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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Chapter 24. The Movement Begins.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Chapter 24. The Movement Begins."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Movement Begins

3 Section 1 Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling that established Separate but Equal - which meant segregation was legal as long as facilities were equal Jim Crow Laws - set of unwritten rules that kept blacks and whites separate De Facto segregation - segregation by custom and tradition NAACP (1909) - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

4 Court Cases Norris v. Alabama (1935) - not allowing blacks on a jury was unconstitutional Morgan v. Virginia (1946) - segregation on buses was illegal Sweat v. Painter (1950) - schools had to admit blacks if there wasnt a black school

5 Sect. 1 cont. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - began using sit-ins as a form of protest (1943) Thurgood Marshall - African American lawyer and director of legal defense for the NAACP --eventual Supreme Court Justice Opposition in Congress - Southern manifesto (101 members) -denounced segregation Southern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to vote

6 Sect.1 Rosa Parks - mother of the civil rights movement refused to give up her seat Montgomery, Alabama Sparked the bus boycott that lasted a year Martin Luther King, JR year old Baptist Minister Preached non-violent, passive resistance

7 End of Sect. 1 SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to vote Little Rock 9 President - Eisenhower Gov. of Arkansas - Orval Faubas Central High School had to allow 9 blacks into their school Faubus refuses, calls out the national guard to stop them Eisenhower orders Federal troops to protect students Civil Rights Act of protect rights of blacks to vote

8 Section 2 Sit - ins - college students involved in non-violent protest (cafes) Jesse Jackson - student leader at N.C. Ella Baker - Ex. Dir. Of the SCLC (for students) Student non-violent coordinating Commission (SNCC) - organized blacks and some white college students Marion Barry - 1st chairperson, served later as Mayor of Washington D.C.

9 Sect. 2 cont. Fannie Lou Hammer - arrested for helping blacks vote Freedom riders - CORE members rode segregated buses in the deep south JFK - appointed 40 African Americans to high level positions Committee on Equal Opportunity Employment - stop Fed. Gov. from discriminating while hiring

10 Sect. 2 continued James Meredith - Air Force Vet. That applied to the U. of Mississippi Gov. Ross Barnett blocked his entrance, JFK had to send troops to make sure he got in MLK started to protest in Alabama, he was arrested and wrote a letter while in jail to explain why people had the right to protest Civil Rights Act of rights for African Americans, Gov. had the power to prevent discrimination

11 Sect. 2 cont. Filibuster - refusal to stop debate so the representatives can vote Cloture - motion to cut off debate March on Washington - 200,000 people listened to speeches in front of Lincoln Memorial MLK - I Have a Dream

12 Last of Sect. 2 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission - Fed. Agency to monitor discrimination Voting Rights - some places would charge a poll tax - fees to vote March on Selma, Alabama - marched to vote and they were met at the bridge and beaten Successful after protection from the Gov. Voting Rights Act of passed by LBJ Allowed Fed. Examiners to help people to vote

13 Section % of blacks lived in cities, 1/2 lived in poverty, income was 1/2 that of whites Watts Riots - In a black neighborhood in L.A., alleged police brutality led to a riot -$30 million in damage, 34 people killed riot in Detroit, 43 dead

14 Sect. 3 cont. Kerner Commission advisory board on civil disorder, blamed white racism, needed to create jobs in inner cities Chicago movement - Dr. King and wife moved into slum area Richard Daley - mayor of Chicago, protected King and others marching in all white neighborhoods

15 Sect. 3 cont. Black Power - more radical civil rights, often violence Stokeley Carmichael - leader of the SNCC in 1966, blacks can control their own destiny Cultural assimilation - adapting to majorities culture Malcolm X - part of the black power movement, member of Nation of Islam - Elijah Muhummad leader, preached separation Malcolm broke away from the NOI and was killed by 3 members, Feb. 1965

16 Last of Sect. 3 Black Panthers - wanted a revolution of blacks vs. whites (separation by force if needed) Eldridge Cleaver - wrote Souls on Ice MLK Jr. killed in 1968 by James Earl Ray James Abernathy took over the fight Civil Rights Act of added a part for equal housing

17 Review for Ch. 24 Things to study: Court cases - Norris v. Alabama - couldnt exclude blacks on juries Sweatt v. Painter - had to admit black applicants to law school Brown v. Board of Ed. - couldnt segregate schools, basically overturned Plessy v. Ferguson Morgan v. Virginia- segregation on buses was unconstitutional N. Carolina - sit-in (Woolworths), Tennessee (assassination of MLK), Arkansas (state v. fed gov in Little Rock 9), Alabama (bus boycott) Black power - self defense, violence if necessary, control the social and economic direction of blacks, pride and race distinctiveness MLK - passive non-violence EVER

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