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Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT AND THE PROGRESSIVE ERA"— Presentation transcript:

SSUSH15 – analyze the origins and impact of U. S. involvement in World War I

2 WORLD WAR I 1914 – World War I began in Europe
President Woodrow Wilson – declared U. S. neutral (not backing either side) Isolationism ( U. S. should stay out of international conflicts) Wilson’s Presidential Slogan in 1916 – “he kept us out of war”

3 The World at War

U-boats – submarines attacked ships in the Atlantic – in 1915 blew up Lusitania with Americans on board; later Germany agreed not to attack passenger ships Unrestricted submarine warfare – Germany attacking all ships Zimmerman telegram – sent by Germans to Mexico to encourage them to attack U. S., if declared war on Germany World “must be made safe for democracy” – Wilson’s case for war; entered April 1917

5 Sinking of Lusitania

6 WORLD WAR I: The War Ends
Reasons Germany’s failure to defeat Britain and France Arrival of U. S. troops Armistice (cease fire/agreement to stop fighting) –November 11,1918 at 11th hour Peace Conference – held in Paris; leaders of the warring nations; Pres. Wilson’s goal was peace and stability (introduced his Fourteen Points) League of Nations – purpose would be to provide a place where countries could peacefully discuss solutions to their differences; U. S. did not join Treaty of Versailles – ended war; U. S. did not sign treaty ending World War I

7 World Leaders meet to bring peace after WWI

8 GREAT MIGRATION Social Impact of war
Increase demand of products (weapons, supplies, uniforms, equipment, etc) Need for more men in north because most had gone to war Result, many African Americans began leaving the South to pursue better economic opportunities and hopes of escaping southern racism Mass movement of African Americans from rural South to northern cities continued for sever decades and was known as the Great Migration

9 African Americans migrating north for jobs

10 REVIEW QUESTIONS Which of the following would an isolationist support?
a. Staying out of WWI b. Zimmerman telegram c. Sending U. S. troops to fight in Europe d. The League of Nations For what reasons did the U. S. eventually enter World War I? 3. What was the League of Nations and why did the United States Senate refuse to ratify the treaty that would have made the U.S. a member?

11 SSUSH16: Identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI

12 The 1920s People of the United States wanted a “return to normalcy” after World War I. Warren G. Harding promised to do just that

13 The “Red Scare” and Immigration
Americans showed fear of foreigners by retreating into nativism and isolationism Also feared the spread of communism (economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship) The Red Scare Caused by the overthrow of Russia’s czarist regime in 1917 The Bolsheviks – led by Vladamir Lenin – established a Communist state (based on the teachings of Karl Marx Communist Party formed in the United States 13

14 The “Red Scare” and Immigration
The Palmer Raids U.S. Attorney Gen. Mitchell Palmer appointed J. Edgar Hoover as his special assistant Hoover hunted down suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists (people who oppose government) Hoover violated people’s civil rights, invaded private homes and offices, jailed suspects without legal counsel Raids did not turn up any evidence of a conspiracy

15 Fear of Communism Sacco and Vanzetti
Red Scared fed people’s fears and suspicions of foreigners Nicolo Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian immigrants and anarchists were arrested and charged with burglary and murder Found guilty and sentenced to death People around the world protested

16 Immigration Restrictions
“Keep America for Americans…” The Klan Rises Again Fed off of anti-immigrant feelings Targeted Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born people The Quota System Emergency Quota Act of 1921 established a maximum number of people who could enter U.S. from each country Temporary limit on immigrants in 1924 and permanent bans in 1929 Japanese immigrants were prohibited

17 Henry Ford and the Automobile
Following WWI there were a number of innovations in business and technology Henry Ford Perfected and successfully marketed the automobile using mass production and the assembly line – this made automobiles cheaper for ordinary people Saw his workers as consumers – paid them $5/day (a good salary) so they could afford his cars From 1907 – 1926, Ford build half the automobiles in the world (16,750,000) People became more mobile, lived further away from jobs – moved to suburbs

18 Henry Ford and the Automobile

19 Cultural Influences Availability of electricity in homes allowed new appliances like refrigerators, sewing machines, vacuum cleaners, and washing machines Reduced the amount of time needed to do housework More women worked outside of home Hairstyles and fashion reflected change Men and women had more leisure time Nightlife became common

20 Radio and Movies Two of the most impactful developments in media were the radio and movies. Radio united the nation and molded a national culture – it transformed politics by giving leaders direct access to larger numbers of people The first movies were silent pictures, then movies with sound (“talkies) Fashions and lifestyles on the big screen helped define a national culture – movie stars became national icons

21 Harlem Renaissance Black intellectuals created a thriving Afro-American culture in new York’s Harlem. Poets, artists, novelists, and musicians such as Louis Armstrong reach back to their African roots to demonstrate the richness of their racial heritage. Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, James Weldon Johnson These artists inspire and encourage African Americans to remain strong in the face of racial violence.

22 Jeunesse by Palmer Hayde

23 Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed – I, too, am America. Langston Hughes

24 Storyteller Zora Neal Hurston “I saw no curse in being black.”

25 Tin Pan Alley Tin Pan Alley grew to be an important center of the music industry during this time. The name referred to the various music houses in New York City where songwriters and musicians composed and published songs. Irving Berlin became the most famous Composed over 3,000 songs: “White Christmas,” “God Bless America,” and “There’s No Business Like Show Business”

26 Review 1. The term “Red Scare” refers to
A. US concerns about communism. B. citizens fears concerning the social changes of the 1920s. C. specific legislation restricting immigration. D. white fears inspired by the Harlem Renaissance. 2. Tin Pan Alley is most associated with A. Langston Hughes. C. Irving Berlin. B. the Red Scare. D. Henry Ford. 3. Describe Henry Ford’s impact on the car industry and business practices in general.

27 SSUSH19: Identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government. Standard

28 The United States Musters Its Forces
After WWI, the U.S. had retreated into isolationism and neutrality Once again, war threatened Europe Italy was Fascist; Germany was Nazi, and Soviet Union was Communist

29 Causes of World War II: Hitler and Mussolini
Following WWI, Europe was devastated by the effects of a worldwide economic depression People blamed government leaders for their hardships Totalitarian governments rose to power Adolf Hitler in Germany and Benito Mussolini in Italy seized power (two became allies) Hitler was able to win support for the Nazi Party, blaming the Jews, the betrayal of the former German republic, and Germany’s enemies in WWI for the nation’s troubles Promised to restore the glory of the nation Called himself “Fuhrer” (leader) of Germany and labeled his new government the “Third Reich”, an empire lasting a thousand years

30 Hitler’s Aggression 1936, Hitler moved German troops in Rhineland – violating the Treaty of Versailles Britain and France ignored the move March 1938, Hitler Annexed Austria – no reaction September 1938, Hitler demanded Sudetenland (in western Czechoslovakia) Britain and France used the policy of “appeasement” – agreed to giving Hitler Sudetenland if he did not take anymore territories Winston Churchill opposed the policy: “Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.”

31 Japan 1920s and 1930s, Japan began
aggressively expanding its territory It lacked natural resources, so it began to conquer territory in the South Pacific Japan invaded Manchuria (in China) in 1931 The League of Nations demanded they leave – Japan withdrew from the League instead 1937, Japan began trying to seize the rest of China By 1938, had captured major cities along the Chinese coast 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the Axis Powers

32 The United States Musters Its Forces
Moving Cautiously Away From Neutrality Franklin Delano Roosevelt is president September 1939, Roosevelt convinced Congress to pass a “cash and carry” provision that allowed warring nations to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid cash and transported them on their own ships

33 US Reactions FDR was also dealing with racial tension in the US armed forces Blacks and whites served in segregated units On ships, whites got more sophisticated duties, blacks served as cooks, janitors 1941, African-American leader A. Philip Randolph proposed a march on Washington to protest discrimination FDR responded with the Fair Employment Act – outlawing discrimination – Randolph canceled the march

34 Review 1. Who was the totalitarian dictator who rose to power in Germany and aggressively seized foreign territory that set the stage for another world war? A. Benito Mussolini B. Axis Powers C. Adolf Hitler D. A.P. Randolph 2. Which country aggressively conquered parts of China and other areas in the South Pacific in the 1920s and 1930? A. Germany B. Italy C. Japan D. Ethiopia 3. Why did A. Philip Randolph and others propose a march on Washington, DC in 1947? Describe the effect their actions had on government action and race relations.

35 Major Events and Battles of WWII: The War in Europe
September 1, 1939 Hitler launched WWII in Europe when he invaded Poland – it stood between Germany and the Soviet Union Hitler wanted to conquer the Soviet Union Signed a peace treaty with the Soviets – “non-aggression pact” (wouldn’t attack each other) Hitler had to conquer France first to keep them from aiding the USSR – once France was defeated he could forget the pact and invade USSR Joseph Stalin was not fooled, but signed pact anyway Great Britain and France declared war on Germany

36 Fall of France and the Battle of Britain
April 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway and then moved on to Belgium, the Netherlands and France Hitler forced France to sign an armistice, then tried to establish peace with Great Britain – Britain refused, so he turned on them as well US was still neutral, the Soviet Union had not entered the war Leaving Great Britain alone to face German domination of Europe Battle of Britain raged from July – October 1940 Germany bombed British cities nightly – London citizens slept in subways Churchill inspired the British people with a strong sense of nationalism and hope British able to fight off the Germans with their Royal Air Force – forcing Hitler to give up invading Great Britain



39 The United States Musters Its Forces
Building U.S. Defenses U.S. increased spending on national defense Instituted the draft – Selective Training and Service Act Men between ages of 21 and 35 were registered Roosevelt Runs for Third Term Broke tradition of running for two terms

40 The United States Enters the War
FDR: “If Great Britain goes down, all of us in the Americas would be living at the point of a gun. We must be the great arsenal of democracy.” March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act Could send aid to any nation whose defense was considered vital to the US’s national security – the countries could pay later “If your neighbor’s house is on fire, you don’t sell him a hose, you give it to him.”

41 Japan Attacks the United States
U.S. decodes a secret Japanese communication Japan was planning to attack U.S.; when and where was not known The Attack on Pearl Harbor “A day which will live in infamy” December 7, 1941, 180 Japanese warplanes flew over Pearl Harbor dropping bombs for an hour and a half 2043 Americans killed, 1178 wounded

42 Japan Attacks the United States
Reaction to Pearl Harbor Pres. Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war Germany and Italy declared war on the United States U.S. had entered World War II

43 Internment of Japanese, German, and Italian Americans
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor made Americans suspicious of Japanese, German, and Italian Americans – they may support the Axis Powers Thousands of these citizens were forced into internment camps – located in remote areas so they could be monitored Japanese suffered more than Germans and Italians 100,000 Japanese Americans were forced from their homes and businesses – losing everything 1944, US Supreme Court said internment was lawful and justified 1983, US formally recognized injustice – paid $20,000 to living Japanese Americans who suffered

44 The Amache Japanese Internment Camp in Colorado

45 Attack on Pearl Harbor

46 Americans Join the War Effort
Japan thought their attack on Pearl Harbor would make Americans shrink from conflict. NOT! Selective Service and the GI After Pearl Harbor, eager young Americans jammed recruiting offices 5 million volunteers was not enough to fight on two fronts: Europe and the Pacific 10 million men were drafted

47 The United States and Britain Join Forces
British Prime Minster – Winston Churchill “We are in the same boat” Churchill and Roosevelt met to work out war strategy for Europe and Japan The Battle of the Atlantic Hitler ordered submarine raids against ships along America’s east coast Germans wanted to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain and the Soviet Union Allies used convoys escorted by destroyers with sonar to detect submarines; airplanes were also used

48 The War in Europe Three days after Pearl Harbor, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States Hitler had attacked the Soviet Union The US, Britain, and the Soviet Union stood together as the Allied Powers – drove Axis out of North Africa, took parts of Italy then planned invasion of Western Europe

49 The War in Europe D-DAY Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin met December 1943
Stalin wanted to invade France, US and Britain agreed General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed to serve as supreme allied commander in charge of planning Operation Overlord gathered 3 million British, American, and Canadian troops to attack Normandy in northern France June 6, 1944 Allied air forces landed behind German lines, followed by thousands of seaborne soldiers Largest land-sea-air operation in army history German retaliation was brutal on Omaha Beach




53 The Allies Liberate Europe
The Allies Gain Ground The suffered heavy casualties, but held the beachheads By September 1944 the Allies had freed France, Belgium, and Luxembourg Roosevelt was elected to a fourth term Don’t “change horses in midstream”

54 The Allies Liberate Europe
The Battle of the Bulge Turning point of WWII German troops drove 60 miles into Allied territory in Germany creating a bulge in the lines between American and Britain forces Germans captured 120 American soldiers and mowed them down with machine guns Nazis were forced to retreat after losing 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes

55 The Holocaust The invasion of Europe exposed the horrible atrocities committed by the Nazis against the Jews Hitler used anti-Semitism to ascend to power – blaming Jews for Germany’s financial problems Hitler’s “Final Solution” was to exterminate the Jewish race – he rounded them up and put them in concentration camps where they were killed or used as slave labor Allied forces pressed eastward into German heartland and the Soviet army pushed westward across Poland toward Berlin Soviet troops reach the death camps first Found a thousand starving prisoners and the world largest crematorium, storehouse of 800,000 shoes Six million Jews died during the Holocaust



58 The Allies Liberate Europe
Unconditional Surrender April 25, 1945 Soviet army had stormed Berlin Hitler hid in underground headquarters; shot himself, new wife drank poison Bodies were burned President Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945 Allied countries celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) on May 8, 1945 Harry S. Truman becomes 33rd president

59 War in the Pacific Hours after attacking Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the Philippines, destroying nearly half of the US airplanes stationed there Took 75,000+ US soldiers and Filipinos as POWs – forced to walk 60 miles to war camps, many died (Bataan Death March) Japanese troops had overrun Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, and much of China 80,000 American and Filipino troops under Gen. Douglas MacArthur battled the Japanese

60 The Battle of Midway and Island Hopping
Japanese Admiral Yamamoto considered a military genius for attack on Pearl Harbor The Battle of Midway – June 1942 Midway was an island northwest of Hawaii Allies were able to prevent Japanese from taking island Americans torpedoed Japanese planes and dive bombers Was the turning point in the Pacific War Improved morale of US’s Pacific forces

61 The Allies Go on the Offensive
Allies started “island hopping” (regaining one island at a time) moving toward Japan Japanese Defense Japanese started kamikaze attacks (suicide-planes) Flew 424 kamikaze missions in the Philippines Iwo Jima Allies able to retake Philippines They took Iwo Jima as a strategic point to reach Japan with bombers

62 The Allies Go on the Offensive
The Battle for Okinawa Final assault on Japan April 1945, U.S. Marines invaded Okinawa Japanese unleashed 1,900 kamikaze attacks on Allies; sank 30 ships, damaged 300 more, killed 5,000 seamen Japan lost 110,000 lives

63 A Production Miracle Mobilization of Scientists
1941, Roosevelt created Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into war effort – headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer Manhattan Project Secret project to build the atomic bomb Took place in labs at Los Alamos, New Mexico Tested in the desert on July 16, 1945 – explosion shattered windows 125 miles away

64 The Atomic Bomb Harry S. Truman attended the Potsdam Conference to discuss postwar policies with Prime Minister Churchill and Joseph Stalin Potsdam Declaration – allied leaders restated their policy of “unconditional surrender” – allies would determine terms of peace with no conditions accepted from Japan Japan refused to surrender

65 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Pres. Truman approved the use of the bomb B29 bomber Enola Gay released the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, three days later on Nagasaki (dropped second bomb because Japan still did not surrender) Killed 200,000; every building collapsed; radiation and poisoning occurred August 14, 1945 Japan finally surrendered WWII was over! US celebrated V-J Day (Victory over Japan)



68 Review 1. The US entered the fighting in WWII specifically because of what event? A. Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor B. Germany’s invasion of Poland C. Germany’s and the USSR’s non-aggression pact D. the fall of France 2. Who would have been most excited about the US’ Lend-Lease Act? A. Adolf Hitler C. Winston Churchill B. Isoroku Yamamoto D. Benito Mussolini

69 Review 3. What was the purpose of US internment camps?
A. to protect Japanese, German, and Italian American citizens from racists who might harm them B. to provide a place to train soldiers to fight in WWII C. to allow a secluded place for scientists to work on the atomic bomb D. to keep a close eye on citizens who might be a threat to the US war effort 4. Describe how German, Italian, and Japanese Americans were treated by the US government during WWII. 5. What was the atomic bomb, why was it used, and what effect did it have on the war?

70 The War at Home: Government Action
The government paid artists to design patriotic war posters; movie theaters began playing newsreels depicting the US war effort in a positive light US economy had to switch from peacetime to wartime quickly Pres. Roosevelt established the War Production Board (WPB) Re-directed resources away from consumer goods to materials needed for war US economy boomed, unemployed found jobs

71 The War at Home: Government Action
Income Taxes and War Bonds US needed to raise money More people required to pay income taxes (withholding income tax) Held war bond drives to promote the purchase of bonds ($60 million was raised)

72 The War at Home: Citizen Sacrifice
The government also asked people to sacrifice resources Citizens grew victory gardens so more food could be sent to feed soldiers Rationing Designed to make sure essentials were available for the military Households received ration books with coupons to buy meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gas

73 The War at Home: “Rosie the Riveter”
US men were going off to war, women became important part of the workforce Shortage of workers to meet industrial and military needs Women were used to fill the jobs – women were able to prove themselves “Rosie the Riveter” was a popular song that described a woman who worked in the factory as a riveter while her boyfriend served in the marines Became the symbol of those women who entered the workforce to fill the gap left vacant by men serving in the war

74 Review 1. The term “Rosie the Riveter” refers to
A. people who raised victory gardens. B. women who worked jobs so men could fight in WWII. C. women who joined the military. D. the head of the War Production Board. 2. What was the purpose of the War Production Board? 3. How did the war affect citizens and the role of women in US society?

75 The Great Depression

76 Standard SSUSH17: Analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression.

77 Initial Prosperity Pres. Harding’s administration was racked by scandals After he died in 1923 Vice President Calvin Coolidge became president Coolidge supported big business and believed in laissez-faire economics (gov’t shouldn’t regulate business) “The business of the American people is business.”

78 Hoover Takes the Nation
The Election of 1928 Herbert Hoover, a Republican, won an overwhelming victory in 1928 Dreams of Riches in the Stock Market In 1929, economists began to warn of weaknesses in the economy Americans remained confident – stock prices rose People engaged in speculation (ignoring risks and buying stocks for quick profit) Others bought began buying on margin (paying a small percentage of stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest)

79 Initial Prosperity Mechanization transformed industry
Products could be made faster and more efficiently, making them cheaper More people purchased cars, clothes, appliances Consumerism became more normal and people spent more than they saved Economic times seemed good

80 Overproduction Industries in Trouble
Railroads, textiles, and steel barely made a profit Railroads lost business to trucks, buses, and private automobiles Mining and lumbering were no longer in high demand after the war Coal mining was impacted by new forms of energy: hydroelectric power, fuel oil, natural gas Industries such as autos, construction, and consumer goods also suffered When the market has more of a product than consumers want it is called overproduction Consumers’ reluctance to buy is referred to as underconsumption

81 Economic Troubles on the Horizon
Agriculture suffered the most After the war, demand fell, crop prices declined Farmers boosted production, which depressed prices further Midwestern farmers unknowingly stripped much of the land and left it damaged This damage combined with droughts left the soil dry and easily swept away by high winds The Dust Bowl was a series of storms that hit the Midwest, causing enormous, black clouds of dust that blanketed farms and entire cities, displacing hundreds of thousands of farmers

82 Economic Troubles on the Horizon
Consumers Have Less Money to Spend Farmers bought fewer goods and services Americans were buying less because of rising prices, stagnant wages, unbalanced distribution of income, and overbuying on credit Production had grown faster than wages Widened gap between rich and poor

83 Economic Troubles on the Horizon
Living on Credit Many Americans had been living beyond their means They bought on credit (an arrangement in which consumers agreed to buy now and pay later) Easy credit encouraged Americans to pile up large amounts of debt People had trouble paying off their debt, cut back on spending

84 Economic Troubles on the Horizon
Uneven Distribution of Income The rich got richer and the poor got poorer Incomes of the wealthiest 1% rose by 75% 70% of American families earned less than $2,500 per year – even families earning twice that could not afford household products Average men and women bought one new outfit per year Half the homes had electricity or heat

85 The Stock Market Crashes
September 1929, stock prices rose then fell Black Tuesday October 29, 1929 the bottom fell out of the stock market, known as Black Tuesday shareholders tried to sell before prices fell to low 16.4 million shares were sold in one day People who bought on credit were stuck with huge debts Others lost their savings By November investors had lost $30 billion

86 Financial Collapse Bank and Business Failures
People panicked and withdrew money from banks Some couldn’t get money By 1933, 25,000 banks had closed Businesses closed, millions lost their jobs, others faced pay cuts and reduced hours Some people did well Joseph Kennedy (father of JFK) had sold off his stock before the crash

87 Causes of the Great Depression
1. Overproduction and Underconsumption that led to falling prices 2. Consumerism: citizens began buying and spending more money than they saved 3. Buying risky stocks on Speculation and “Buying on the Margin” 4. Stock Market Crash of 1929 (“Black Tuesday”)

88 The Depression Devastates People’s Lives
The Depression in the Cities People were evicted from homes Many slept in parks and sewer pipes wrapped in newspaper Others built shacks which became shantytowns (little towns consisting of shacks) – later called Hoovervilles People dug through garbage for food Charities opened soup kitchens and bread lines

89 Shacks

90 Soup Kitchen

91 The Depression Devastates People’s Lives
The Depression in the Cities continued… Latinos and African Americans had it worse Higher unemployment rates, lowest wages, racial violence (lynchings) Americans wanted Latinos deported – many relocated to Mexico The Depression in Rural Areas Farmers had the advantage of being able to grow their own food Lots of farmers lost their farms Many turned to tenant farming

92 The Depression Devastates People’s Lives
The Dust Bowl A drought had wreaked havoc on the Great Plains Land had been exhausted from overproduction of crops Wind scattered topsoil States hit hardest were: Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado Families picked up and left, headed for California

93 Effect on the American Family
Women Struggle to Survive Many women canned food and sewed clothes, managed household budgets Women worked outside the home for lower wages than men Married women were frowned upon in the workforce Women were starving to death in cold attics and rooming houses

94 Effect on the American Family
Children Suffer Hardships Poor diets and lack of healthcare led to health problems Rise in malnutrition Many schools had shorter years or closed because of loss of revenue Teenagers, especially boys hopped on freight trains Some were murdered or locked in ice cars by mistake

95 Effect on the American Family
Most families stayed together Men in the Streets Some men abandoned their families because they could not find work 300,000 transients (hoboes) wandered the country, hitching rides or railroad boxcars, sleeping under bridges

96 Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation
Hoover’s Philosophy Americans should depend on themselves and not the government Americans were shocked by his response Hoover Takes Cautious Steps He asked business, banking, and labor to work together He asked employers not to cut wages and layoff workers Tried to help charities Nothing worked

97 Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation
Boulder Dam Building of the dam on the Colorado River helped World’s tallest dam Provided electricity and flood control and regular water supply to California

98 Hoover Takes Action Federal Home Loan Bank Act
Lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and farmers could refinance Reconstruction Finance Corporation Authorized $2 billion for emergency financing for banks, life insurance companies, railroads, and other large businesses These measures were too late!!

99 Review 1. The greatest economic crisis in US history is known as
A. overproduction C. The Great Depression B. The Dust Bowl D. Black Tuesday 2. What was the Dust Bowl and how did overproduction and droughts contribute to it? What effect did it have on farmers? 3. Describe some of the causes of the Great Depression?

100 Standard SSUSH18: Describe Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the Depression and compare the ways government programs aided those in need.

101 FDR Confronts the Nation’s Crisis
1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) elected Republicans did not expect Hoover to be reelected Americans blamed Hoover for doing too little too late FDR, the Democratic candidate, was a two-term governor from New York He won an overwhelming victory

102 Americans Get a New Deal
Waiting for Roosevelt to Takeover FDR would not be inaugurated until March 1933, four months after the election in November 1932 He worked with his team while he waited to take office Formulated a set of policies that would be known as the New Deal

103 Americans Get a New Deal
In FDR’s first Hundred Days Congress passed 15 major pieces of legislation Significantly expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy FDR used fireside chats (radio talk shows) to talk to the American public about issues of concern Regulations for banking and finance were put into place to protect consumers

104 Roosevelt’s First New Deal
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Put young men aged to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, flood control projects Sought to raise crop prices by lowering production (paid farmers not to grow) 1933 insured bank deposits up to $100,000

105 Roosevelt’s First New Deal
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Sought to bolster industrial prices and prevent US business failures. Included Public Works Administration (PWA) which built dams, highways, bridges – helped put people to work Built hydroelectric dams to create jobs and bring cheap electricity to parts of the South. Parts of Appalachians prospered because of TVA

106 Roosevelt Extends Relief
One of Roosevelt’s largest program was the Works Progress Administration (WPA) It set out to create as many jobs as possible as quickly as possible Between , $11 billion was spent to give jobs to 8 million workers They built airports, constructed roads and streets, and put up public buildings It also employed professionals to write guides to cities, collected slave narratives, painted murals on the walls of schools, and performed in theater troupes around the country

107 Roosevelt’s Critics Roosevelt’s reforms were applauded by many but criticized by others Called a socialist Others wanted more radical reforms Huey P. Long of Louisiana had headed a ruthless political machine and built support by helping poor and underprivileged Advocated a redistribution of wealth (take from rich and give to poor) Wanted to cap incomes at $1 million/year Assassinated in September 1935

108 The Second New Deal National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)
Social Security Act (SSA) Revenue Act of 1935 Also known as the Wagner Act – created a board to monitor unfair management practices against union members; allowed workers to organize unions, use collective bargaining, and go on strike Established retirement income for all workers at age 65; provided benefits to unemployed; only program still around today Raised taxes on those making $50,000/year as well as corporate and estate taxes

109 The Court-Packing Scheme
Another source of resistance to Roosevelt’s programs was the US Supreme Court It struck down a number of New Deal ideas February 1937, Roosevelt proposed his “court-packing scheme” – proposed enlarging the Court from nine to 15 judges so he could “pack” the Court with justices favorable to his programs Faced fierce opposition Political pressures forced Roosevelt to withdraw his request

110 Improving Labor and Other Reforms
Improving Labor Conditions One reform of the Second New Deal was the passage of the Wagner Act – reestablished the NIRA provision of collective bargaining This protected the rights of workers Prohibited unfair labor practices such as threatening workers, firing union members, and interfering with union organizing Set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to hear testimony about unfair practices

111 Strikers

112 FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition
an alignment of diverse groups dedicated to supporting the Democratic Party Included Southern whites, various urban groups, African Americans, and unionize industrial workers Labor Unions Flourish Union members enjoyed better working conditions because of the Wagner Act and other pro-labor legislation

113 FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition
Labor Unions Flourish continued… Between 1933 and 1941, union membership grew from less than 3 million to more than 10 million The AFL limited its membership to craft unions such as carpenters and electricians The Congress of Industrial Organization was formed to embrace other laborers Split from the AFL until 1935

114 FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition
Labor Disputes Labor unions used the sit-down strike effectively Factory owners were unable to carry on production with strikebreakers, or scabs Some labor disputes became violent At the Republic Steel plant in Chicago – Memorial Day, 1937 (Memorial Day Massacre) Ten people were killed, 84 wounded when police attacked strikers

115 Women and Minorities Women and minorities did not benefit from the New Deal as much as white males Programs favored men because they were the breadwinners of their families Allowed businesses to pay women less – did not regulate domestic work Many minorities still worked as farmers and migrant workers so they were excluded from Social Security New Deal programs sanctioned racial segregation Blacks had higher rates of unemployment, but did get some jobs as a result of programs – caused shift in black support

116 New Deal Reforms Endure
Expanding Government’s Role in the Economy continued… The New Deal did not end the Great Depression, but it helped reduce suffering The government went into deep debt to provide jobs and aid to the American people What really ended the Great Depression was World War II

117 FDR and International Concerns
New Deal programs contributed to worldwide depression FDR supported high tariffs (taxes on foreign imports) to encourage Americans to buy US products Foreign nations responded with their own tariffs making the depression worse around the globe Led to the start of WWII

118 The Neutrality Act In Europe militaristic dictators rose to power in Germany and Italy and threatened to lead the entire continent back into war Japan seized parts of China and threatened to continue expanding their Southeast Asian empire by military force US continued to practice isolationism – Americans wanted to focus on problems at home not abroad Congress passed the Neutrality Act in 1935 – prohibited the sale of weapons to warring nations

119 Eleanor Roosevelt FDR’s wife Eleanor Roosevelt, was one of the most impactful first ladies in US history Niece of former president, Theodore Roosevelt, and distant cousin of her husband Social activist Worked for reforms in state government and public housing, fought for the rights of working women, supported distribution of information on birth control Supporter of the “common citizen” Visited military veterans demanding payment for WWI service Often traveled in place of her husband who was paralyzed by polio Refused to obey Jim Crow laws in the South and sat with blacks and whites at interracial gatherings

120 Review 1. What were FDR’s government programs for dealing with the Great Depression called? A. National Recovery Programs C. the Court-Packing Scheme B. the New Deal D. Neutrality Acts 2. How did Pres. Roosevelt feel about the government providing direct relief? A. He supported the idea. B. He opposed the idea because it had already proven to be a failure. C. He only favored the idea after Eleanor convinced him. D. He only supported the idea after Huey Long criticized him. 3. What were some of the arguments for and against the New Deal? 4. Describe how Eleanor Roosevelt distinguished herself as a first lady?

121 SSUSH20: Analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States.

122 The Cold War 122 122

123 NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
123 123

124 The Cold War Begins: Conflict in Europe
Following WWII, tensions were high between western Allies and the Soviet Union – neither side trusted the other Western powers were capitalist market systems Soviet Union was a socialist state led by Communist Party Soviets Tighten Their Grip on Eastern Europe Soviet Union emerged from WWII stronger economically and militarily Soviets had suffered devastation on their soil; felt they had a right to Eastern Europe – felt they could prevent future invasions from the west The European continent was divided between western democracies and Soviet satellite nations Winston Churchill: “ A shadow has fallen…an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”

125 US Post-war Policies in Europe
An “iron curtain” divided Europe US diplomat George Kennan “Time to stop babying the Soviets.” Proposed a policy of containment – take measures to prevent the spread of communism - Eastern Europe could not be saved; contain it to those countries Truman Doctrine – reaffirmed Kennan’s philosophy US would not hesitate to intervene and aid nations overseas resist communism The Marshall Plan Western Europe was in chaos and ruins Sec. of State George Marshall proposed U.S. provide aid to all European nations that needed it Revived European hopes – prevented Soviet advances into Western Europe

126 A Divided Germany Germany was divided into four zones after WWII
Occupied by U.S., Great Britain, France (west Germany), Soviet Union (east Germany) Intended to be a temporary division Stalin had different ideas West Germany became the Federal Republic of Germany Stalin made East Germany the German Democratic Republic under communist rule Thousands of people fled East Germany for West Germany Stalin responded by cutting off the city of Berlin from supplies Truman authorized the Berlin Airlift – US and British planes delivered needed supplies to West Berlin

127 A Divided Germany The Berlin Airlift
American and British flew food and supplies into West Berlin for 327 days, around the clock Helped West Berlin survive; officially became a new nation

128 A Divided Germany The conflict between U.S. and U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) became known as the “Cold War” It dominated both nations’ foreign policies and many feared it would lead to actual war

129 Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill
to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. Divided Germany 129 129

130 China and Korea: China’s Communist Revolution
Chiang Kai-shek, a Nationalist, ruled China prior to Japanese invasion in the early 1930s Communists were led by Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) The two joined forces to fight the Japanese in WWII

131 China Becomes a Communist Country
Renewed Civil War Cooperation between Nationalists and Communists ended after WWII U.S. played peacemaker Supported Chiang Kai-shek Communists eventually won out (People’s Republic of China) America Reacts to Communists Takeover Containment had failed!

132 The Korean War Japan had taken over Korea in
1910, and ruled until 1945 Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to Soviets Japanese troops south of the 38th parallel surrendered to U.S. Korea became divided: Communist (North Korea) and Democratic (South Korea)

133 The Korean War North Korea Attacks South Korea
June 25, 1950 North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea Pres. Truman ordered American troops to support South Korea 16 nations sent 520,000 troops to aid South Korea

134 The Korean War MacArthur’s Counterattack The Chinese Fight Back
September 15,1950 U.S. troops, under Gen. McArthur, made a surprise amphibious attack on North Korea – other troops moved north from Pusan Trapped, half North Korean troops surrendered, the rest fled back across the 38th parallel The Chinese Fight Back Chinese needed North Korea as a Communist buffer zone Chinese troops forced UN troops southward Chinese captured South Korean capital of Seoul Truman fired MacArthur after the general criticized the president’s handling of the war Both sides signed a truce in 1953

135 Fear of Communist Influence
Americans feared Communism in U.S. The US and USSR engaged in a nuclear arms race Private citizens built fallout shelters – to protect them against a Soviet nuclear attack Schools conducted nuclear drills where students were taught to “duck and cover” 80,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist Party – many questioned their loyalty Communist revolutions in China and North Korea’s invasion of South Korea concerned Americans US government investigated, arrested, harassed suspected Communists – called the Red Scare

136 136 136

137 People built more bomb shelters.
137 137

138 Government Policies with Communism
Truman created the Department of Defense, National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to spy on the USSR and its allies The House Un-American Activities Committee HUAC investigated possible Communist influence in and out of government Targeted Hollywood film industry Hollywood Ten – ten “unfriendly” witnesses who refused to testify; they believed hearings were unconstitutional. They were sent to prison Many stars were blacklisted – couldn’t work in Hollywood, careers were ruined

139 Government Policies Dealing with Communism
Alger Hiss Accused of spying for the Soviet Union He was convicted of perjury and sent to jail He proclaimed his innocence, said he was framed The Rosenbergs Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were accused of giving bomb secrets to the Soviet Union Accused of being Communists Convicted and sentenced to death; died in electric chair in June 1953

140 Joseph McCarthy Most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy – Republican from Wisconsin McCarthy’s Tactics (“McCarthyism”) Made unsupported accusations McCarthyism – attacks on suspected Communists Never had proof or evidence; accused Democratic Party of allowing Communist infiltration Republicans did nothing to stop him

141 McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt”
McCarthy’s Downfall 1954, McCarthy made accusations against the U.S. Army – became a televised Senate investigation McCarthy bullied witnesses which cost him public support Senate condemned him for improper conduct Died of alcoholism three years later

142 Review Questions 1. The term “Cold War’ refers to
A. the distrust between the US and USSR that many feared would lead to actual war in the years following WWII. B. the war fought in Germany after WWII between Communists and Democrats. C. the war fought between North and South Korea. D. the war fought between the US and China following the Chinese Revolution. 2. The Truman Doctrine stated that A. the US would not tolerate Communists in high levels of US government. B. the US would not hesitate to intervene to help foreign nations resist communism. C. the US would not cross the 38th parallel during the Korean War. D. the US would support Mao’s revolution in China.

143 Review Questions 3. What was the goal of the United States’ “containment policy” and why did the US believe it was the best approach to dealing with Soviet communism? 4. What was the purpose of HUAC? Who was Joseph McCarthy and how did he become famous?

144 Standards SSUSH22: Identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement, SSUSH23: Describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and 1970 SSUSH24: Analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s.

145 The Civil Rights Movement
WWII and the efforts of A. Philip Randolph’s efforts showed that African Americans were willing to die for there country just like white soldiers. As a result African Americans started to question racism in America.

146 Black World War II Soldiers: Tuskegee Airmen

147 Civil Rights Movement 1945 Harry S. Truman became President after the death of FDR. Supporter of Civil Rights Truman’s support of civil rights split the Democratic Party. A new party was formed called the “Dixiecrats” who were Democrats not in favor of integration.

148 Civil Rights Movement Truman signed an executive order to integrate the armed forces. Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play professional major league baseball.

149 Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board of Education was passed in 1954 overturned Plessy v. Ferguson making segregation in public schools illegal.

150 Civil Rights Movement Little Rock Arkansas (1957)
A response to Brown v. Board President Eisenhower had to send military forces to Arkansas because the governor refused to integrate his school. Students who integrated known as the “Little Rock Nine”.

151 Little Rock Nine

152 Civil Rights Movement Mississippi defied the Supreme Court and attempted to prevent an African American named James Meredith. The university admitted Meredith after President Kennedy sent federal authorities to Mississippi. Governor George Wallace tried to prevent the integration of University of Alabama by physically blocking the doors of the college.

153 George Wallace in front of University of Alabama

154 Civil Rights Movement Atlanta, Georgia under Mayor William Hartsfield, managed to avoid much of the violence and turmoil found in other southern states. “Atlanta is the city too busy to hate”

155 The Civil Rights Movement
Leader: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. African Americans refused to ride the bus until Montgomery integrated the buses. The Montgomery public transportation lost major $$$$$$$$$$$. It lasted over a year until the Supreme Court ruled that Montgomery must integrate.

156 The Civil Rights Movement
SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference Leader: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Relied on voter registration and education as a method for civil rights.

157 The Civil Rights Movement
“Letter from Birmingham Jail” Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Response to white ministers who wrote a statement arguing that the battle for civil rights should be done in court, not protest. King wrote that he believed that protest were necessary to gain equality.

158 The Civil Rights Movement
March on Washington (1963) – influenced Kennedy’s support for civil rights 200,000 civil right activists in protest demanding equality. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech.

159 The Civil Rights Movement
Sit-ins: Nonviolent protests in which blacks sat in segregated places until they were served or arrested. February 1, 1960; Greensboro, North Carolina SNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, students that devoted themselves to non-violent protest

160 The Civil Rights Movement
In 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality or CORE (an organization founded in 1942 and devoted to social change through nonviolent action) organized “freedom rides” Freedom Rides gained national attention to the cause of civil rights.

161 Civil Rights Movement At times, students who joined the SNCC and Core CRITICIZED the SCLC. Younger African Americans tended to be more radical and wanted to take a more confrontational approach to civil rights. SNCC and CORE members began to reject nonviolent protest as being too slow and ineffective and began advocating “Black Power”.

162 Civil Rights Movements
After the March on Washington, President John F. Kennedy proposed new civil rights laws. President Lyndon B. Johnson urged Congress to pass Civil Rights legislation proposed by Kennedy before he died.

163 Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act of 1964
The act prohibited segregation in public accommodations (hotels, restaurants, theaters) and discrimination in education and employment, and gave the President the right to enforce it. 1964; 24th Amendment: poll tax illegal

164 Civil Rights Movement “Bloody Sunday”: March 7, 1965; from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery. 500 supporters Television captured the horrific scene

165 Civil Rights Movement Voting Rights Act of 1965: President Johnson signed to get rid of literacy tests for voter registration and sent officials to register voters in the event that county officials failed to do so. Increased the amount of African American candidates elected to public office.

166 Social and Political Currents
During the 1950’s and 60’s the US Supreme Court used its power to bring about social change. Earl Warren served as justice from 1953 to 1969. Brown v. Board of Education (segregation) Mapp v. Ohio (illegal searches) Gideon v. Wainwright (provide legal counsel)

167 Social and Political Currents
The Warren Court’s biggest ruling Miranda v. Arizona Miranda Rights: “You have the right to remain silent…”

168 Social and Political Currents
Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Great Society” Social programs centered around “The War on Poverty” The Economic Opportunity Act Medicare: Healthcare for the elderly Medicaid: Healthcare for lower income families

169 Social and Political Currents
Democratic National Convention of 1968 Political convention where the Democratic Party nominated its candidates for president and vice president for the ’68 election. Large numbers of radicals and protesters descended on the city where the convention was held and, eventually voted against the Vietnam Peace Resolution Police began clubbing those involved in the rally while television cameras caught most of the violence.

170 Democratic National Convention

171 Social and Political Currents
Migrant Workers Movement United Farm Workers was founded in 1962 by Cesar Chavez to support the rights of migrant farm workers, many of which were poor Hispanic immigrants.

172 Social and Political Currents
1968 Antiwar Movement against Vietnam War Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Assassination of Robert Kennedy

173 Social and Political Currents
The Women’s Movement Changing the roles of women starting with Betty Friedan book “The Feminine Mystique” National Organization for Women which devoted itself to political activism and promoting feminist causes.

174 Social and Political Currents
Environmentalist Movement Environmentalists are concerned with preserving the earth’s resources and species of life. Rachel Carson: Scientist and writer published Silent Spring which argued against the use of harmful chemicals Earth Day (started in 1970) Al Gore Wrote the “Inconvenient Truth” EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Federal agency enforcing laws that protect the environment

175 Social and Political Currents
The Rise of Conservatism The belief that government should not try to regulate too much. Conservatives resented higher taxes and didn’t want their hard earned money to go toward individuals they viewed as lazy and unwilling to work.

176 Social and Political Currents
Barry Goldwater and the Election of 64’ Arizona US senator that believed in states rights and property rights He won the Republican nomination and parts of the South over a Democratic president The Solid South was over! Showed Southerners were willing to put conservative ideals above party loyalty.

177 Review Questions 1. Rachel Carson is credited with inspiring the modern A. environmental movement. B. women’s movement. C. migrant worker’s movement. D. anti-war movement. 2. The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Miranda case officially established that A. Mexican immigrants must be treated equal to whites. B. law enforcement officials must have a warrant before conducting a search. C. anyone arrested of a crime must be informed of their right to an attorney and their right not to incriminate themselves. D. the government must provide lawyers for criminal defendants who cannot afford to hire their own.

178 Review Questions 3. What was Johnson’s “Great Society” and what was it intended to do? What were some of the problems and criticisms of the program? 4. Describe the year 1968 and list some of the major events that occurred. 5. What is conservatism and why did many in the western US and the Deep South embrace it during the 1960s?

179 The Late Cold War and Modern Politics
SSUSH25: Describe changes in national politics since 1968.

180 The Late Cold War and Modern Politics
Nixon, Ford, and Carter Nixon’s Detente Plan: Nixon sought to use diplomacy rather than intimidation to ease tensions that existed between the US and communist nations. 1st President to recognize China’s communist government.

181 Nixon in China



184 Nixon’s Visit to Moscow

185 Nixon Nixon had a “middle of the road” stance on civil rights in America. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Over the practice of having students attend schools outside the boundaries of what would normally be in their district in order to achieve racial integration. Supreme Court ruled that voluntary integration was not working so integration should be done by busing.

186 Civil Rights Affirmative Action: 1970’s policy that aimed at increasing minority representation in the workplace, educational institutions, social setting, etc. Regents of UC v. Bakke Bakke applied to the University of California Medical School and did not get accepted. The University had 16 slots available for qualified minorities. Bakke challenged the school’s affirmative action policy stating that he was better qualified than those students accepted because of affirmative action. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bakke. (14th Amendment cited)

187 The Economy and Nixon Nixon had to deal with a recession while in office. Stagflation: When inflation and unemployment rise together. Economic Nightmare!!! Nixon proposed a tax increased that Congress blocked. He also asked the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates in an attempt to curb inflation, only to see the action result in a stock market collapse.

188 Nixon’s Problems get Worse!!!
The United States backed Israel in a war Israel fought with Egypt and Syria. The Arab states comprising OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) imposed an oil embargo against the US. Exposed the United States heavy dependence on foreign oil and reminded people that natural resources were not limitless.

189 Women Women wanted an amendment to the Constitution making sexual discrimination illegal that the states failed to ratify.

190 Women Roe v. Wade (One of the most controversial court cases in history) Prior to 1973, states could outlaw or restrict abortions during a woman’s pregnancy. Citing an implied right to privacy, the Supreme Court ruled state laws restricting a women’s right to an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy to be unconstitutional. Doe v. Bolton in conjunction with Roe currently grants women the right to end the life of the fetus through all nine months of pregnancy for any reason, including just prior to birth.

191 Watergate The Rise of Nixon
The turmoil within the Democratic Party benefited former vice president Richard Nixon. Nixon campaigned and won on a promise to restore law and order. He successfully appealed to many middle-class Americans fed up with years of riots and protest

192 Watergate The Watergate scandal centered on the Nixon administration’s attempt to cover up a burglary of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C.

193 Watergate The President’s Men An Imperial Presidency
“A president must not be one of the crowd…” Nixon expanded the power of the presidency with little regard to checks and balances He believed he was all powerful and untouchable The President’s Men Nixon had an inner circle of advisors to whom he confided everything; they shared his desire for secrecy; they believed they were above the law

194 The Inner Circle Chief of Staff Chief Domestic Advisor
H.R. Haldeman John Ehrlichmann John Mitchell Attorney General John W. Dean, Presidential Counsel

195 The Drive Toward Reelection
A Bungled Burglary The cover-up began quickly Documents were shredded The CIA was told to stop investigating because of national security Two reporters at the Washington Post, Bob Woodruff and Carl Bernstein followed the story closely

196 Watergate A Bungled Burglary
The Committee to Reelect the President (CRP) paid the burglars $450,000 to keep silent The White House consistently denied all charges and promised peace in Vietnam Nixon won reelection in 1972 by a landslide

197 Watergate Declared Nixon had been deeply involved in the cover-up
Startling Testimony “What did the president know and when did he know it?” John Dean, presidential counsel, testified for 30 hours Declared Nixon had been deeply involved in the cover-up White House said Dean was lying Who was telling the truth? Presidential aide Alexander Butterfield said Nixon taped all of his presidential conversations

198 The Fall of a President March 1974, a grand jury indicted seven presidential aides on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury. Nixon Releases the Tapes Spring of 1974, Nixon told American public he was releasing 1,254 pages of edited transcripts Investigators wanted unedited tapes Case went before the Supreme Court – president was forced to surrender the tapes

199 The Fall of a President The President Resigns
August 5 Nixon released the tapes They contained many gaps – on 18 ½ minutes long Said Nixon’s secretary “accidentally” erased portions of the tape Before the full House vote on the articles of impeachment, Nixon announced his resignation He admitted no guilt Gerald Ford was sworn in as the 38th President

200 Gerald Ford “Our long national nightmare is over.”
Ford Americans to put the Watergate scandal behind them. A Ford, Not A Lincoln Likable and honest Ford pardoned Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974 so the country could move beyond Watergate

201 Gerald Ford Ford Tries to “Whip” Inflation
America’s economy had gone from bad to worse.” Inflation and unemployment were rising –”public enemy #!” Gasoline and heating prices were up “Whip Inflation Now” (WIN) – called on Americans to cut back on their use of gas and oil and take energy-saving measures The plan fell flat Cut government spending and raised interest rates Triggered the worst recession in 40 years

202 Jimmy Carter Republican Ford faced Democrat James “Jimmy” Carter in the 1976 election Carter was an unknown peanut farmer and former governor of Georgia Mr. Carter Goes to Washington Soft-spoken, personable Promised to restore integrity to the nation’s highest office, “I will never tell a lie to the American people.” Carter won by a narrow margin – becoming the 39th president of the United States

203 Carter’s Foreign Policy
The Camp David Accords In 1977, Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin met in Jerusalem to discuss peace Summer of 1978, Carter invited Sadat and Begin to the presidential retreat in Maryland, Camp David when peace talks stalled between the men After 12 days the three leaders reached an agreement known as the Camp David Accords – Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula; Egypt formally recognized Israel’s right to exist

204 The Iranian Hostage Crisis
The Iran Hostage Crisis The Shah of Iran was an ally of the United States, however Iranians resented his corruption and dictatorial tactics Revolution broke out in 1979 – Muslim religious leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini led the rebels in overthrowing the shah – established a religious state based on the Qur’an The shah entered the U.S. in October 1979 for cancer treatments Revolutionaries were furious – armed students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took 52 Americans hostage In return they wanted the Shah – the U.S. refused

205 Ronald Reagan and the End of the Cold War: The Conservative Giant
In 1980 Ronald Wilson Reagan ran against Jimmy Carter Reagan chose George H.W. Bush as his running mate Reagan was a former actor and former governor of California He was relaxed, charming, and affable Reagan won the election by a narrow margin Conservatives had their man It’s “morning in America.” Hostages were released after 444 days, after Ronald Reagan was sworn in as the 40th president of the U.S.

206 Review Questions 1. Richard Nixon was
A. a president who took a hard-line military stand against the Chinese and enthusiastically supported civil rights legislation. B. the first president to publicly recognize communist China and eventually resigned due to a scandal. C. the only man ever to serve as both president and vice president without being elected to either office. D. a former governor of Georgia who went on to become president and improve relations with communist nations. 2. Jimmy Carter was praised for which of the following? A. Watergate B. his handling of the Iranian Hostage Crisis C. the Camp David Accords D. instituting WIN

207 Review Questions 3. What was Watergate and how did it affect the presidency? 4. Describe the Iranian Hostage Crisis and explain how it affected the 1980 presidential election.

208 “Reaganomics” Takes Over
Reagan immediately worked to reduce the size and influence of the federal government Budget Cuts Made deep cuts in government spending on social programs Most of his cuts hurt the poor – mass transit, food stamps, welfare benefits, job training, Medicaid, school lunches, and student loans

209 “Reaganomics” Takes Over
Tax Cuts Supply-side economics – theory that if people paid fewer taxes they would save more money; banks could then loan money to businesses, which would invest money to improve productivity, leading to lower prices Increased Defense Spending Authorized increases in military spending Strategic Defense Initiative (SDS) – program to develop a defense system that would keep Americans safe from enemy missiles – estimated to cost trillions of dollars

210 Reagan and the “Evil Empire”
In March 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Gorbachev Initiates Reform Soviets had destroyed their economy by trying to keep up with U.S. defense spending Advocated glasnost – openness, allowed open criticism of the government and freedom of press Perestroika – less government control of the economy, introduced private enterprise and democratic government

211 The Iron Curtain Comes Down
The Collapse of Communist Regimes Gorbachev reduced the number of Soviet troops before he resigned and encouraged East Germany and Eastern Europe to go their separate ways Nov. 9, 1989 East Germany opened the Berlin Wall – East Berliners pounded at the wall with hammers and other tools Other European Nations adopted democratic reforms

212 The Iran-Contra Scandal
In 1983, terrorist groups loyal to Iran took a number of Americans hostage in Lebanon Reagan refused to negotiate with terrorists In 1986, Pres. Reagan had approved the sale of arms to Iran in exchange for the release of seven American hostages; part of the profits were sent to the Contras in Nicaragua (illegal) Congress held hearings to investigate 212

213 Review Questions 1. Reagan’s economic plan once he took office was nicknamed A. “conservative money theory” B. “national debt” C. “Reaganomics” D. “stagflation” 2. Which of the following best describes Reagan’s view of government? A. It should be bigger and better funded so that it can fully regulate society. B. It should be reduced because too much government is the source of the US’ problems. C. Governments should be abolished because they serve no worthwhile purpose. D. Government should have more control over the economy and health care without funding welfare. 3. Describe Reagan’s view of the Soviet Union prior to 1985, how his approach changed after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, and what actions Reagan took that contributed to the end of the Cold War. 4. Describe the Iran-Contra Affair.

214 The 1990s: George H.W. Bush and the Persian Gulf War
The 1988 Presidential Election Reagan’s vice president, George H.W. Bush ran for president by building on Reagan’s legacy Was in office when the Berlin Wall fell Commander-in-chief during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 1990 Saddam Hussein invaded neighboring Kuwait US relied on Kuwait for oil An alliance of 28 countries went after Saddam; war lasted 42 days – but allowed Saddam to stay in power

215 Election of 1992 Bush’s popularity soared after the war
Economy had taken a downturn by 1992 “It’s the economy, stupid.” Democrats portrayed Bush as out of touch with common citizens Bush broke a promise not to raise taxes – “Read my lips: no new taxes!” Democrats nominated Bill Clinton – gifted politician and public speaker

216 The Clinton Presidency
Governor William Jefferson Clinton of Arkansas became the first member of the baby-boom generation to win the presidency. The Election of 1992 Pres. George H.W. Bush’s popularity had dropped because of recession Clinton promised to get the country out of a recession

217 The Clinton Presidency
A “New” Democrat Clinton said he would move away from traditional Democratic policies Wanted to move people off of welfare and grow private businesses Worked to move democratic party to the center

218 NAFTA Trade and the Global Economy
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – brought Mexico into the free-trade zone that the U.S. and Canada already had formed Supporters – would strengthen all three economies Opponents – said it would transfer American jobs to Mexico

219 Health Care Health Care Reform
Wanted to create affordable health care for all Americans (Healthcare Reform Bill) Congress debated the plan for a year, was never passed

220 Scandal and Impeachment
Clinton Impeached Accused of improperly using money from a land deal with the Whitewater Development Company to fund his 1984 gubernatorial race Had also lied under oath about having an improper relationship with a young White House intern December 1988, the House of Representatives approved to articles of impeachment – charged with perjury and obstruction of justice He was acquitted

221 Review Questions 1. Bill Clinton was
A. the first Democrat to win the presidency since 1976. B. the first Democrat elected president since Franklin Roosevelt. C. the first Democrat to serve only one term as president during the twentieth century. D. the first person ever to serve as governor of a southern state before becoming president. 2. Describe the Pres. Clinton’s battle with Congress over the federal budget in What was the final outcome? 3. What was NAFTA and why did it cause controversy? 4. Why was Pres. Clinton impeached and what was the outcome of his impeachment?

222 Into a New Century: The Presidential Election of 2000
Al Gore vs. George W. Bush Closest election in US history to date Decided by 537 votes in the state of Florida Voting irregularities extended the debate over who won for a month December 12, 2000, the US Supreme Court voted 5 – 4 to stop future recounts George W. Bush became 43rd president

223 2000 Election Electoral Map

224 The Middle East and the Rise of Terrorism
Hostility has existed between Arab and Persian Gulf nations, which are mostly and Muslim, and Israel, which is mostly Jewish Many Middle East countries believe that Israel belongs to Palestinian Arabs US support for Israel has made US a target of hatred and terrorists (criminals who destroy property and kill innocent civilians in the name of a political or social cause) Radical Islam advocates violence to overthrow the US and other western nations

225 The Middle East and the Rise of Terrorism
Al-Qaeda the most formidable and best known Islamic terrorist group Headed by rich Saudi radical Osama bin Laden After the Soviets withdrew from the country in 1989, bin Laden and other radicals wanted to continue the “fight for Islamic causes” bin Laden was angered by US presence on Muslim soil during Persian Gulf War

226 The Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 and the War on Terror
September 11, 2001 Terrorists hijacked airliners and flew them into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC A third plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania Attacks brought the reality of terrorism home to the US Not since the bombing of Pearl Harbor had the US experienced an attack on its own soil

227 Terrorist Attack

228 Bush’s Response Bush had only been in
office 8 months when 9/11 happened He declared a “war on terror” Created the Department of Homeland Security Increased airline security Signed into law the US PATRIOT Act Increased authority of law enforcement to use measures to obtain information

229 Operation Enduring Freedom
US and a coalition of other nations took military action against Afghanistan, believed to be where bin Laden was hiding under the protection of the Taliban Taliban refused to turn over bin Laden October 2001, Operation Enduring Freedom was launched Troops remain in Afghanistan today rebuilding the country, supporting the new government, battling insurgents, looking for terrorists

230 Operation Enduring Freedom

231 Operation Enduring Freedom

232 War in Iraq Bush’s war on terror extended in Iraq in 2003
Intelligence on weapons of mass destruction led to the War in Iraq it was believed that Saddam Hussein had ties to Al-Qaeda – he had a history of using chemical weapons against ethnic groups With support from allies but not the United Nations, the US brought down the government of Iraq in 21 days

233 War in Iraq No “weapons of mass destruction” were found in Iraq
Bush administration came under harsh criticism for its claims against Iraq Iraq has formed a new government, new constitution, better opportunities for women 2007 additional troops (troop surge) were sent to assist the new government 2010 last combat troops left Iraq, but about 50,000 stayed to help the Iraqi military

234 War in Iraq

235 War in Iraq

236 War in Iraq

237 How Attitudes Towards Government Have Changed
After 1960s, US citizens’ attitudes towards the government changed radically. Television changed access to information Images of Vietnam War, civil rights protests, political demonstrations, and Congressional hearings made people more skeptical and less trusting of government In the ’60s many called for more regulation Later conservatives like Ronald Reagan proclaimed government the problem and called for less regulation There continues to be conflicts over less government vs. more government programs to address healthcare, education, etc.

238 Review Questions 1. The state of Florida played a key role in the 2000 presidential election because A. both major candidates were from Florida. B. it was the last state where people voted. C. it was the only state in which no winner was ever declared. D. it carried enough electoral votes to determine the winner.

239 Review Questions 2. Presidential Bush authorized Operation Enduring Freedom A. in hopes of liberating Iraq. B. in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. C. in an effort to find Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction. D. in an attempt to establish a federal department in charge of homeland security. 3. Describe how attitudes of US citizens towards government have changed since World War II.


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