Presentation on theme: "Longwood High School Virtual Zoo Chief Caretaker - Mr. E. Heinrichs."— Presentation transcript:
1Longwood High SchoolVirtual ZooChief Caretaker - Mr. E. Heinrichs
2Learn all you can then visit the quiz house to test your knowledge. To successfully visit the Virtual Zoo just click on the location you wish to explore.Learn all you can then visit the quiz house to test your knowledge.Think you knowmore than me?
3LHS Virtual Zoo Welcome Fish Arthropods Coelenterates Reptiles AmphibiansMammalsAviaryCommissaryAnnelidsRound WormsSpongeLHS Virtual ZooWelcomeEchinodermFlatwormsQuiz House
4Coelenterates Check this out ! Included: Hydra, Jellyfish, Coral, Sea AnemonesCheck this out !
5Coelenterates have a simple digestive system called the gastrovascular cavity. They are made up of three main body layers1. epidermis: outer body2. gastroderm: inner surface of the gastrovascular cavity3. mesoglea: jelly-like material found between layersCoelenterates feed on small animals captured with their nemotocysts, (Stinging Cells) which are located on the tentacle.Coelenterates lack muscles to help them move about.Most Coelenterates expand and contract the epidermis cells in the tentacles in order to help them move about.Coelenterates can reproduce both sexually and asexually. .Coelenterates have radial symmetry.
6Coelenterates - Eating Nematocysts are poison filled sacs on a spring. When they are touched, it darts off, explodes and buries itself into the skin of the animal. The dart paralyzes the prey so the cnidarian can attack. It uses it's tentacles to shove the prey into it's mouth. Most of the food is digested, but some waste is released back out the mouth. Coelenterates contain a very simple nervous system called a nerve net that is concentrated around the mouth.Back to the Map!
15Click on the photo to go there! MapAmphibiansInclude: Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts.General Characteristics:Ectothermic – Cold-BloodedReproduction and development must take place in waterThin skin that contains mucus-secreting glandsTwo pair of limbs for walking, jumping and swimmingOne pair nostrils connected to the Oral cavityThree chambered heart (Two Atria – One Ventricle)Metamorphosis during development from juvenile toadult formClick on the photo to go there!
16Salamanders and Newts Have Tails even as adults Long bodies and tails with four short limbsFeed on fish, snails, insects, worms andother salamandersSome are entirely aquatic which never losetheir juvenile gillsOthers live on land in moist regions breathingwith lungs
17Salamanders and Newts We are really the same thing as a salamander! Have Tails even as adultsLong bodies and tails with four short limbsFeed on fish, snails, insects, worms andother salamandersSome are entirely aquatic which never losetheir juvenile gillsOthers live on land in moist regions breathingwith lungsWe are reallythe same thingas a salamander!
18Toads Adults have short squat bodies No tailsAdults have short squat bodiesStrong hind legs well suited for jumpingDry, rough, warty skinCan survive away from waterBurrow in daytime to avoid sunHibernate during the winter undergroundFeed on insects and worms
19FrogsNo tailsAdults have short squat bodiesStrong hind legs well suited for jumpingThin, moist skin that is loosely attached to their bodyLive near waterHibernate during the winter in mud at the bottom ofwater bodyFeed on insects and wormsLarval form called a tadpoleClick for moreabout FrogsSounds
20What about Reproduction! Frogs and toads protect themselves by;1. Camouflage2. Jumping ability3. Diving underwater or out onto land4. Unpleasant taste or poisonproduced by glands in the skinWhat about Reproduction!Click me!
21Reproduction of the frog Frogs mate externally releasing millions of eggs and sperm into the water. The male will grasp the female with its front legs helping her squeeze her eggs out and ensuring his sperm have a better chance of fertilization. After 6 – 9 days eggs hatch into tadpoles. Tadpoles have no legs or lungs. They breathe with gills and swim with tails. Tadpoles have a two-chambered heart. Metamorphosis ranges between three months to several years. During this time the tadpole reabsorbs the tail, grows legs and develops lungs.
23General Characteristics: Ectothermic – Cold-BloodedLive on land (some aquatic)Internal Fertilization & external development - Lay eggsThick leathery eggshell protects eggNo metamorphosis during lifecycleDry scaly skin – protects against desiccationTwo pair of legs (*except snakes)Five clawed toes per foot*Circulation – three chambered heart(two Atria – one partially separated Ventricle)Partial separation restricts mixing of oxygenated & deoxygenated blood to body cells. Crocodiles and alligators have four chambered hearts.Excretion – Nitrogenous waste is excreted as Uric Acid makingthe urine a semisolid paste. This adaptation helpsconserve water.
24Snakes No legs, or ear openings Immovable eyelids Different size scalesFound in all biomesFeed on many small animalsForked tongue contains odor-sensing organsthat pick up scents and deliver them to theJacobson’s organs in the roof of the mouthDeaf to airborne sounds but feel ground vibrationsPit Vipers have heat-detecting organs betweennostrils and eyes
25Click on photo for fullscreen Eating – Some snakes swallow their prey alive while others kill it before swallowing. Large snakes such as pythons and Boas crush their prey or suffocate it using their body coils before swallowing. Poisonous snakes have specialized teeth called fangs that are connected to their salivary glands where poison or venom is made. Venom is pumped into bite through hollow or grooved fang.Neurotoxin – attacks nervous system, paralyzing victimHemotoxin – attack RBC and other blood vesselsSnakes can swallow prey many times larger than their mouth by dislocating their jaw. Teeth are angled backwards to prevent food from escaping. Ribs expand because they are only attached on one side. Windpipe is projected forward so the snake can breathe throughout the long swallowing process. After a large meal a snake can go weeks or even months without feeding.Click on photo for fullscreen
27That’s a Gazelle this African Rock Python is eating!
28Website may take time to load. Crocodiles & AlligatorsLargest living reptilesLocated in Tropical wetlandsAlligator – Fresh Water onlyCrocodile – Both Salt & FreshStrong muscular tails used for swimmingLong snout with powerful jawsTeeth are arranged differentlyAlligator – Teeth enclosedBroad snoutLess aggressiveCrocodile –Teeth exposed Pointed snout More aggressiveFeed on animals captured by ambushWebsite may take time to load.
29Turtles Found on land, marine and fresh water Body enclosed in protective shellCarapace (top)Plastron (bottom)Feed on plants and small animalsNo teeth – tear food with a hard, sharp beakInternal Fertilization & External Development(Lay eggs on land)
30Lizards Four legs with claws Uniform Scales Movable eyelids External ear openingsLive in all biomesFeed on varied food(Insects, small animals, eggs, plants, etc…)Defenses vary but include;removable tails, coloration, poison
31Fish – There are Four Classes of fish Jawless Fish make up two individual classes that are the most primitive vertebrates.Cartilage Fish - Sharks and RaysBony Fish - Bluefish, Flounder
32LampreysNo true jaw.Long snake-like bodies with smooth scales on skin.Two single dorsal fins and one tailfin.Skeleton composed of cartilage.External fertilization and development.Found in fresh and salt water.Most are parasites, attaching to the side of larger fish with suction cup mouth and gnawing a hole into the side to drink blood and body fluids.Mate in fresh water streams where they remain for 3 to 7 years.Adults only live one or two years.See Lamprey’s feed
34Hagfish Long snake-like bodies with smooth scales on skin. Two single dorsal fins and one tail fin.No true jaw.Skeleton composed of cartilage.External fertilization and development.Found only in salt water.Feed on dead animals at the bottom of the ocean.Skin gland produce large quantities ofslime when threatened.
35Cartilaginous Fish Include: sharks, rays and skates Skeleton completely made of cartilage.Movable upper and lower jaws with sharp teeth.Two chambered hearts.Feed on a variety of food.
36Cartilaginous Fish - Skates and Rays Flattened wing like bodies with whip-like tailsLive on ocean floorFeed on worms, mollusks and crustaceansDefense includes; poison stingers,electric charges
37Sharks Streamlined fish that move with their tails Swimming forces water over gills and out fiveor seven pairs of gill slits. If a shark stops moving it will die due to lack of oxygen.Internal Fertilization and both internal and external developmentWell-developed sense of smell and vibrationMost Feed on fish and some feed on PlanktonSkin covered with placoid scales (tough, tooth- like scales)
38Bony Fish Largest class of vertebrates. Skeleton made of bone. Paired fins.Protective, overlapping scales.Body form varies from the eel to the Seahorse with most following the streamlined body construction as in the Perch.Fins made of bone and cartilage connected with skin webbing.Fins aid maintaining balance and movement.
39Defense includes; sharp spines, inflation, flying, Bony Fish (Cont.)Gills provide oxygen but unlike sharks fish can draw waterover gills.Two Chambered heart (One Atria & One Ventricle)Swim Bladder helps fish maintain buoyancyFertilization and development are externalDefense includes; sharp spines, inflation, flying,strong electric charge, poison, etc
40Sponge Simplest of all animals Contain many pores through which water flows continuouslyAll sponges are aquaticAdults are sessile (don’t move)Larvae are free swimmingSize and shape vary widelyMany different colorsClick me
41You’re a good Sport and Hopefully your learning a thing or two!
42Three layer body composition Outer layer composed of thin epidermal cellsMiddle layer filled with gel and amebocytes(Wandering cells)Amebocytes secrete spicules whichprovide supportInner layer contains collar cells and have aflagellum for food gatheringThe beating of the collar cells and their flagellumcreate a current drawing water through spongeand out the Osculum (top)Respiration is by diffusionReproduction either asexual (budding) or sexual(gametes)
43I am NOT a Fish! Echinoderms (Spiny Skinned Animals) Includes; MoreEchinoderms (Spiny Skinned Animals)Includes;Starfish, Sea Cucumbers and Sand DollarsI am NOT a Fish!
44All Marine living on the ocean floor Larva have Bilateral Symmetry Adults have Radial Symmetry (demonstration)Internal skeleton which provides support and protectionSkeleton composed of hard calcified plates embedded in the body wallSpiny projections stick out the body wallClick
45Sea Star OUCH !! That’s Better Regeneration Click Most have five arms radiating from a central disk(can have as many as 20)Respiration is conducted by diffusion across the skin gillsFertilization and development are externalSea Stars can regenerate lost body partsOUCH !!That’s BetterRegenerationClick
46Feed on clams and oysters, prying the prey open using its tube feet Feed on clams and oysters, prying the prey open using its tube feet. It then inserts stomach through opening. Enzymes are secreted partially digesting the prey which is reabsorbed by the stomach and fully digested in the arms of the sea star.Move utilizing a water-vascular systemDorsal surface has a Sieve plate into which sea water enters traveling through a series of canals to the tube feet on each radial arm. If water is pumped out of the tube feet the sea star creates a suction within the cup and can grasp the object. If water is pumped into the tube feet the sea star releases its suction and therefore lets go.
48Planarian Live in fresh water Gray, brown or black in color Triangular head with eyespots(detect light intensity)When eating pharynx is projected out the mouth and sucks small bits of food inExcretion occurs through the oral cavityNo skeletal, respiratory or circulatorysystems (Diffusion)Hermaphroditic with no self-fertilizationInternal fertilization and externaldevelopment
49FlukesParasiticBody covered with thick cuticle, which protects it from host’s Immune System.Suckers help it attach to host intestinal blood vesselsEat pre-digested foodReproduction1. Eggs laid in and removed by host excretory system2. Eggs hatch into free swimming larvae in water3. Larvae enter snails and reproduce asexually4. New organisms leave snail and infect water sources5. Flukes bore into host through skinCause; loss of blood, diarrhea, severe pain
50Tapeworm Parasitic Long ribbon-like body form Four to nine meters in lengthContain excretory, nervous and highly developed reproductivesystemsLack mouths and digestive systemsScolex (head) contain hooks and/or suckers to hold themselvesin the intestinal tract of hostDigested food diffuse into tapeworm’s bodyReproduction
51Reproduction 1. Beneath head is a region of reproduction which makes more segments2. Hermaphroditic and can self fertilize3. End sections filled with 100,000 fertilized eggs break offand are removed through host excretory system4. If contaminated food is eaten by cattle or pigs, larvaeembed themselves in the muscle fibers forming adormant capsule5. Humans eat undercooked, contaminated meat releasingthe tapewormCauses; nutrient deprivation, blockage of intestinal tract
53Try Me Segmented Worms Body composed of a series of segments Found in marine, fresh water or landNervous system – concentrated at anterior endCerebral ganglia (primitive brain)Turns into ventral nerve cord passing posteriorlyDigestive system – straight, tubular, muscular canal which can function independently from body wall. Coelom (Fluid filled cavity) separate alimentary canal from body wall.Try MeThink you remember the internal structures?
54Clam Worm (Sand Worm)– Live in intertidal zone Feeds at night - burrows during the dayEats by extending pharynx out mouth exposing jaws that grasp foodFertilization and development external
55Ouch! Leech Freshwater parasite Segmentation difficult to see Attach to host using anterior and posterior suckersAnterior sucker contains mouth and jaws which cut host skinEnzymes prevent blood clotting as leech sucks up bloodFertilization is internal in hermaphroditic leechesDevelopment is externalOuch!
56Earthworm Quiz Answers Word Bank Crop Gizzard Pharynx Esophagus Seminal VesiclesSeminal ReceptaclesIntestineDorsal Blood vesselAortic ArchNephridiaNerve CordAnswers
57Earthworm Quiz Answers Word Bank Crop………………... F Gizzard……………... G Pharynx……………..AEsophagus…………. BSeminal Vesicles….. CSeminal Receptacles.. DIntestine…….……… HDorsal Blood vessel... IAortic Arch………….ENephridia…………... KNerve Cord………….J
58Arthropods Most Biologically successful group of animals There are more species of Arthropods than allother organisms put together!All have bilateral symmetryAll have jointed legsAll have exoskeleton (made of protein and Chitin)Must molt to growSegmented into Head, Thorax and AbdomenWell-developed nervous system including; sense organs(eyes, antennae, hearing)Open circulatory systemDivided into Five Classes –Crustaceans, Centipedes, Millipedes, Arachnids and Insects* Click on class names *
59Crustaceans More Include; Lobsters, Crabs, Crayfish, Shrimp, Barnacles, Water fleas and othersTwo pair antennae on their headExoskeleton – hardened with limeHead and Thorax fused into a cephalothorax(Carapace – upper portion)Paired appendages have specific functionAntennae – taste, smell, touch, balanceMandibles – Crush, taste, handle foodChelipeds – grasping, catching food, defenseWalking legs – four pairSwimmerets – Swimming, Carry eggs(female)Telson/Uropods – backwards movementMore
60Regeneration of lost or damaged parts Open circulatory systemGills provide oxygen to body cellsComplex nervous systemBrain connected to eyes, antennules and antennaeSensory organs include compound eyes on moveablestalksSensory hair detect touch and chemicalsStatocysts – manage equilibrium utilizing sand grainsobtained during moltReproduction – Sperm transferred to female using swimmerets, where it remains until spring. Female lays hundreds of eggs which are held by her through several molts and released.
61Centipedes Typically have 30 to 35 pair of legs Segmented body All segments have legsFeed on insects caught with poison claws
62Millipedes Typically more than 300 pair of legs Segmented body Two pair of legs per segmentNo poison clawsSlower than centipedesFeed on decaying plant material
63Arachnids Include; Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks, Mites Body composed of cephalothorax and abdomenNo antennaeCheliceras – fangs deliver toxins which paralyze victim as “Sucking Stomach” ingests body fluidsPedipalps – Sensitive to chemicals and touch and are used for holding food. Male delivers sperm to female with the palipalps.More
64Six walking legsBreathe with book lungs located on the lower abdomen (leaf-like plates)Internal fertilization & external developmentFemale lays eggs and wraps them in a cocoon, which is carried, deposited in the ground or laid into other animals.Spinnerets – spin silk (fluid protein) from silk glands in abdomenWeb used to; construct webs, line nests, make cocoons for eggs, elevating themselves, and escape danger
65Include; More than 900,000 known species. WHY? InsectsInclude; More than 900,000 known species. WHY?- Only invertebrate capable of flight( food search, mating, predator escape)- Short life cycle & high reproductive rate( increases adaptation)- Small size ( require small habitats)MORE
66General Characteristics Three body sections (Head, Thorax, Abdomen)One pair antennaeCompound eyesThree pair walking legsSome have wingsVariation of mouthparts to their food sourceChewing – grasshopperSucking – BeeNeedle-like – MosquitoCoiled Siphon – ButterflySponging & Lapping – FlyMore
67Reproduce sexually, most undergoing a metamorphosis Incomplete Metamorphosis – Egg, Nymph, Adultex. GrasshopperComplete Metamorphosis – Eggs, Larvae(caterpillar),Pupa, Adult ex. Butterfly
68Round Worms Include; Trichina, Filaria, Pinworms, and hookworm Bilateral symmetryTwo opening digestive tractElongated, cylindrical bodies tapered at each endCovered with a tough cuticleFree-living or parasiticLive in all regions (aquatic or terrestrial)No circulatory or respiratory systemsMove in a whip-like fashionInternal fertilization and external developmentClickfordiseases
69Most are parasites causing diseases Can be controlled with good hygiene, proper sanitation,proper cooking and drugsDiseases;Trichina - TrichinosisFilaria - ElephantiasisPinworms – itchingHookworm – suck blood from intestine after trip through lungElephantiasis
93What is the difference between a spider and an insect? Question #8What is the difference between a spider and an insect?Spiders have six legs. B. Spiders have eight legs.C. Insects don’t have antennae. D. Spiders are Icky!
100Last QuestionWhich of the following is a true statement concerning Birds?They don’t have a Urinary Bladder.They have a 4 chambered heart.They are spindle shaped.All of the above.AnswerAnswerAnswerAnswer
103Of course you get it right now... There are only two choices! Next Question
104Mammals Onward ! General Characteristics: Most are terrestrial All have Hair (Amount varies)Warm BloodedFour chambered heartHighly developed Cerebrum (part of the brain)Highly differentiated teethGive birth to live young (except Monotremes)Nourish their young with milk produced in mammary glandsOnward !
106Monotremes – “Egg laying mammals” PlatypusSpiny AnteaterMonotremes – “Egg laying mammals”Only live in Australia.Most primitive of the mammals.
107Marsupials – “Pouched Animals” Give birth to very young, immature offspring which must climb into mothers pouch without assistance.KangarooKoala BearOpossum
108Placental Mammals – Young remain in the uterus of the mother until development is complete.Types of…
109"Hoofed Mammal" Order: Ungulates Artiodactyla Next > Even Number of toesHerbivoresFeeds in herdsFlat teeth for grinding plantsExamples;Pigs, Deer, Antelope,Sheep, Cattle, Giraffe and Camels (pictured)Next >
110Class: Perissodactyla Order: UngulatesClass: PerissodactylaNextOdd Number of ToesEnlarged claw that forms hoof.Walk on their toes.Most live in Grasslands or Savannahs.Lg. grooved molars to grind grasses.Examples;Horse, Tapir,Rhinoceros
123Chiroptera "Hand Wing" Vampires!!! More Still! Only Flying Mammal. Pollinate PlantsDisperse SeedFeed on Insect pests (Up to 600per hour)Nocturnal – Roost in coloniesVampires!!!More Still!
124Vampire BatsVampire bats usually feed on livestock, although humans may occasionally be unwilling blood donors. They make a small, painless incision in the skin and lap up the blood with their tongues while anti-coagulant chemicals in their saliva ensure that the blood meal continues flowing.
125Cetaceans Two types Mysticeti (Baleen Whales) Odontoceti (Toothed Moving on…Mysticeti(BaleenWhales)Odontoceti(ToothedWhales)
126Mysticeti Types: Blue, Gray, Humpback, Fin, Right, Minke, Bowhead Largest Animals on PlanetBaleen Plates instead of teethBaleen made of Keratin (Same thing as fingernails and hair)Eat Krill, Plankton & Sm. Fish2 BlowholesSymmetrical SkullNo Echolocation
127Types: Sperm, Killer, Beaked, Pilot, Beluga, Dolphins, Porpoise, Narwhal Teeth ( depends on species)Eat fish, squid, marine mammalsSmaller than mysticeti1 BlowholeEcholocationAsymmetrical SkullOdontocetiPhotos of Narwhals
129Pinnipedia Keep them coming Aquatic Carnivores Evolutionary split from Ursidae (Bears)Fore flippers and TusksSkillful divers & SwimmersEat Krill, crustaceans, mollusks and fish.
130Sirenia Manatee Skull “The Slow, passive animals Mermaids” Tropical watersHerbivoresEat 30 Lbs. food dailyForelimbs modified into flippersVestigial pelvisFlattened tailMammary gland under front flipperThat’s a lot of Mammals!Manatee Skull