Presentation on theme: "Human Papillomavirus (HPV)"— Presentation transcript:
1Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genital WartsThere are more than 100 types of HPV. About types can infect the genital area-vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis and scrotum. Some types cause genital warts, some cause changes in cells (cervix). Most types seem to have no harmful effect at all.Some studies estimate that the majority of the sexually active population is exposed to at least one or more types of HPV-although most do not develop symptoms. Because HPV is so common and prevalent, a person does not need to have a lot of sex partners to come into contact with this virus.
2Human Papillomavirus (commonly called Genital Warts) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that can cause various disease states including “genital” or “venereal” wartsPapillomaviruses are a complex group of DNA tumor viruses. They can cause benign growths (papillomas), cancers, or more commonly, transient infectionsHPV infection is causally associated with cervical cancer ; other genital cancers including anal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal cancers may have HPV as co-factorIn most cases, genital HPV infection is transient, asymptomatic, and resolves without treatment or without a person ever being aware they had the infection.They can’t be routinely grown in the labHPV and genital warts are usually spread by direct, skin-to-skin contact during sex. Warts might appear within several weeks or they might take months to appear, or they might never appear. Very little is known about the transmission of subclinical HPV infection. The majority of visible warts are caused by one of two types of HPV…Types 6 or 11. These two types cause 90% of the visible warts seen in the US. The new HPV vaccine protects against both of these types.
3HPV Prevalence Most common STD Yearly incidence of 6.2 million20 million currently infected80 million infected at least once between the ages of 15-49An estimated 9.2 million sexually active adolescents and young adults years of age are infected with genital HPVAn estimated 5%-30% of people infected with genital HPV are infected with multiple types of the virus316,000 initial visits to physicians’ offices (2004)-genital wart diagnosisHPV is one of the most common causes of STDs in the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are approximately 6.2 million new cases of HPV infections reported each year. At least 20 million Americans are already infected.An estimated 1million people have genital warts at any one time in the US. That’s about 1% of the sexually active population, making genital warts one of our most common STDs.It is estimated that 20 million persons are currently infected and approximately 80 million persons between the ages of have been infected with some type of HPV at one point in their life.At present in the US, most young women become infected with HPV within a few years after becoming sexually active. Multiple, concurrent and sequential infections with different types of HPV are common. The majority of these infections are subclinical, unrecognized, transient and benign.
4GENITAL HPV INFECTION 1%. 1. 4 MILLION. VISIBLE WARTS 4%. 5 MILLION GENITAL HPV INFECTION 1% MILLION VISIBLE WARTS 4% MILLION Subclinical (Colposcopy) 10% MILLION Subclinical (DNA testing) 60% MILLION Prior infection (+ antibodies) 25% MILLION No prior/current infection
5Epidemiology of HPV and Cervical Cancer Over 99% of cervical cancers have HPV DNA detected within the tumor70% of cervical cancer is caused by one of two types of HPV, 16 or 18The quadrivalent HPV vaccine protects against Types 6, 11, 16 and 18It is generally accepted that HPV infection may be detectable only transiently. However, it is still not clear whether genital HPV infections are entirely eliminated by the host or merely become suppressed at a level below detection, through an immune response.Progression from HPV infection to invasive cervical cancer is estimated to take years or longer.Cervical cancer is an uncommon consequence of HPV infection. Nevertheless, regular screening for cancer with pap smears can detect cervical abnormalities that can be treated before they become cancerous. Screening helps detect pre-cancerous abnormalities/cancer at a stage where it can be “cured” in over 90% of people.
6Risk Factors for Acquiring a Genital HPV Infection Young age (less than 25 years)Multiple sex partnersEarly age at first intercourse (16 years or younger)Male partner has (or has had) multiple sex partnersEstimates for prevalence of genital warts caused by low-risk types of HPV are relatively imprecise. However, estimates indicate that as many as 100 per 100,000 people develop genital warts. About 1.4 million people (about 1% of sexually active people) currently have genital warts.
7Friction and abrasion are key factors. HPV TransmissionDirect skin-to-skin contactUsually, but not always sexual contactInfected birth canalFomites (very rare)Friction and abrasion are key factors.Difficult to determine how and where infection occurred due to poor standardized tests and variable latency periods.As is the case with warts on other parts of the body, direct skin-to-skin contact spreads HPV most easily because HPV lives primarily in the skin and mucosal cells and is not transmitted via blood or body fluids.Genital papillomavirus is transmitted through:1) sexual contact (genital tract HPV)2) during passage through an infected birth canal (Discuss in more depth tomorrow)3) fomites (rare) Fomites are inanimate objects that may harbor the infectious organism and transmit it when the fomite is introduced to a non-infected person. Some experts believe that in rare cases HPV may be transmitted through shared bath towels, for example, towels that are used by a person with genital papillomavirus and then soon after are rubbed into the genital area of a non-infected person, causing the transmission of HPV(abrasion is important for transmission). In the end, science simply does not have the tools to pin down explanations for these rare instances of alleged nonsexual transmission. Dr. Kay Stone of the CDC stated that, “ this (HPV) is such a common virus that if you really could get it from inanimate objects such as underwear, sweaty bicycle seats at your health club, or the water in a swimming pool; we would expect to see HPV infections in more people who have never been sexually active.” The virus infects the epidermis, but the exact mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. As stated above, friction plays a key role in this process and HPV is most efficiently transmitted into mucous membranes and abraded skin.The types of HPV that cause genital warts do not usually seem to cause warts on other body parts such as the hands or feet.
8What about oral sex?It can occur in the mouth, throat or respiratory tractIt is relatively uncommonIt appears to be an inefficient mode for transmissionIt does not appear to “take hold” as easily in the mouth, throat and/or respiratory tract of adults
9HPV Incubation Average incubation is 3 weeks to 1 year Possibly years before appearance of warts or cervical abnormalitiesSome will be transient and may never be detectedThe average incubation period of visible warts is 3 weeks to one year. Latency periods of years have been reported before the emergence of warts or cervical abnormalities. This can be quite confusing and stressful for partners in long term relationships. An example of this is the person whose immune system, on its own, keeps HPV under control or latent for so many years and then a long-delayed symptom may appear which seems to come from nowhere.
10Common Symptoms of Genital Warts in Males & Females The symptoms may include single or multiple fleshy growths around the penis, scrotum, groin, vulva, vagina, anus, and/or urethraThey may also include: itching, bleeding, or burning, and painThe symptoms may recur from time to timeCondyloma Acuminata-bumps or warty growths on the external genitals or the anus cause by certain types of HPV. Usually benign.They tend to be flesh-colored or whitish in appearance. They do not usually cause itching or burning.Genital warts often occur in clusters and can be very tiny or can spread into large masses in the genital or anal area.
11Genital Warts in a MaleSource: CDC/ NCHSTP/ Division of STD Prevention,STD Clinical SlidesSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
12HPV Penile WartsSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
13In males, condylomata occur earliest near the frenulum (part of the foreskin that unites with the under side of the glans penis) and are most frequent on the coronal sulcus (the ridge below the hood of the glans penis), the shaft, and the preputial borders (the edges of the foreskin.)
14Pearly Penile PapulesPearly penile papules are frequently found on the glans penis of males. They are normal and should not be confused with warts.Pearly penile papules are not STDs, but some people worry about STDs when they see them. Pearly penile papules are upgrowing, smooth, small, dome- or finger-shaped, skin-colored papules that are located on the sulcus or the corona of the glans penis (Brown, 2001). While the lesions are often mistaken for sexually transmitted diseases such as genital warts (which is a source of anxiety and fear for those who have not yet received the diagnosis of pearly penile papules), they are not contagious. The lesions, which are usually found around the corona in one or more rows, are actually just natural anatomical variants (Brown, 2001). It is not known what causes pearly penile papules to develop.In the US: “the incidence of pearly penile papules reportedly ranges from 8-48%.”Pearly penile papules usually begin to appear between the ages of 20 and 40 years (Dean, 2000). These lesions are somewhat rare and are not sexually transmitted. The pearly penile papules will not hurt an afflicted man’s partner (Brown, 2001).Pearly penile papules are benign and natural.
15Intra-meatal Wart of the Penis (and Gonorrhea) Source: Florida STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
16Circumcision and HPV Risk for penile cancer May influence the risk of HPV acquisition, transmission and cervical cancerPenile cancer is almost nonexistent in the circumcised male and the small ~1% risk of penile cancer in men is almost entirely in the uncircumcised male.The theory is that the mucosal lining of the prepuce may be more vulnerable to HPV.During intercourse, the foreskin is pulled back, exposing the mucosal surface of the prepuce to potentially infected vaginal secretions and HPV might be afforded access through minute ulcers or small epithelial abrasions.However, routine circumcision is not recommended as a way to prevent HPV transmission.However, for the first time, strong epidemiological evidence suggests that male circumcision may influence the risks of HPV transmission, acquisition and cervical cancer in women.Because males do not have overt symptoms for the types of HPV linked to cervical cancer, it is difficult to effectively diagnose and treat men with subclinical or invisible infection.
17Female Genital WartsSource: CDC/NCHSTP/Division of STD, STD Clinical Slides
18Although almost all genital warts are not cancerous, large and confluent lesions should be carefully examined and multiple biopsies obtained to rule out underlying malignancies. It may be important to biopsy the darker warts to rule out the possibility of underlying skin cancer.Some studies show that women with genital warts are at an increased risk for cancer of the cervix. Women with genital warts should have a yearly pap smear to catch any abnormalities in early stages.
19Here we see a classic presentation of warts on the perianal skin.
20HPV Warts on the ThighSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
21Perianal WartsSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
22Complications of Genital Warts (if untreated) It may destroy body tissue around the genitals and anusFor pregnant womenDelivery complications or need for C-sectionJuvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JO-RRP)Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JO-RRP) will be discussed tomorrow
23Testing & Treatment for Genital Warts Can be detected in a clinical exam;Can be treated by removing the warts;The virus cannot be removed, so the warts may grow back.Your health care provider can usually tell if you have genital warts because he/she can see them. Sometimes they may be so small that your health care provider might put a vinegar type solution on the wart and use a magnifying glass or microscope to see the wart.A Pap smear is the best way to detect cervical changes due to HPV.A biopsy is only necessary if the wart is unusual looking or discolored.There are currently no blood tests available.
24HPV Diagnostic Techniques HistoryVisual examPap smearsDNA testingAlthough there is no one standard test for HPV, a number of methods are used to diagnose HPV infection. These include sexual history, visual exam, and Pap smears. The health care professional should take a careful history from the patient to include the following:sexual history, including: number of sex partners; sexual practices; and age of first intercoursehistory of STDs in patient and sex partnersif female, history of previous Pap smears and resultsA 1992 survey by the CDC found that only 49% of primary care physicians asked new patients about STDs, 31% asked about condom use, and 22% asked about sexual partners. By comparison, 94% asked the same patients about cigarette smoking.In addition a complete physical exam should be conducted on the patient, as well as the sex partners, to rule out other STD’s.The VISUAL EXAM is of value in identifying warts visible to the naked eye, and are diagnosed based on their appearance. When warts are located in the urethra or rectum, a special instrument called an endoscope is used to visualize them. When flat warts ( condyloma planum) are suspected, application of 3 to 5% acetic acid enhances visualization by producing acetowhite areas. Examination of these areas with a colposcope ( an instrument inserted into the vagina to magnify the tissue of the vagina and cervix) or hand lens will improve diagnostic accuracy and recognition of flat warts.Vaginal warts are not seen as commonly as cervical or vulvar warts.Flat warts (condylomata planum) are often identified noting certain changes in form and structure such as: color, margin contour, vascular pattern, and iodine staining. These are quite useful in distinguishing cervical HPV infection from dysplasia or other abnormalities.The PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR is often the tool which first identifies signs of HPV infection. Although the Pap is not a specific test for HPV, the Pap test can detect abnormal cells associated with HPV before they become cancerous. Identification can lead to early treatment and can preserve life and fertility.DNA TESTING is too expensive to be used as a screening tool. However, it has been used successfully to identify types of HPV in certain lesions and cancers, and has been valuable in choosing treatment type.
25Papillomavirus Treatment Primary goal for treatment of visible warts is the removal of symptomatic wartsTherapy may reduce but probably does not eradicate infectivityDifficult to determine if treatment reduces transmissionNo laboratory marker of infectivityVariable results utilizing viral DNAThe goal of any treatment should be to remove visible warts to get rid of annoying symptoms. No one treatment is best for all cases.Treatment of the warts may possibly help reduce the risk of transmission to a partner who may never have been exposed to HPV.When choosing a treatment, the health care provider should consider: size, location, number of warts, changes in warts, patient preference, cost of treatment, convenience, adverse effects, and their own past experience with the treatments.
26HPV Treatment Options Chemical agents Cryotherapy Electrosurgery Surgical excisionLaser surgeryImiquimod (Aldara)Defer treatmentNatural therapiesSUMMARY OF TREATMENT OPTIONSClearly, the immune system plays a significant role in the outcome of a clash between the human and HPV.New research is appearing to indicate that persons with healthy immune systems, once they mount an immune response, run little chance of ever having a recurrence – they stand a good chance of clearing even the genetic materials of the virus, as well.A variety of methods are used to treat HPV with varying success. The goal of treatment is the removal of the wart(s) not the eradication of HPV. If left untreated, the warts may resolve on their own, remain unchanged, or continue to grow.A specific treatment regimen should be chosen with consideration given to anatomic site, size and number of warts, and pregnancy status, as well as the expense, efficacy, convenience, and potential for adverse effects.Chemical agents such as podofilox and trichloracetic acid are moderately successful. Podofilox is a purified form of podophyllin and an extract of the May Apple plant. It can be applied by the patient and is recommended for external/urethral meatal warts only. It causes local tissue to necrotize. Generally, it is applied twice a day for three days, followed by four days of no therapy, repeating this cycle up to four times. It should not be used in cases of pregnancy. Trichloracetic acid ( TCA) 80 – 90% is another caustic agent that is applied directly to the warts. The surrounding area should be powdered with talc or baking soda to remove unreacted acid. It is safe to use in cases of pregnancy, but treatment can be painful and cause scarring.Cryotherapy (freezing with super cold liquid or gas nitrogen) is a popular treatment for both internal and external warts that is relatively inexpensive, does not require anesthesia, and does not result in scarring if performed properly. Cryotherapy can be used with pregnant clients.Electrosurgery (using an electric current to remove warts) is another relatively effective treatment requiring local and sometimes general anesthesia depending on the site of being treated. This procedure is safe during pregnancy.Surgical excision (literally cutting off the warts) is used in many cases. However, patients often believe that this is definitive therapy and they should be counseled that there is no guarantee that the warts will not return.Laser surgery can be an effective method, but is very expensive and requires a skilled operator. Many physicians prefer to use it when other methods have failed.
27Bichloroacetic acid 80-90% PapillomavirusSurgical removalPatient-appliedPodofilox (Condylox) 0.5% solution or gelApply 2x/day for 3 days, followed by 4 days of no therapy.Repeat as needed, up to 4xorImiquimod (Aldara) 5% creamApply bedtime 3x/week for up to 16 weeksProvider-administeredCryotherapy (liquid nitrogen) *repeat every 1-2 weeksPodophyllin resin 10-25% *thoroughly wash off in 1-4 hrsTrichloroacetic orBichloroacetic acid 80-90%*can be repeated weeklyPodofilox cream or gel (Condylox) is a self-applied treatment for external genital warts. It doesn’t cost much, is easy to use and is safe, but it must be used for about 4 weeks.Imiquimod cream (Aldara) is a self-applied treatment for external genital warts. It is safe, effective and easy to use. This cream is different than any other treatments. Other treatments work by destroying the wart tissue, but Aldara actually boosts the immune system to fight HPV.Podophyllin should be applied to the affected area and washed off at a later point in time.Podofilox should be applied to the affected area, but not washed off.
28Papillomavirus Vaginal warts Cryotherapy or TCA/BCA 80-90% Urethral meatal wartsCryotherapy or podophyllin 10-25%Anal warts
29PapillomavirusTherapy choice needs to be guided by preference of patient, experience of provider, and patient resources (time and/or money)No evidence exists to indicate that any one regimen is superiorAn acceptable alternative may be to do nothing but watch and wait; possible regression/uncertain transmission
30Case StudyAmy was diagnosed with genital warts and successfully treated with liquid nitrogen therapy three years ago. The genital warts have never returned after therapy.Amy has met someone new and she wants to begin a sexual relationship. She wants to know if she needs to disclose her prior infection to her new partner.What would you tell Amy?This is an area where there is great conflict among health care providers.A healthy immune system suppresses the virus. It is difficult to predict when HPV is no longer contagious. Experts disagree on whether the virus is eliminated from the body or whether it is reduced to undetectable levels. Some will recommend that Amy use condoms to prevent potential transmission. Others will encourage Amy to have a conversation with her new partner and then make a decision about protection. Others will say it has been a considerable length of time since Amy was treated and that in all likelihood the infection is probably not a concern to new partners.
31Warts can and often do recur after treatment. HPV is INCURABLEWarts can and often do recur after treatment.Virus can remain in surrounding tissue after warts have been destroyed.Important points to remember are: “HPV is incurable”.Warts can and often do recur after treatment.The virus can remain in surrounding tissue after warts have been destroyed.When warts are present, the virus is considered “active”.When warts are gone, the virus is latent (and may or may not be contagious)A healthy immune system appears to help fight the virus.
33HPV and PregnancyNo link with premature labor, miscarriage, or other complicationsLow rate of transmission to babyRange is generally from 0.4 to 1.1 cases/100,000 birthsC-section is not recommended in most instancesWomen with HPV may be relieved by the reassuring news that the virus appears to have no link with premature labor, miscarriage, or other types of pregnancy complications.In fact, the virus should not be a hinderance to a woman planning a family except that it may be more practical to delay conception until after consulting a physicianLow rate of transmission from mother to baby.Genital warts seem to grow more rapidly during pregnancy due to the expected decline in the normal immunity as well as increased hormones and blood supply. Depending on where they are located, they may cause obstruction of the urethra and/or vaginal opening causing obstruction during delivery.Having genital warts is not a reason to have a C-section.
34The large vulvar warts that may occur in HPV infected pregnant females, may occasionally lead to the obstruction of the birth canal. In these cases and when the warts are open and draining, C-section is recommended. Otherwise natural birth is the safest because the rate of infection is very low and several HPV cases in infants have been reported following Cesarean section. Therefore the risks involved in performing C-sections outweigh the benefits.
36Papillomavirus Treatment in Pregnancy Imiquimod, podophyllin, and podofilox should not be used in pregnancyMany specialists advocate wart removal due to possible proliferation and friabilityHPV types 6 and 11 can cause respiratory papillomatosis in infants and childrenPreventative value of cesarean section is unknown; may be indicated for pelvic outlet obstruction or if vaginal delivery would result in excessive bleedingImiquimod, podophyllin, and podofilox should not be used during pregnancy because they are absorbed by the skin and may cause birth defects.Many specialists advocate wart removal due to possible proliferation and friability.
37HPV in NeonatesThose who develop warts will usually do so within several weeksFirst-born childJuvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JO-RRP)rare -- 1 per 100,000 birthstypes 6 and 11occurs up to age fourChildren born to infected mothers, who do develop warts in the throat, usually will do so within several weeks after birth.The most serious form of HPV infection in children is juvenile onset of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) which involves lesions of the trachea, pharynx, and bronchi. The infection is apparently acquired when the child passes through the mother’s infected birth canal and aspirates contaminated cervical, vaginal or vulvar material.50% of those with JORRP have symptoms which begin shortly after birth, during infancy or in the preschool years. There are currently an estimated 4.3/100,000 children under age 14 with JO-RRP.The risk of papillomatosis is greatest from HPV types 6 & 11, so typing may be helpful in cases of pregnancy, at the same time, 95% of genital warts in the US are caused by one of these two types of HPV.Symptoms of papillomatosis may appear:shortly after birth, (50%)during infancy,during the preschool years.Newly diagnosed cases may occur as last as years of age. It is unusual to diagnose new cases between years.The initial symptom is hoarseness. In some children, the warts spontaneously resolve. For those that do not, the treatment of choice is surgical removal. Since the warts have a tendency to recur, repeat laser surgery (as often as weekly) may be necessary to prevent obstruction of the breathing passages. For the most severely affected persons, as many as 100+ surgical procedures may be necessary to maintain a safe and adequate airway.Research on the use of interferon therapy in combination with laser surgery indicates this drug may show promise in slowing the course of disease.JO-RRP is predominantly observed in the first-born child of a young, pregnant woman. There is only rare documentation of siblings having RRP.
38HPV and Cervical Cancer In 2006, it is estimated that there will be 9,710 new cases of cervical cancer and 3,700 deaths attributed to it in the US. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women; and it is estimated to cause over 470,000 new cases and 233,00 deaths per year.About 50% of women who develop cervical cancer in the US have never had a Pap test and another 10% have not had a pap smear in the past 5 years.
39HPV Linked to Cancer Cervical Cancer 10,000 new cases diagnosed/year in the US3,000 deaths/year in the US400, ,000 new cases internationally300,000 deaths/year internationally, especially in developing countriesSingle most important factor for cervical cancerVirtually all squamous cell cervical cancer contain one of 18 types of HPVThe type of HPV that causes visible warts are not linked to cervical cancerAssociated with cancer of the penis, anus, vagina and vulva.HPV has been linked with different types of genital cancer, especially cervical cancer which has been the cause of 3,000 known deaths each year in American women.Vaginal cancer is diagnosed in 2,300/year and 600 die each year with vaginal cancer.Vulvar cancer is diagnosed in 3,300/year and 900 die each year with vulvar cancer.Penile cancer is diagnosed in 1,400 men each year; anal cancer is diagnosed in 3,000 men each year.Anal dysplasia and anal cancer:Anal cancer is a rare occurrence that has been strongly linked to "high-risk" types of HPV, especially type 16.Abnormal cell changes in the anal area (anal dysplasia or anal neoplasia) are more common among individuals who engage in receiving anal sex.However, anal dysplasia has also been reported in some females who have a history of severe cervical dysplasiaTreatment is available for anal dysplasia and anal cancerMore clinical and natural history research is needed before routine anal pap smears will be recommended for men at increased risk for HPV
40HPV DNA Classification Low Risk HPV Types: 6,11,40,42,43,44, 54, 61, 72, 73, 81types 6 and 11 responsible for 95% of visible wartsHigh-Risk HPV Types: 31,33,35,39,45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68,82High cancer risk: 16Most common-50% of cervical cancerHigh cancer risk: 1810-12% of cervical cancer*Risk not well established yet: 26, 53, 66, 73HPV can be broken into FOUR classifications which are based on their potential to produce genital cancers:1) low oncogenic ( cancer causing ) risk: Types 6, 11, 42, 43, 44Types 6 and 11 are responsible for 95% of visible warts. All are associated with low grade cervical lesions, but no cervical cancer. All are associated with penile, vaginal/vulvar, and anal cancers, however.Intermediate oncogenic risk: Types 31, 33, 35, 51, 52, 58Higher prevalence in high grade lesions. Associated with some cervical cancer (17%), but due to long transition to malignancy, they are involved in fewer cancers than high risk types.High oncogenic risk: Type 16This type associated with over 50% of cervical cancer and 47% of high-grade precancerous lesions. Transition time to malignancy is 8 to 12 years.High oncogenic risk: Type 18, 45, 56These types associated with about 27% of cervical cancers, but only about 5% of high-grade neoplasias. Cancers with HPV 18 tend to occur at younger ages and may be more difficult to treat. Type 18 has an extremely short transition time to malignancy, allowing little time to screen for and treat the rapidly progressing disease.Types 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancers.Sexually transmitted HPV is the single most important factor for cervical cancer and may be associated with cancer of the penis, anus, vagina, or vulva. As of 1994, the incidence of anal cancer was increasing among both men and women in the U.S., (in women at a rate of 2% per year and among men at a rate of 2.3% per year).
41Can a person be re-infected with HPV? There appears to be humoral and probably cellular immunity that develops to a specific type of HPV after a person has been infected with it and “has cleared” it.The risk for re-infection with that specific type of HPV appears to be rare.However, a person can be infected with more than one type of HPV
42HPV and Cervical Cancer Infection is generally indicated by the detection of HPV DNARoutine Pap smear screening ensures early detection (and treatment) of pre-cancerous lesionsOnly a small percentage of women infected with genital HPV develop persistent infectionsOnly women who develop persistent infections are at risk for developing high-grade pre-cancerous changes / cervical cancerMost women with persistent HPV infection do NOT develop precancerous changes/cervical cancerThe most critical factor for developing cervical cancer is not having routine pap smearsA persistent infection is an infection that is not cleared by the immune system and is characterized by persistently detectable HPV DNA.Factors associated with persistent infection include:being 30 years of age or olderhaving high-risk HPV typeshaving a suppressed immune system
43Cofactors for Cervical Cancer Weakened immune systemMultiple sex partnersSex at an early ageNutritional deficienciesMother who took DESLack of circumcision of male partner(s)Active/passive Cigarette SmokingChronic inflammation associated with other STDsLong term use of oral contraceptivesHigh number of live births*Cofactors have also been linked to cancer development. To use a simple analogy, one might consider the cervix as the soil, the high risk HPV type as the seed, and “other factors” (sometimes called “cofactors”) as a kind of fertilizer. Some of the most common cofactors for cervical cancer are similar to those for STDs, including:Smoking. Consistently shown to be an independent risk factor.2) Presence of other infection3) History of STDs, especially chlamydia and HSV24) Oral contraceptives and high number of live births-Some studies indicate long-term use of oral contraceptives and having a high number of live births may be risk factors5) Weakened immune system6) Multiple sex partners7) Sex at an early age, and8) Poor diet/nutritional deficienciesSeveral studies have shown that women who smoke are two times as likely as non-smokers to have precancerous cervical cell changes or invasive cervical cancer.Up to 60% of cervical cancer cases in the US occur among women who have never been screened or who have rarely been screened.LACK OF SCREENING IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR
44Pap Smears What is it? How is it done? When should I get the first one?How often do I need one?Do I still need to get one if I’ve been vaccinated?A pap smear is done to detect very early pre-cancerous conditions-which are often easily treated.The clinician inserts a sterile metal or plastic speculum into the vagina. The speculum is opened to separate the walls of the vagina. It holds the walls apart so that the cervix can be seen. The clinician will then use a small spatula or tiny brush to gently collect a “smear” of cells from the cervix. Those cells are tested for abnormalities. As the clinician removes the speculum, the vaginal walls are checked for irritation, injury and any other problems.Pap smears can also detect infections and inflammation of the cervix (not specific STDs, but symptoms) or thinning of the cervical tissue from lack of estrogen.According to the 2001 Guidelines by the American Cancer Society, a female should get her first pap smear by age 21, or within three years after becoming sexually active, whichever happens first.Many women are screened annually. New research is indicating screening every 3 years may be acceptable if certain risk factors are not present (new partner, multiple partners, new STD, no previous HPV infection, etc) especially if newer technologies are used for testing.Liquid-based Pap (screening every 2 years if normal).Combination Pap-HPV DNA test (used only in women over age 30) and normal results are received (preliminary recommendation from the American Cancer Society is every three years for screening).Women should still get Pap smears done if they’ve been vaccinated for HPV, as the vaccine only offers protection against 4 among over 100 strains of the virus.
45Preparing for a Pap Smear Schedule a day when you won’t be having your periodDo not douche 48 hours before the testAvoid sexual intercourse 48 hours before the testDo not use tampons, vaginal creams, foams, films or other jellies for 48 hours before the testThe best time to schedule your test is 8 to 12 days from the start of your last menstrual cycle.
46Pap Smears 2001 Bethesda System Specimen typeCoventional vs Liquid sampleSpecimen adequacySatisfactory or unsatisfactory for evaluationGeneral categorizationNegative for Intraepithelial lesion/malignancyEpithelial cell abnormality (squamous or glandluar)Other things observed (ex. Endometrial cells)In results reported according to the Bethesda 2001 system, the specimen is first reported as to whether it was satisfactory for evaluation; if the specimen was not satisfactory for evaluation, then a new specimen must be gathered. Usually the test would be repeated within the next 2 to 3 months.A smear interpreted to be “negative for intraepithelial lesion” (the reported “normal” and desired result) could still have other findings, for example Trichomonas, yeast, various bacterial concerns, cellular changes consistent with Herpes infection, and cell changes resulting from injury, radiation or inflammation.Epithelial cell abnormalities may either be of squamous cells (the outermost layer of cells) or glandular cells.
47Pap Smears 2001 Bethesda System Epithelial cell abnormalitiesSquamousAtypical squamous cell of undetermined significance(ASC-US)Cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H)Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)Includes HPV/mild dysplasia/CIN 1High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)Includes moderate, severe dysplasia, CIS/CIN 2 and 3Squamous cell carcinomaSquamous cells are the cells that cover the majority of the cervix. The potential for malignancy (cancer) increases down this list, squamous cell carcinoma being an invasive cancer.In the case of ASC or ASC-US results, it’s recommended that an HPV test be done on this or an additional sample to determine if the atypical result is related to HPV infection.
48Pap Smears 2001 Bethesda System Epithelial cell abnormalities (continued)Glandular cellsAtypicalEndocervical (Not otherwise specified, or favor neoplastic)Glandular (not otherwise specified or favor neoplastic)EndometrialEndocervical carcinoma in situAdenocarcinomaEndocervicalExtrauterineNot otherwise specifiedGlandular cells cover the lining of the uterine opening and canal. “Carcinoma in situ” or “Adenocarcinoma in situ” refers to a malignancy that is not yet invasive, that is to say, has not moved into the flesh beyond the surface of the cervix. These abnormalities are much less common than squamous cell abnormalities on a pap smear.Pap smears also may occasionally report other malignancies without necessarily being able to note the originating site of the malignancy. Most diagnoses of a malignancy require conslutation with pathologists and/or specialists.The majority of abnormalities reported on Pap smears are NOT cancer, and are either reversible or treatable and do not progress on to become a malignancy; it is important in the event of an abnormality to get follow-up Pap smears and (as necessary) other testing to monitor the situation and determine if treatment is necessary.
49Pap Smear Terms Cervical Dysplasia Abnormal cell changes Precancerous cell changesCIN (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia)SIL (Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions)“Warts” on the cervixAll of these terms mean similar things-simply that abnormalities were found. Most of the time, these cell changes are due to HPV. Many of these types of HPV can cause cervical dysplasia, or abnormal cell changes.Just because a female has cervical dysplasia, it does not mean she will get cervical cancer, it means she has precancerous changes to the cells of the cervix. Dysplasia is generally referred to as mild, moderate and severe. Mild dysplasia is the most common and probably is not a true precancerous disease. Mild dysplasia generally represents a tissue response to the virus. Up to 70% of women with mild dysplasia will have the cells return to normal without any treatment. Moderate and severe dysplasia are usually treated because of their higher rates of developing into cancer.Usually the health care provider will want to monitor the cervix closely. Some health care providers will take a more aggressive stance and will want to treat any type of dysplasia. Others may be open to discussing options and/or closely monitoring the cervix with more frequent pap smears before making decisions about when to treat and what treatment option(s) should be considered.
50Interpreting Pap smears Interpretation of Pap smears can be difficult:Abnormalities may not be picked up by the spatula or brushAbnormalities may be difficult to seeCytologists and clinicians are very careful about interpreting pap smear results and recommending follow-up care. They don’t want to overlook any abnormality. They are also aware that failure to detect early cancers could lead to serious and even deadly consequences.This caution may lead them to request another pap test or other tests.
51Abnormal pap tests What is usually recommended? Re-testing Treat with antibioticsHPV-DNA testingColposcopyBiopsyWomen with abnormal Pap smear results are usually examined further for cervical problems. You may be advised to take some medication to help clear up a possible infection. Be sure to complete the prescribed treatment and repeat the test as advised. Be sure to re-test when advised by your health care provider.The health care provider may just want you to re-test in 1-3 months.You may be advised to have a colposcopy and biopsy.A colposcopy is a procedure in which the vagina and the surface of the uterine cervix is examined through a lighted microscope (colposcope) for signs of cervical abnormalities or cancer. It requires special training to be able to perform the test. It is recommended for women with high-grade lesions (HSIL) and carcinoma results in a Pap smear, and may also be offered to women who have atypical glandular or squamous cell results; it is recommended to be offered to those with ASC-US pap smears AND positive HPV DNA tests.Often they remove any abnormal cells at the same time with cryotherapy, laser surgery or electrocautery (LEEP).If the pap smear result comes back ASC-US or border-line “normal-abnormal” then an HPV-DNA test may be done in the lab to see if HPV is causing this borderline result.
52Why can’t men be tested for HPV? Studies have been unable to standardize specificity and sensitivity in men leading to clinical ambiguity
53Case StudyLaura and Shane have dated throughout High School. They love and care for each other very much. One evening, Laura told Shane that she had an abnormal Pap smear and may have HPV.What should Shane do to see if he has HPV?How can Shane protect himself from getting HPV?Shane has likely been infected since most sexually active persons will be infected at least once in their lifetime. Condom use is not always helpful in preventing transmission. Condoms provide some protection but they do not protect all of the skin that touches during intimate contact. Having warts removed will decrease the virus particles on the skin. Laura should get regular pap smears.Shane could benefit from an exam but there is a strong possibility that the exam will not find the presence of genital HPV (the visible type) since Laura had an abnormal pap smear and those types are not linked to the visible types of HPV (6 and 11).
54What is the difference between the Pap test, a biopsy and an HPV test? Pap test finds abnormal cell changes on the cervixBiopsy is when a cluster of cells is removed from the cervix to confirm earlier Pap smear results and rule out cancerHPV test looks for genetic material (DNA) of HPV within cells.What's the difference between a Pap test, a biopsy and a HPV test?A Pap test, or Pap smear, is a screening to find abnormal cell changes on the cervix (cervical dysplasia ) before they ever have a chance to develop into cancer. During a pelvic exam, a small brush or cotton tipped applicator will be used to take a swab of cervical cells. These cells are then put either on a glass slide or in a container with liquid, and sent to the laboratory for evaluation. The most common commercially available liquid-based Pap test is called ThinPrep®, manufactured by Cytyc.A biopsy is similar to a Pap test, but a larger cluster of cells is removed from the cervix to see if there are abnormal cell changes. It is a good way to confirm the earlier Pap smear result and to rule out cancer. If a biopsy is done, it will be performed at the same time as the colposcopy.An HPV test is different than a Pap test or biopsy. This test checks directly for the genetic material (DNA) of HPV within cells, and can detect the types connected with cervical cancer. The test is done in a laboratory, usually with the same cell sample taken during the Pap test. The only commercially available test for HPV is called Hybrid Capture II™, produced by Digene. It is most convenient if the HPV test is done in the laboratory from a cervical cell sample that was taken using a liquid-based Pap test.
55When Is an HPV Test Used?As a follow-up test if the Pap result is “borderline”In combination with a Pap test in women at the age of 30 and olderFalse positive results can occurWhen is a HPV test used? Currently, the HPV test called Hybrid Capture II™, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in two different situations:(1) As a follow-up test if the Pap result is borderline between "normal" and "abnormal." This is usually called "atypical squamous cells" or "ASC-US." The HPV test is then used in the lab to determine if women with the borderline result are more likely to have precancerous changes on their cervix, (HPV positive), and which are more likely to just have normal cells (HPV negative). Basically, the test helps to rule out whether HPV is causing the borderline abnormal cells.(2) As a cervical cancer screening test in combination with a Pap test in women at or over age 30 (rather than just having the Pap test alone). Research shows that the combination test can increase the effectiveness of detecting any problems early on. A preliminary recommendation by the American Cancer Society state that if the combination Pap - HPV DNA test (Digene’s DNA with Pap™ test) result is normal/negative, then the next screening would not have to be for three years. However, if one of the tests in the DNA with Pap comes back abnormal/positive, then follow-up will be needed.HPV testing can also be done on a cell sample taken during your Pap test if a technique called the liquid-based pap test was used. In the liquid-based pap test, the cells are collected by rotating a plastic brush on the cervix. The samples are then placed in a jar of solution and sent to the lab for examination.HPV testing done during a liquid-based Pap test eliminates the need to have HPV testing done at a later time.
56When Is an HPV Test NOT Used? If the Pap result shows dysplasia or pre-cancerous changesIn women under age 30Not on malesWhen is a HPV test NOT used?If the Pap result shows dysplasia or precancerous changes. This is because it is automatically assumed that the HPV is the cause.In women under age 30, unless they have had an ASC-US Pap test result.The HPV test cannot be used on males. It is only FDA approved to be used on the female's cervix. The use of the test is currently being researched in males.
57HPV Good News70% of new HPV infections spontaneously clear within one year, and as many as 91% clear within 2 years. The median duration of new infections is typically 8 months.The gradual development of an effective immune response is thought to be the likely mechanism for HPV DNA clearance.Women who develop high risk lesions only have a 5% to 15% chance of developing cancer in the absence of treatment.Millions of women in the US are known to be infected with HPV, yet only about 15,700 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed annually. This is due in part to two reasons:Most women with high risk types of HPV that rid themselves of the virus within two years (immune response suppresses/eliminates virus)Women who develop high risk lesions only have about a 5% to 15% chance of developing cancer in the absence of treatment.A study of college students found 30% still had the detectable presence of HPV after 12 months and an additional 9% still had detectable presence of HPV after 24 months.The longer that HPV persists, the more likely it will cause pre-cancerous/cancer changes. Only about 10% of women infected with HPV develop persistent HPV infections.HPV 16 is more likely to persist than other HPV types, but in most cases, even with HPV 16, infection becomes undetectable within 2 years
58Non-detectable HPVCurrently it is unclear whether genital HPV infections that become “non-detectable” using standard molecular tests have completely cleared or whether they remain latent in basal cells with the potential for later reactivationReactivation may explain why some older women in a mutually monogamous relationship can begin to shed genital HPVHPV more likely to be detected in persons with immune system disorders
59Treatment for Cervical Dysplasia CryotherapyLEEPConizationLaserNo treatment but regular repeat testingThere are a variety of treatments for cervical dysplasia:Cryotherapy (freezing the cells with liquid nitrogen).LEEP (Loop Electrosurgical Exision Procedure)Conization (also called cone biopsy)Laser (not as widely used today due to high cost, lack of availability, and not all doctors are well-trained with using it. LEEP is more commonly used)No treatment at all since even mild abnormal cell changes may resolve without treatment. The health care provider may just monitor the cervix by either doing a colposcopy, repeat Pap testing, or a test for HPV.The goal of treatment is not elimination of the virus, but for the body’s immune system to control the virus.Not smoking may improve immune system function. Women who smoke concentrate the chemicals nicotine and cotinine into their cervix, which harms the cells. Male partners of women with dysplasia should not smoke since these chemicals concentrate in genital secretions and can “bathe” the cervix with these chemicals during intercourse.The National Cancer Society recommends that women consume 5 servings of fresh vegetables and fruits each day or take a multi-vitamin with Vitamin E or beta-carotene.
60Key Educational Messages HPV infection is very common, few will develop cervical cancerHPV is not a reliable indicator of a woman’s sexual behavior or that of her partnerMost HPV infections are transient, harmless, have no signs/symptoms, and are cleared by the immune systemPersistent HPV infection over many years is necessary but not sufficient for the development of cervical cancerCervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and early detection-regular Pap smears
61Pregnancy and Cervical Dysplasia For some, cervical dysplasia may increaseMonitor cervix closelyRarely treat during pregnancyFor some pregnant women, cervical dysplasia may increase. This may be due to hormone changes during pregnancy, but this is not proven.If a woman has an abnormal Pap smear during pregnancy, even if it's severely abnormal, many health care providers will not treat. They will just monitor the cervix closely with a colposcope during the pregnancy.Often several weeks after delivery, the health care provider will do another pap smear or biopsy. Many times after pregnancy, the cell changes will have spontaneously resolved and no treatment will be necessary.The reason most health care providers do not treat during pregnancy is because it may cause early labor.The types of HPV that cause dysplasia have not been found to cause problems for babies.
63Gardasil Approved in June 2006 Produced by Merck and Co.First vaccine to prevent cervical cancerRecombinant vaccineApproved for use in females aged 9-26Ideally, before becoming sexually activeProtects against infection with Types 6, 11, 16, 18Women aren’t protected if they have already been infected with the HPV type(s) that are covered by the vaccine prior to vaccinationFirst vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer, abnormal and precancerous cervical lesions, abnormal and precancerous vaginal and vulvar lesions, and genital warts.Recombinant vaccines are made by genetic engineering, the process and method of manipulating the genetic material of an organism. In this case, genes that code for a specific protein from each of the four virus types of HPV are expressed in yeast to create large quantities of the protein. The protein that is produced is purified and then used to make the vaccine. Because the vaccine only contains a protein, and not the entire virus, the vaccine cannot cause an infection with HPV. It is the body’s immune response to the recombinant protein(s) that then protects against infection by the naturally occurring virus.Types 6 and 11 cause approximately 90% of all genital warts.Types 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancer.Ideally, the vaccine should be administered before onset of sexual activity. Females who have not been infected with any vaccine HPV type would receive the full benefit of the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more type would still get protection from the vaccine type(s) they have not acquired. Few young women are infected with all four HPV types in the vaccine. Currently, there is no test available for clinical use to determine if a female has (or had) any or all of the four HPV types in the vaccine.
64How well does Gardasil work? Four multinational studies were conductedWomen between ages of 16-26Given placebo or vaccine100% effective in preventing precancerous cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions and genital warts in women not already infected with the types of HPV found in the vaccineTested with similar results in females aged 9-15
65Will Gardasil help a female who already has a vaccine type HPV? Gardasil only works to prevent four HPV typesIt is not a treatment for one or more of the HPV typesHowever, females already infected with one or more of the four types of HPV can still receive protection from the vaccine HPV type(s) she has not acquired
66Can males use Gardasil?Gardasil has not been approved for use in males, but the manufacturer currently has a study underway to see if it is safe and effective for men.Once the study is complete, the FDA will review the data and make recommendationsWe do not yet know if the vaccine is effective in boys or men. It is possible that vaccinating males will have health benefits for them by preventing genital warts and rare cancers, such as penile and anal cancer. It is also possible that vaccinating boys/men will have indirect health benefits for girls/women. Studies are now underway to see if the vaccine works to prevent HPV infection and disease in males.
67How is Gardasil administered? Three injections given over a six-month periodInitial doseSecond dose is given 2 months laterThird and last dose is given 4 months after the second dose or six months after the initial doseIt is administered in the upper arm or thigh (intramuscularly)The retail price of the vaccine is $120/dose (or $360 for the full series).Some insurance companies will cover the vaccine, others may not.Vaccines for Children (VAC) is a federal program that provides free vaccines to children and teens under 19 years of age, who are either uninsured, Medicaid-eligible, American Indian, or Alaskan Native.
68Potential adverse reactions Mild/moderate pain or tenderness at the injection siteFemales who are allergic to yeast or any component of the vaccine should not receive Gardasil.It is not a live vaccine, so it cannot cause an infection with HPV.The vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women.Lactating women can receive the HPV vaccine.Immunocompromised women can receive this vaccine.There has been limited research looking at vaccine safety for pregnant women and their unborn babies. So far, studies suggest that the vaccine has not caused health problems during pregnancy, nor has it caused health problems for the infant, but more research is still needed.For now, pregnant women should complete their pregnancy before getting the vaccine.If a woman finds out she is pregnant after she has started the series, she should complete her pregnancy before finishing the three-dose series.Immunocompromised females, either from disease or medication, can receive this vaccine; however the immune response to vaccination and vaccine efficacy might be less than in immunocompetent females.The vaccine can be administered to people with minor acute illnesses (e.g. diarrhea , mild upper respiratory tract infections, with/without fever). People with moderate or severe acute illnesses should be deferred until after the illness improves.
69How long does the vaccine protection last? Vaccine protection is usually not known when a vaccine is first introducedStudies that have followed women for 5 years indicate they are still fully protectedMore research is being done to see if a booster will be needed years laterIt is not yet known how much protection would be given with only one or two vaccines (of the three)
70Other Vaccines in Development GSK has a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix) that is still in research studiesThey have sought FDA approval; it is anticipated to be approved in December 2007 or early 2008It would protect against Types 16 and 18
71Important NotesWomen should continue to receive regular cervical cancer screening (pap smears)The vaccine will NOT protect against all types of genital HPVWomen may not have completed the full series of vaccinationsIf they had been exposed to one or more types prior to vaccination, there is still a risk for cervical abnormalities and/or genital warts to developWomen should continue to practice protective sexual behaviors since the vaccine will not prevent all cases of genital HPV or other STDs, including HIVWomen should still continue to practice protective sexual behaviors-Abstinence-Monogamy-Limiting number of partners-Using condoms (may have a protective effect on HPV acquisition, reduce the risk for HPV-associated diseases, and mitigate the adverse consequences of infection with HPV) since the vaccine will not protect against all cases of genital HPV nor will it prevent other STDs, including HIV.
72HPV Prevention Abstinence Monogamy Condoms Removal of warts Vaccine (Females aged 9-26)The only way you can prevent getting an HPV infection is to avoid direct contact with the virus, which is transmitted by skin-to-skin contact. Avoid contact until all the warts are treated and gone.Studies have not confirmed that male latex condoms prevent transmission of HPV itself, since they may not cover the area that has the warts. But results do suggest that condom use may reduce the risk of developing diseases linked to HPV, such as genital warts and cervical cancer.50% to 70% of sex partners of people with genital warts already have or do develop warts.
73HPV Resources and Support HPV Hotline HPV-5868(ASHA publications “HPV News”)(919)CDC HotlineTDH STD/HIV Info-line(800) 299-AIDSIt is normal to feel upset about genital warts. Some people feel ashamed, fearful, confused, less attractive or less interested in sex. They may be angry at their partner(s) even though it is often not possible to know exactly when or from whom the virus was spread.Some people worry about cancer or that they’ll never be able to find a partner.Ways to help cope with genital warts emotionally:Talk with someone you can trustGo to an HPV support groupGet educated and learn the factsCall the HPV Hotline or National/Local STD hotline
74Additional information Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)American Social Health Association (ASHA)National Cancer Institute1-800-CANCER ( )