2 Section 1 -Creating the Modern Middle East Middle East also called Southwest AsiaA crossroads of trade, culture and most importantly religion3 monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and IslamHistory - 10th century Seljuk Turks ruled most of the Middle East, adopted Islam and ruled for 400 years until the Ottoman Turks took over.Central power in WWI
3 More on history After loss of WWI allies divide up the Ottoman Empire Britain and France gain control of much of the Middle EastPeace Conference - Turkey and Saudi Arabia - independentFrance took Syria and LebanonBritain took Palestine, Jordan and Iraq as mandatesMandate - land to be governed by outside power until ready for independence
4 Arabs and JewsBy the 40’s - Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon were independent2 groups claimed Palestine - Arabs and JewsMore Arabs than JewsZionists - Jews returning to the “Holy Land”Belfour declaration (1917) - Britain supported creation of a Jewish state
5 Palestine cont.Arabs are very upset at the Declaration - 70% of the populationSelf - determination - thought they could decide their own fate in PalestineViolence broke out, Britain started to limit the # of Jews enteringafter the Holocaust, Jews wanted to come home to Jewish homelandBritain turned the problem over to the U.N.
6 U.N. solutionU.N. recommends Palestine be divided into 2 parts - Jewish and Arab stateJerusalem would be an international city - open to allJews accept it; Arabs upset - gave more and the best land to JewsDavid Ben - Gurion - leader of Palestinian Jews announced the creation of Israel in 1948WAR began - Israel wins and Arabs lose their areaJordan and Egypt took the remaining Palestinian area - no land for Palestinian Arabs
8 Chapter 23 - section 2 Israel Monotheism - belief in one God1. Judaism - Hebrews5 Holy Books - TorahEstablished the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel B.C.Jerusalem - religious center2. Christianity - Region of Palestine - BibleTeachings of Jesus - JewCrucified in Jerusalem - holy city3. Islam -Arabia - followers of Mohammad - Koran622 - year one of the Islamic colanderShiite - Ali (son in law) next prophetSunni - believe Muhammad never named a prophet
9 Islam 5 Pillars of Islamic faith Muhammad - prophet, born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia1. Hajj - journey to Mecca2. Ramadan - holy month3. Alms to the poor4. Creed (pledge faith to Allah)5. Pray - 5 times a dayMosque - Islamic place of worshipMuezzin - calls them to worshipMinaret - ladder to climb to the top of the Mosque
10 More on the conflict in Middle East British leave PalestineWar - after which 900,000 Palestinians become refugeesPLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) recognized by Arab League and the U.N. -- Yasser Arafat was the leader until his death in today Muhammad Abbas is the leaderMany wars between Arabs and Jews
11 Timeline of Conflict 1947 - Divide Palestine British gone, Arabs declare war, lost the war,lost land, lost homesArabs attack again (6 days war) - Israel takes control of Gaza Strip and West Bank million Palestinians live in that areaCamp David Accords - Israel allows autonomy in the Arab regionsIsrael attacks camps in Lebanon1993- Yitzhak Rabin wins the Nobel Peace Prize for working with Palestinians (Yasser Arafat)Rabin is assassinated by a Jewish extremist
12 More on Israel West Bank- 2,270 Square miles Gaza Strip - 25 miles long , 7 miles wide1 in 10 travel to Israel to work but are not allowed to stay overnightGolan Heights - Israel controlled, former part of SyriaJerusalem - disputed capital of Israel, Tel Aviv is the capital to the U.N.Ariel Sharon - former Prime Minister of Israel - he didn’t work well with ArafatEhud Olmert - Prime Minister today
14 Section 3 - Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq Fertile crescent - area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates river to the Med. Sea - rich soil and earliest civilizationJordan - AmmanDry, rocky desert - gained West Bank in 1948 war, lost it again in 1967 warWars have increased the Palestinian population in JordanKing Hussein began political reformKing Abdullah (his son) - leader, modernized the country
15 LebanonCapital - Beirut - sometimes referred to the Paris of the Middle EastMost Christian of the Middle EastCivil war and over religion (Muslim and Christian) and power in the Gov.PLO bases in Lebanon were used to attack Israel (Jews)Israel in return invaded (1982), they were able to get to Beirut1983 U.N. peace keeping force came in, Marine killed U.S. withdrew and chaosChristians v Muslim militias (citizen army)Lebanon in anarchy - lawlessness until the 90’s more peaceful now.
16 Syria Capital - Damascus E. end of Mediterranean sea - access to 3 continentsGood farmland and improving methodsWater is a major concern and up river damming by Turkey adds to the problemConnections with terrorist cellsPres. Bashar Assad - some political and economic reform
17 Iraq Capital - Baghdad Good farming between rivers Rich in oil but until recently the Gov. controlled ALL revenue earned1980’s war with Iran - cease fire in 19881990 Iraq invaded Kuwait and took border oil , 1991 Persian Gulf War (Desert Storm) coalition forces liberated KuwaitHussein is sanctioned by the U.N. but breaks peace termsEconomic embargo on oil
18 Iraq cont.Operation Iraqi freedom - U.S. announces the UN sanctions that Saddam has broken and the WMD that existU.S. invades and captures Saddam Hussein - he is hung for crimes against humanity in Iraq, new Gov. is taking hold - slowlyNew President (2005) - Jalal TalabaniKurds - ethnic group living in Northern Iraq - heavily persecuted by Hussein - many fled the country
19 Sect. 4 - Arabian Peninsula Surrounded by several bodies of waterContains Rub’ al-khali (empty quarter) - desert; least water; most known oil reservesOil discovered in the 1930’s - much wealth, changes way of life for peopleDesalination - used for drinking and irrigationOPEC - oil producing and exporting countries - decide how much oil should be available and price - industries important -oil won’t last forever
20 Saudi Arabia Cap. Riyadh Used oil revenue for infrastructure needs trillion barrels of oil reservesGov. - absolute monarchy (King Abdullah)Used irrigation and desalination -to improve ag.Modernized cautiously - women still have limited opportunitiesMecca and Medina - sacred citiesHajj - pilgrimage
21 Yemen and Oman Yemen - poorest and newest country in Arabian peninsula Port of Aden - economically importantAg. And herdingOman -- desert - falaj system - system of underwater canals to irrigate
22 Section 5 - Turkey, Iran and Cyprus Turkey - Muslim but not Arab -custom and language is Turkishon Anatolian PeninsulaLost a land after WWIMestafa Kemal - Turkish soldier , wanted independence for Turkey- he also removed Islamic law and placed it under European system - secular Gov. not based on religion-known as “Ataturk” - father of the TurksLarge Kurd population
23 Iran Capital - Tehran Persians arrived 3,000 years ago Persia part of the Islamic empirePersian culture - Farsi - language of ancestors1921 -Reza Khan seized power - declared himself Shah - rulerOpened schools, rr, industryMohammad Reza Pahlavi - took over during WWII - modernized more, women could voteAyatollahs - religious leaders, thought Iran should be governed in obedience to Islamic law
24 Islamic revolution in Iran and Cyprus people of Iran revolted against the Shah (unequal wealth)Ayatollah Khomeini - new leaderWanted Western culture outShiite branch of Islam - war with Iraq for 8 years (Sunni)Khomeini died in still conflictCYPRUS - island country in the Med.4/5 Greek (Orthodox Christian) and 1/5 Turkish - Islamic Some wanted to join Greece, Turkey sent troops to prevent this - still claims a northern piece of island
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