at higher elevations, even within the Tropics.
DFS Trans 1
DFS Trans 2
Vocab1 subregion smaller area of a region
Vocab2 isthmus narrow stretch of land connecting two larger land areas
Vocab3 archipelago group of islands
Vocab4 escarpment steep cliff at the edge of a plateau with a lowland area below
Vocab5 Llanos tropical grasslands that stretch through eastern Colombia and Venezuela
Vocab6 Pampas treeless grassland of Argentina and Uruguay
Vocab7 tributary small river that flows into a larger river
Vocab8 estuary an area where river currents and ocean tide meet
Vocab9 gasohol human-made fuel produced from mixing gasoline and alcohol made from sugarcane
Vocab10 transport move
Vocab11 reside live
Vocab12 Tropics area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which has generally warm temperatures because it receives the direct rays of the sun for much of the year
Vocab13 rain forest dense stand of trees and other growth that receives high amounts of precipitation each year
Vocab14 canopy umbrella-like covering formed by the tops of trees in a rain forest
Vocab15 altitude height above sea level
Vocab16 facilitate make possible
Vocab17 considerable much
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