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HIV/AIDS HIV destroys CD4+ cells leading to suppression of cell-mediated immunity opportunistic pathogens Pneumocystis carinii Microsporidia increased.

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Presentation on theme: "HIV/AIDS HIV destroys CD4+ cells leading to suppression of cell-mediated immunity opportunistic pathogens Pneumocystis carinii Microsporidia increased."— Presentation transcript:

1 HIV/AIDS HIV destroys CD4+ cells leading to suppression of cell-mediated immunity opportunistic pathogens Pneumocystis carinii Microsporidia increased disease severity and duration intestinal coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Isospora) Toxoplasma (encephalitis) different manifestations Leishmania infantum (dermotrophic strains producing visceral disease) little apparent affect (Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Entamoeba histolytica)

2 AIDS and Malaria 484 participants made 7220 visits during 1990-1998 (rural Uganda) HIV-1 infection associated with frequency of parasitemia and clinical malaria lower CD4 counts associated with parasite densities

3 Malaria and AIDS Malaria may be deadly co-factor for AIDS AIDS progression in sub-Saharan Africa is ~5 years (½ normal) HIV-infected individuals deteriorate faster with every malaria episode infants born to dual infected mothers have 4X mortality as single infected mothers CD-4 cells stimulated in vitro with malaria antigens have 30-100 fold in viral load

4 Pneumocystis carinii first recognized in institutional epidemics (malnourished children and infants) serious opportunistic infection associated with immune suppression long-standing debate about fungus or protozoan resolved cyst wall ( -1,3 glucans; staining with methenamine silver) 16S rRNA branches between ascomycetes and blasidiomycetes separate (vs. bi-functional) DHFR and TS elongation factor 3 (fungi specific) new name = P. jiroveci (Em. Inf. Dis. 8:891)

5 presumed to be due to inhalation of infective stage historically believed to be associated with activation of latent infection recent studies suggest active acquisition clusters of PCP cases duration of latency < 1 year subsequent episodes due to different molecular genotypes life cycle unknown person-to-person? commonly encountered in the environment? Transmission

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7 Gomoris Silver Stain Lung Biopsy Impression Smear

8 Giemsa Stained Impression Smear

9 causes interstitial cell pneumonia (PCP) shortness of breath nonproductive cough low grade fever X-ray: diffuse interstitial infiltration alveoli fill with foamy material death due to progres- sive asphyxia Clinical Manifestations and Pathology

10 Diagnosis (demonstrate organism) sputum (poor yield) induced sputum (30-55%) bronchoaveolar lavage (50-95%) bronchial biopsy (>90%) Treatment and Prophylaxis trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) pentamidine (parenteral, aerosol) oxygen for symptoms

11 Microsporidia obligate intracellular parasite infecting a wide range of hosts especially insects and fish highly derived fungi elongation factor 1 (insert) separate DHFR and TS - and -tubulin mtHSP70 defining characteristics: small resistant spore (1-3 m) polar filament (=extrusion apparatus)

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13 Spore Germination extrusion of polar filament polar tube appears osmotic in nature penetrates host cell membrane in some species sporoplasm inoculated into cytoplasm spores taken up by phagocytosis escape from lysosome

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15 Life Cycle Phases Infective Phase spore germination cell invasion Proliferative Phase intracellular many modes of replication Sporogonic Phase terminal differentiation

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17 Intestinal Microsporidiosis Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis enterocytes (ie, intestinal epithelial cells) infected symptoms are chronic diarrhea and wasting generally not life threatening debilitating diarrhea cachexia

18 Ocular Microsporidiosis primarily Encephalitozoon hellem non-immunocompromised: keratitis or corneal ulcer related to trauma? AIDS patient: kerato-conjunctivitis Systemic Microsporidiosis Encephalitozoon species rarely Encephalitozoon intestinalis concomitant infection of kerato- conjunctiva, urinary tract, and bronchia is common

19 Diagnosis of Microsporidiosis demonstrate spores in stools or urine chromotrope stain (modified trichrome) Uvitex-2B or calcafluor (binds chitinous cyst wall and fluoresces) difficult, biopsy often required small spores (~1 mm) irregular spore excretion

20 Diagnosis of Microsporidiosis demonstrate spores in stools or urine chromotrope stain (modified trichrome) Uvitex-2B or calcafluor (binds chitinous cyst wall and fluoresces) difficult, biopsy often required small spores (~1 mm) irregular spore excretion

21 Diagnosis of Microsporidiosis demonstrate spores in stools or urine chromotrope stain (modified trichrome) Uvitex-2B or calcafluor (binds chitinous cyst wall and fluoresces) difficult, biopsy often required small spores (~1 mm) irregular spore excretion

22 Treatment and Prevention no clearly effective treatment for Enterocytozoon bieneusi some affect of albendazole against Encephalitozoon topical fumagillin against kerato- conjunctivitis no specific preventive measures sources of human infection not clear general precautions for AIDS patients personal hygiene bottled or boil water thorough cooking of meat


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