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Chapter 23 Southwest Asia. Section 1 -Creating the Modern Middle East Middle East also called Southwest Asia A crossroads of trade, culture and most importantly.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Southwest Asia. Section 1 -Creating the Modern Middle East Middle East also called Southwest Asia A crossroads of trade, culture and most importantly."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 Southwest Asia

2 Section 1 -Creating the Modern Middle East Middle East also called Southwest Asia A crossroads of trade, culture and most importantly religion 3 monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam History - 10th century Seljuk Turks ruled most of the Middle East, adopted Islam and ruled for 400 years until the Ottoman Turks took over. Central power in WWI

3 More on history After loss of WWI allies divide up the Ottoman Empire Britain and France gain control of much of the Middle East Peace Conference - Turkey and Saudi Arabia - independent France took Syria and Lebanon Britain took Palestine, Jordan and Iraq as mandates Mandate - land to be governed by outside power until ready for independence

4 Arabs and Jews By the 40s - Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon were independent 2 groups claimed Palestine - Arabs and Jews More Arabs than Jews Zionists - Jews returning to the Holy Land Belfour declaration (1917) - Britain supported creation of a Jewish state

5 Palestine cont. Arabs are very upset at the Declaration - 70% of the population Self - determination - thought they could decide their own fate in Palestine Violence broke out, Britain started to limit the # of Jews entering after the Holocaust, Jews wanted to come home to Jewish homeland Britain turned the problem over to the U.N.

6 U.N. solution U.N. recommends Palestine be divided into 2 parts - Jewish and Arab state Jerusalem would be an international city - open to all Jews accept it; Arabs upset - gave more and the best land to Jews David Ben - Gurion - leader of Palestinian Jews announced the creation of Israel in 1948 WAR began - Israel wins and Arabs lose their area Jordan and Egypt took the remaining Palestinian area - no land for Palestinian Arabs


8 Chapter 23 - section 2 Israel Monotheism - belief in one God 1. Judaism - Hebrews 5 Holy Books - Torah Established the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel B.C. Jerusalem - religious center 2. Christianity - Region of Palestine - Bible Teachings of Jesus - Jew Crucified in Jerusalem - holy city 3. Islam -Arabia - followers of Mohammad - Koran year one of the Islamic colander Shiite - Ali (son in law) next prophet Sunni - believe Muhammad never named a prophet

9 Islam 5 Pillars of Islamic faith Muhammad - prophet, born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia 1. Hajj - journey to Mecca 2. Ramadan - holy month 3. Alms to the poor 4. Creed (pledge faith to Allah) 5. Pray - 5 times a day Mosque - Islamic place of worship Muezzin - calls them to worship Minaret - ladder to climb to the top of the Mosque

10 More on the conflict in Middle East British leave Palestine War - after which 900,000 Palestinians become refugees PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) recognized by Arab League and the U.N. -- Yasser Arafat was the leader until his death in today Muhammad Abbas is the leader Many wars between Arabs and Jews

11 Timeline of Conflict Divide Palestine British gone, Arabs declare war, lost the war,lost land, lost homes Arabs attack again (6 days war) - Israel takes control of Gaza Strip and West Bank million Palestinians live in that area Camp David Accords - Israel allows autonomy in the Arab regions Israel attacks camps in Lebanon Yitzhak Rabin wins the Nobel Peace Prize for working with Palestinians (Yasser Arafat) Rabin is assassinated by a Jewish extremist

12 More on Israel West Bank- 2,270 Square miles Gaza Strip - 25 miles long, 7 miles wide 1 in 10 travel to Israel to work but are not allowed to stay overnight Golan Heights - Israel controlled, former part of Syria Jerusalem - disputed capital of Israel, Tel Aviv is the capital to the U.N. Ariel Sharon - former Prime Minister of Israel - he didnt work well with Arafat Ehud Olmert - Prime Minister today

13 Visuals of Israel

14 Section 3 - Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq Fertile crescent - area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates river to the Med. Sea - rich soil and earliest civilization Jordan - Amman Dry, rocky desert - gained West Bank in 1948 war, lost it again in 1967 war Wars have increased the Palestinian population in Jordan King Hussein began political reform King Abdullah (his son) - leader, modernized the country

15 Lebanon Capital - Beirut - sometimes referred to the Paris of the Middle East Most Christian of the Middle East Civil war and over religion (Muslim and Christian) and power in the Gov. PLO bases in Lebanon were used to attack Israel (Jews) Israel in return invaded (1982), they were able to get to Beirut 1983 U.N. peace keeping force came in, Marine killed U.S. withdrew and chaos Christians v Muslim militias (citizen army) Lebanon in anarchy - lawlessness until the 90s more peaceful now.

16 Syria Capital - Damascus E. end of Mediterranean sea - access to 3 continents Good farmland and improving methods Water is a major concern and up river damming by Turkey adds to the problem Connections with terrorist cells Pres. Bashar Assad - some political and economic reform

17 Iraq Capital - Baghdad Good farming between rivers Rich in oil but until recently the Gov. controlled ALL revenue earned 1980s war with Iran - cease fire in Iraq invaded Kuwait and took border oil, 1991 Persian Gulf War (Desert Storm) coalition forces liberated Kuwait Hussein is sanctioned by the U.N. but breaks peace terms Economic embargo on oil

18 Iraq cont. Operation Iraqi freedom - U.S. announces the UN sanctions that Saddam has broken and the WMD that exist U.S. invades and captures Saddam Hussein - he is hung for crimes against humanity in Iraq, new Gov. is taking hold - slowly New President (2005) - Jalal Talabani Kurds - ethnic group living in Northern Iraq - heavily persecuted by Hussein - many fled the country

19 Sect. 4 - Arabian Peninsula Surrounded by several bodies of water Contains Rub al-khali (empty quarter) - desert; least water; most known oil reserves Oil discovered in the 1930s - much wealth, changes way of life for people Desalination - used for drinking and irrigation OPEC - oil producing and exporting countries - decide how much oil should be available and price - industries important - oil wont last forever

20 Saudi Arabia Cap. Riyadh Used oil revenue for infrastructure needs trillion barrels of oil reserves Gov. - absolute monarchy (King Abdullah) Used irrigation and desalination -to improve ag. Modernized cautiously - women still have limited opportunities Mecca and Medina - sacred cities Hajj - pilgrimage

21 Yemen and Oman Yemen - poorest and newest country in Arabian peninsula Port of Aden - economically important Ag. And herding Oman -- desert - falaj system - system of underwater canals to irrigate

22 Section 5 - Turkey, Iran and Cyprus Turkey - Muslim but not Arab -custom and language is Turkish on Anatolian Peninsula Lost a land after WWI Mestafa Kemal - Turkish soldier, wanted independence for Turkey - he also removed Islamic law and placed it under European system - secular Gov. not based on religion -known as Ataturk - father of the Turks Large Kurd population

23 Iran Capital - Tehran Persians arrived 3,000 years ago Persia part of the Islamic empire Persian culture - Farsi - language of ancestors Reza Khan seized power - declared himself Shah - ruler Opened schools, rr, industry Mohammad Reza Pahlavi - took over during WWII - modernized more, women could vote Ayatollahs - religious leaders, thought Iran should be governed in obedience to Islamic law

24 Islamic revolution in Iran and Cyprus people of Iran revolted against the Shah (unequal wealth) Ayatollah Khomeini - new leader Wanted Western culture out Shiite branch of Islam - war with Iraq for 8 years (Sunni) Khomeini died in still conflict CYPRUS - island country in the Med. 4/5 Greek (Orthodox Christian) and 1/5 Turkish - Islamic Some wanted to join Greece, Turkey sent troops to prevent this - still claims a northern piece of island


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