Presentation on theme: "Chief Caretaker - Mr. E. Heinrichs To successfully visit the Virtual Zoo just click on the location you wish to explore. Learn all you can then visit."— Presentation transcript:
Chief Caretaker - Mr. E. Heinrichs
To successfully visit the Virtual Zoo just click on the location you wish to explore. Learn all you can then visit the quiz house to test your knowledge. Think you know more than me?
Coelenterates Aviary Commissary Amphibians Reptiles Fish Sponge Echinoderm Flatworms Annelids Arthropods Round Worms Mammals Quiz House
Included: Hydra, Jellyfish, Coral, Sea Anemones Check this out !
Coelenterates have a simple digestive system called the gastrovascular cavity. They are made up of three main body layers 1. epidermis: outer body 2. gastroderm: inner surface of the gastrovascular cavity 3. mesoglea: jelly-like material found between layers Coelenterates feed on small animals captured with their nemotocysts, (Stinging Cells) which are located on the tentacle. Coelenterates lack muscles to help them move about. Most Coelenterates expand and contract the epidermis cells in the tentacles in order to help them move about. Coelenterates can reproduce both sexually and asexually.. Coelenterates have radial symmetry.
Coelenterates - Eating Nematocysts are poison filled sacs on a spring. When they are touched, it darts off, explodes and buries itself into the skin of the animal. The dart paralyzes the prey so the cnidarian can attack. It uses it's tentacles to shove the prey into it's mouth. Most of the food is digested, but some waste is released back out the mouth. Coelenterates contain a very simple nervous system called a nerve net that is concentrated around the mouth. Back to the Map!
General Characteristics: Feathers - Modified Scales? Spindle shaped body Two pair of limbs (Wings & Legs) Strong and lightweight bone structure Four chambered Heart More
Back to the Map! Horn covered bill or beak Excretory system does not contain a urinary bladder Internal fertilization / external development Warm blooded
Welcome to the LHS Virtual Zoo Commissary Back to the Map
Tension Breaker Had to be done!
Amphibians Include: Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts. General Characteristics: Ectothermic – Cold-Blooded Reproduction and development must take place in water Thin skin that contains mucus-secreting glands Two pair of limbs for walking, jumping and swimming One pair nostrils connected to the Oral cavity Three chambered heart (Two Atria – One Ventricle) Metamorphosis during development from juvenile to adult form Click on the photo to go there! Map
Salamanders and Newts Have Tails even as adults Long bodies and tails with four short limbs Feed on fish, snails, insects, worms and other salamanders Some are entirely aquatic which never lose their juvenile gills Others live on land in moist regions breathing with lungs
Salamanders and Newts Have Tails even as adults Long bodies and tails with four short limbs Feed on fish, snails, insects, worms and other salamanders Some are entirely aquatic which never lose their juvenile gills Others live on land in moist regions breathing with lungs We are really the same thing as a salamander!
No tails Adults have short squat bodies Strong hind legs well suited for jumping Dry, rough, warty skin Can survive away from water Burrow in daytime to avoid sun Hibernate during the winter underground Feed on insects and worms Toads
Frogs No tails Adults have short squat bodies Strong hind legs well suited for jumping Thin, moist skin that is loosely attached to their body Live near water Hibernate during the winter in mud at the bottom of water body Feed on insects and worms Larval form called a tadpole Click for more about Frogs Sounds
Frogs and toads protect themselves by; 1.Camouflage 2.Jumping ability 3.Diving underwater or out onto land 4.Unpleasant taste or poison produced by glands in the skin What about Reproduction! Click me!
Reproduction of the frog Frogs mate externally releasing millions of eggs and sperm into the water. The male will grasp the female with its front legs helping her squeeze her eggs out and ensuring his sperm have a better chance of fertilization. After 6 – 9 days eggs hatch into tadpoles. Tadpoles have no legs or lungs. They breathe with gills and swim with tails. Tadpoles have a two-chambered heart. Metamorphosis ranges between three months to several years. During this time the tadpole reabsorbs the tail, grows legs and develops lungs.
General Characteristics: Ectothermic – Cold-Blooded Live on land (some aquatic) Internal Fertilization & external development - Lay eggs Thick leathery eggshell protects egg No metamorphosis during lifecycle Dry scaly skin – protects against desiccation Two pair of legs (*except snakes) Five clawed toes per foot* Circulation – three chambered heart (two Atria – one partially separated Ventricle) Partial separation restricts mixing of oxygenated & deoxygenated blood to body cells. Crocodiles and alligators have four chambered hearts. Excretion – Nitrogenous waste is excreted as Uric Acid making the urine a semisolid paste. This adaptation helps conserve water.
Snakes No legs, or ear openings Immovable eyelids Different size scales Found in all biomes Feed on many small animals Forked tongue contains odor-sensing organs that pick up scents and deliver them to the Jacobsons organs in the roof of the mouth Deaf to airborne sounds but feel ground vibrations Pit Vipers have heat-detecting organs between nostrils and eyes
Eating – Some snakes swallow their prey alive while others kill it before swallowing. Large snakes such as pythons and Boas crush their prey or suffocate it using their body coils before swallowing. Poisonous snakes have specialized teeth called fangs that are connected to their salivary glands where poison or venom is made. Venom is pumped into bite through hollow or grooved fang. Neurotoxin – attacks nervous system, paralyzing victim Hemotoxin – attack RBC and other blood vessels Snakes can swallow prey many times larger than their mouth by dislocating their jaw. Teeth are angled backwards to prevent food from escaping. Ribs expand because they are only attached on one side. Windpipe is projected forward so the snake can breathe throughout the long swallowing process. After a large meal a snake can go weeks or even months without feeding. Click on photo for fullscreen
Always during Dinner!
Thats a Gazelle this African Rock Python is eating!
Crocodiles & Alligators Largest living reptiles Located in Tropical wetlands Alligator – Fresh Water only Crocodile – Both Salt & Fresh Strong muscular tails used for swimming Long snout with powerful jaws Teeth are arranged differently Alligator – Teeth enclosed Broad snout Less aggressive Crocodile –Teeth exposed Pointed snout More aggressive Feed on animals captured by ambush Website may take time to load.
Turtles Found on land, marine and fresh water Body enclosed in protective shell Carapace (top) Plastron (bottom) Feed on plants and small animals No teeth – tear food with a hard, sharp beak Internal Fertilization & External Development (Lay eggs on land)
Lizards Four legs with claws Uniform Scales Movable eyelids External ear openings Live in all biomes Feed on varied food (Insects, small animals, eggs, plants, etc…) Defenses vary but include; removable tails, coloration, poison
Jawless Fish make up two individual classes that are the most primitive vertebrates. Cartilage Fish - Sharks and Rays Bony Fish - Bluefish, Flounder Fish – There are Four Classes of fish
Lampreys No true jaw. Long snake-like bodies with smooth scales on skin. Two single dorsal fins and one tailfin. Skeleton composed of cartilage. External fertilization and development. Found in fresh and salt water. Most are parasites, attaching to the side of larger fish with suction cup mouth and gnawing a hole into the side to drink blood and body fluids. Mate in fresh water streams where they remain for 3 to 7 years. Adults only live one or two years. See Lampreys feed
Hagfish Long snake-like bodies with smooth scales on skin. Two single dorsal fins and one tail fin. No true jaw. Skeleton composed of cartilage. External fertilization and development. Found only in salt water. Feed on dead animals at the bottom of the ocean. Skin gland produce large quantities of slime when threatened.
Cartilaginous Fish Include: sharks, rays and skates Skeleton completely made of cartilage. Movable upper and lower jaws with sharp teeth. Two chambered hearts. Feed on a variety of food.
Cartilaginous Fish - Skates and Rays Flattened wing like bodies with whip-like tails Live on ocean floor Feed on worms, mollusks and crustaceans Defense includes; poison stingers, electric charges
Sharks Streamlined fish that move with their tails Swimming forces water over gills and out five or seven pairs of gill slits. If a shark stops moving it will die due to lack of oxygen. Internal Fertilization and both internal and external development Well-developed sense of smell and vibration Most Feed on fish and some feed on Plankton Skin covered with placoid scales (tough, tooth- like scales)
Bony Fish Largest class of vertebrates. Skeleton made of bone. Paired fins. Protective, overlapping scales. Body form varies from the eel to the Seahorse with most following the streamlined body construction as in the Perch. Fins made of bone and cartilage connected with skin webbing. Fins aid maintaining balance and movement.
Bony Fish (Cont.) Gills provide oxygen but unlike sharks fish can draw water over gills. Two Chambered heart (One Atria & One Ventricle) Swim Bladder helps fish maintain buoyancy Fertilization and development are external Defense includes ; sharp spines, inflation, flying, strong electric charge, poison, etc
Sponge Simplest of all animals Contain many pores through which water flows continuously All sponges are aquatic Adults are sessile (dont move) Larvae are free swimming Size and shape vary widely Many different colors Click me
Youre a good Sport and Hopefully your learning a thing or two!
Three layer body composition Outer layer composed of thin epidermal cells Middle layer filled with gel and amebocytes (Wandering cells) Amebocytes secrete spicules which provide support Inner layer contains collar cells and have a flagellum for food gathering The beating of the collar cells and their flagellum create a current drawing water through sponge and out the Osculum (top) Respiration is by diffusion Reproduction either asexual (budding) or sexual (gametes)
Echinoderms (Spiny Skinned Animals) Includes; Starfish, Sea Cucumbers and Sand Dollars I am NOT a Fish! More
All Marine living on the ocean floor Larva have Bilateral Symmetry Adults have Radial Symmetry (demonstration) Internal skeleton which provides support and protection Skeleton composed of hard calcified plates embedded in the body wall Spiny projections stick out the body wall C l i c k
Sea Star Most have five arms radiating from a central disk (can have as many as 20) Respiration is conducted by diffusion across the skin gills Fertilization and development are external Sea Stars can regenerate lost body parts OUCH !! Thats Better Regeneration Click
Feed on clams and oysters, prying the prey open using its tube feet. It then inserts stomach through opening. Enzymes are secreted partially digesting the prey which is reabsorbed by the stomach and fully digested in the arms of the sea star. Move utilizing a water-vascular system Dorsal surface has a Sieve plate into which sea water enters traveling through a series of canals to the tube feet on each radial arm. If water is pumped out of the tube feet the sea star creates a suction within the cup and can grasp the object. If water is pumped into the tube feet the sea star releases its suction and therefore lets go.
Flat Worms Include; Free living flatworms (planarian), Parasitic flukes, Parasitic tapeworms General Characteristics Bilateral symmetry Flattened bodies Three body layers Ectoderm – outside Mesoderm – middle Endoderm – inside Planarian Flukes Tapeworm
Planarian Live in fresh water Gray, brown or black in color Triangular head with eyespots (detect light intensity) When eating pharynx is projected out the mouth and sucks small bits of food in Excretion occurs through the oral cavity No skeletal, respiratory or circulatory systems (Diffusion) Hermaphroditic with no self-fertilization Internal fertilization and external development
Flukes Parasitic Body covered with thick cuticle, which protects it from hosts Immune System. Suckers help it attach to host intestinal blood vessels Eat pre-digested food Reproduction 1.Eggs laid in and removed by host excretory system 2.Eggs hatch into free swimming larvae in water 3.Larvae enter snails and reproduce asexually 4.New organisms leave snail and infect water sources 5.Flukes bore into host through skin Cause; loss of blood, diarrhea, severe pain
Tapeworm Parasitic Long ribbon-like body form Four to nine meters in length Contain excretory, nervous and highly developed reproductive systems Lack mouths and digestive systems Scolex (head) contain hooks and/or suckers to hold themselves in the intestinal tract of host Digested food diffuse into tapeworms body Reproduction
1.Beneath head is a region of reproduction which makes more segments 2.Hermaphroditic and can self fertilize 3.End sections filled with 100,000 fertilized eggs break off and are removed through host excretory system 4.If contaminated food is eaten by cattle or pigs, larvae embed themselves in the muscle fibers forming a dormant capsule 5.Humans eat undercooked, contaminated meat releasing the tapeworm Causes; nutrient deprivation, blockage of intestinal tract
Segmented Worms Body composed of a series of segments Found in marine, fresh water or land Nervous system – concentrated at anterior end Cerebral ganglia (primitive brain) Turns into ventral nerve cord passing posteriorly Digestive system – straight, tubular, muscular canal which can function independently from body wall. Coelom (Fluid filled cavity) separate alimentary canal from body wall. Think you remember the internal structures? Try Me
Clam Worm (Sand Worm)– Live in intertidal zone Feeds at night - burrows during the day Eats by extending pharynx out mouth exposing jaws that grasp food Fertilization and development external
Leech Freshwater parasite Segmentation difficult to see Attach to host using anterior and posterior suckers Anterior sucker contains mouth and jaws which cut host skin Enzymes prevent blood clotting as leech sucks up blood Fertilization is internal in hermaphroditic leeches Development is external
* Click on class names * Arthropods Most Biologically successful group of animals There are more species of Arthropods than all other organisms put together! All have bilateral symmetry All have jointed legs All have exoskeleton (made of protein and Chitin) Must molt to grow Segmented into Head, Thorax and Abdomen Well-developed nervous system including; sense organs (eyes, antennae, hearing) Open circulatory system Divided into Five Classes – Crustaceans, Centipedes, Millipedes, Arachnids and InsectsCrustaceansCentipedesMillipedesArachnids Insects
Crustaceans Include; Lobsters, Crabs, Crayfish, Shrimp, Barnacles, Water fleas and others Two pair antennae on their head Exoskeleton – hardened with lime Head and Thorax fused into a cephalothorax (Carapace – upper portion) Paired appendages have specific function Antennae – taste, smell, touch, balance Mandibles – Crush, taste, handle food Chelipeds – grasping, catching food, defense Walking legs – four pair Swimmerets – Swimming, Carry eggs(female) Telson/Uropods – backwards movement More
Regeneration of lost or damaged parts Open circulatory system Gills provide oxygen to body cells Complex nervous system Brain connected to eyes, antennules and antennae Sensory organs include compound eyes on moveable stalks Sensory hair detect touch and chemicals Statocysts – manage equilibrium utilizing sand grains obtained during molt Reproduction – Sperm transferred to female using swimmerets, where it remains until spring. Female lays hundreds of eggs which are held by her through several molts and released.
Centipedes Typically have 30 to 35 pair of legs Segmented body All segments have legs Feed on insects caught with poison claws
Millipedes Typically more than 300 pair of legs Segmented body Two pair of legs per segment No poison claws Slower than centipedes Feed on decaying plant material
Arachnids Include; Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks, Mites Body composed of cephalothorax and abdomen No antennae Cheliceras – fangs deliver toxins which paralyze victim as Sucking Stomach ingests body fluids Pedipalps – Sensitive to chemicals and touch and are used for holding food. Male delivers sperm to female with the palipalps. More
Six walking legs Breathe with book lungs located on the lower abdomen (leaf-like plates) Internal fertilization & external development Female lays eggs and wraps them in a cocoon, which is carried, deposited in the ground or laid into other animals. Spinnerets – spin silk (fluid protein) from silk glands in abdomen Web used to; construct webs, line nests, make cocoons for eggs, elevating themselves, and escape danger
Insects Include; More than 900,000 known species. WHY? - Only invertebrate capable of flight ( food search, mating, predator escape) - Short life cycle & high reproductive rate ( increases adaptation) - Small size ( require small habitats) MOREMORE
General Characteristics Three body sections (Head, Thorax, Abdomen) One pair antennae Compound eyes Three pair walking legs Some have wings Variation of mouthparts to their food source Chewing – grasshopper Sucking – Bee Needle-like – Mosquito Coiled Siphon – Butterfly Sponging & Lapping – Fly More
Round Worms Include; Trichina, Filaria, Pinworms, and hookworm Bilateral symmetry Two opening digestive tract Elongated, cylindrical bodies tapered at each end Covered with a tough cuticle Free-living or parasitic Live in all regions (aquatic or terrestrial) No circulatory or respiratory systems Move in a whip-like fashion Internal fertilization and external development Click for diseases
Most are parasites causing diseases Can be controlled with good hygiene, proper sanitation, proper cooking and drugs Diseases; Trichina - Trichinosis Filaria - Elephantiasis Pinworms – itching Hookworm – suck blood from intestine after trip through lung Elephantiasis
What is the LARGEST phylum of animals? a. Birdsb. Arthropods c. Mammals
Which of the following is NOT an Annelid? A. ClamwormB. EarthwormClamwormEarthworm C. RingwormD. LeechRingwormLeech
How many different types of Mammals are there? A. 1B. 3C. 15D. 26
What is an Echinoderm? A.A spiny skinned animal.A spiny skinned animal. B.A type of mammal.A type of mammal. C.A marine creature similar to an Octopus.A marine creature similar to an Octopus. D.A Skin Disease.A Skin Disease.
Which of the following is not a Cartilage Fish? SharkRayBluefish
Is this an Alligator or a Crocodile? Alligator Crocodile
Which of the following is Ectothermic? a.Amphibian b.Bird c.Mammal d.All of the above
What is the difference between a spider and an insect? A.Spiders have six legs.B. Spiders have eight legs. C. Insects dont have antennae.D. Spiders are Icky!
What is the Simplest of all animals? Human Jellyfish Sponge
Which of the following is a true statement concerning Birds? A.They dont have a Urinary Bladder. B.They have a 4 chambered heart. C.They are spindle shaped. D.All of the above. Answer
General Characteristics: Most are terrestrial All have Hair (Amount varies) Warm Blooded Four chambered heart Highly developed Cerebrum (part of the brain) Highly differentiated teeth Give birth to live young (except Monotremes) Nourish their young with milk produced in mammary glands Onward !
Monotremes – Egg laying mammals Platypus Spiny Anteater Only live in Australia. Most primitive of the mammals.
Marsupials – Pouched Animals Give birth to very young, immature offspring which must climb into mothers pouch without assistance. Kangaroo Koala BearOpossum
Placental Mammals – Young remain in the uterus of the mother until development is complete. Types of…
Even Number of toes Herbivores Feeds in herds Flat teeth for grinding plants Examples; Pigs, Deer, Antelope, Sheep, Cattle, Giraffe and Camels (pictured) Next >
Next Enlarged claw that forms hoof. Walk on their toes. Most live in Grasslands or Savannahs. Lg. grooved molars to grind grasses. Examples; Horse, Tapir, Rhinoceros Odd Number of Toes
Next Mammal See an Elephant Skull Only Two Species left alive! African Elephant and Indian Elephant INFO
Thick Skin. Matriarchal Social Structure. Babies cared for several years. Males live solitary lives. Trunk extremely flexible, muscular organ. Trunk Uses: ~ Exploration~ Friendly wrestling matches ~ Feeding~ Grab & throw objects ~ Drinking~ Smell
Elephant Skull Elephant Foot
Order – Edentata Mammals without teeth Include; Anteaters Armadillos (Pictured) Sloth (pictured below) These mammals have either very small teeth or no teeth at all. Next
Examples - Shrew, Hedgehog, Moles Theres More? Eat insects Long Narrow snout Small eyes and external ear openings Hibernate during winter 5 clawed digits
Next Herbivore Short Tails Incisors (Front teeth) grow throughout life. Want to see a Rabbit skull? Elongated ears and hind limbs
- Highly Adaptable- Single pair of razor sharp incisors grow continuously. - Opportunists- High reproductive rate Next
MORE? Closest biological relative. Highly organized cerebral cortex 200 Known species
MORE? Opposable Thumbs. Fingernails not claws. Sensitive pads on underside of fingers. Teeth vary considerably. Increased Brain size. Upright posture. Social grouping. Stereoscopic vision (allows depth perception). Pictures
What are you Looking At?
More Still! Only Flying Mammal. Pollinate Plants Disperse Seed Feed on Insect pests (Up to 600per hour) Nocturnal – Roost in colonies Vampires!!!
Vampire bats usually feed on livestock, although humans may occasionally be unwilling blood donors. They make a small, painless incision in the skin and lap up the blood with their tongues while anti-coagulant chemicals in their saliva ensure that the blood meal continues flowing.
oLargest Animals on Planet oBaleen Plates instead of teeth oBaleen made of Keratin (Same thing as fingernails and hair) oEat Krill, Plankton & Sm. Fish o2 Blowholes oSymmetrical Skull oNo Echolocation Types: Blue, Gray, Humpback, Fin, Right, Minke, Bowhead
Keep them coming o Aquatic Carnivores o Evolutionary split from Ursidae (Bears) o Fore flippers and Tusks o Skillful divers & Swimmers o Eat Krill, crustaceans, mollusks and fish.
Thats a lot of Mammals! Manatee Skull Slow, passive animals Tropical waters Herbivores Eat 30 Lbs. food daily Forelimbs modified into flippers Vestigial pelvis Flattened tail Mammary gland under front flipper The Mermaids