3 Section 1Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling that established “Separate but Equal” - which meant segregation was legal as long as facilities were equal“Jim Crow Laws” - set of unwritten rules that kept blacks and whites separateDe Facto segregation - segregation by custom and traditionNAACP (1909) - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
4 Court CasesNorris v. Alabama (1935) - not allowing blacks on a jury was unconstitutionalMorgan v. Virginia (1946) - segregation on buses was illegalSweat v. Painter (1950) - schools had to admit blacks if there wasn’t a black school
5 Sect. 1 cont.Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - began using sit-ins as a form of protest (1943)Thurgood Marshall - African American lawyer and director of legal defense for the NAACP--eventual Supreme Court JusticeOpposition in Congress -Southern manifesto (101 members) -denounced segregationSouthern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to vote
6 Sect.1Rosa Parks - mother of the civil rights movement refused to give up her seatMontgomery, AlabamaSparked the bus boycott that lasted a yearMartin Luther King, JR year old Baptist MinisterPreached non-violent, passive resistance
7 End of Sect. 1SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to voteLittle Rock 9President - EisenhowerGov. of Arkansas - Orval FaubasCentral High School had to allow 9 blacks into their schoolFaubus refuses, calls out the national guard to stop themEisenhower orders Federal troops to protect studentsCivil Rights Act of protect rights of blacks to vote
8 Section 2Sit - ins - college students involved in non-violent protest (cafes)Jesse Jackson - student leader at N.C.Ella Baker - Ex. Dir. Of the SCLC (for students)Student non-violent coordinating Commission (SNCC) - organized blacks and some white college studentsMarion Barry - 1st chairperson, served later as Mayor of Washington D.C.
9 Sect. 2 cont. Fannie Lou Hammer - arrested for helping blacks vote Freedom riders - CORE members rode segregated buses in the deep southJFK - appointed 40 African Americans to high level positionsCommittee on Equal Opportunity Employment - stop Fed. Gov. from discriminating while hiring
10 Sect. 2 continuedJames Meredith - Air Force Vet. That applied to the U. of MississippiGov. Ross Barnett blocked his entrance, JFK had to send troops to make sure he got inMLK started to protest in Alabama , he was arrested and wrote a letter while in jail to explain why people had the right to protestCivil Rights Act of rights for African Americans, Gov. had the power to prevent discrimination
11 Sect. 2 cont.Filibuster - refusal to stop debate so the representatives can voteCloture - motion to cut off debateMarch on Washington - 200,000 people listened to speeches in front of Lincoln MemorialMLK - “I Have a Dream”
12 Last of Sect. 2Equal Employment Opportunity Commission - Fed. Agency to monitor discriminationVoting Rights - some places would charge a poll tax - fees to voteMarch on Selma, Alabama - marched to vote and they were met at the bridge and beatenSuccessful after protection from the Gov.Voting Rights Act of passed by LBJAllowed Fed. Examiners to help people to vote
13 Section 3% of blacks lived in cities, 1/2 lived in poverty, income was 1/2 that of whitesWatts Riots - In a black neighborhood in L.A., alleged police brutality led to a riot-$30 million in damage, 34 people killedriot in Detroit , 43 dead
14 Sect. 3 cont.Kerner Commission advisory board on civil disorder, blamed white racism, needed to create jobs in inner citiesChicago movement - Dr. King and wife moved into slum areaRichard Daley - mayor of Chicago, protected King and others marching in all white neighborhoods
15 Sect. 3 cont. Black Power - more radical civil rights , often violence Stokeley Carmichael - leader of the SNCC in 1966, blacks can control their own destinyCultural assimilation - adapting to majorities cultureMalcolm X - part of the black power movement, member of Nation of Islam - Elijah Muhummad leader, preached separationMalcolm broke away from the NOI and was killed by 3 members, Feb. 1965
16 Last of Sect. 3Black Panthers - wanted a revolution of blacks vs. whites (separation by force if needed)Eldridge Cleaver - wrote “Souls on Ice”MLK Jr. killed in 1968 by James Earl RayJames Abernathy took over the fightCivil Rights Act of added a part for equal housing
17 Review for Ch. 24 MLK - passive non-violence EVER Things to study: Court cases - Norris v. Alabama - couldn’t exclude blacks on juriesSweatt v. Painter - had to admit black applicants to law schoolBrown v. Board of Ed. - couldn’t segregate schools, basically overturned Plessy v. FergusonMorgan v. Virginia- segregation on buses was unconstitutionalN. Carolina - sit-in (Woolworths), Tennessee (assassination of MLK), Arkansas (state v. fed gov in Little Rock 9), Alabama (bus boycott)Black power - self defense, violence if necessary, control the social and economic direction of blacks, pride and race distinctivenessMLK - passive non-violence EVER
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