Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT AND THE PROGRESSIVE ERA"— Presentation transcript:
1 INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT AND THE PROGRESSIVE ERA SSUSH15 – analyze the origins and impact of U. S. involvement in World War I
2 WORLD WAR I 1914 – World War I began in Europe President Woodrow Wilson – declared U. S. neutral (not backing either side)Isolationism ( U. S. should stay out of international conflicts)Wilson’s Presidential Slogan in 1916 – “he kept us out of war”
4 WORLD WAR I U. S. ENTERS WAR- U-boats – submarines attacked ships in the Atlantic – in 1915 blew up Lusitania with Americans on board; later Germany agreed not to attack passenger shipsUnrestricted submarine warfare – Germany attacking all shipsZimmerman telegram – sent by Germans to Mexico to encourage them to attack U. S., if declared war on GermanyWorld “must be made safe for democracy” – Wilson’s case for war; entered April 1917
6 WORLD WAR I: The War Ends ReasonsGermany’s failure to defeat Britain and FranceArrival of U. S. troopsArmistice (cease fire/agreement to stop fighting) –November 11,1918 at 11th hourPeace Conference – held in Paris; leaders of the warring nations; Pres. Wilson’s goal was peace and stability (introduced his Fourteen Points)League of Nations – purpose would be to provide a place where countries could peacefully discuss solutions to their differences; U. S. did not joinTreaty of Versailles – ended war; U. S. did not sign treaty ending World War I
8 GREAT MIGRATION Social Impact of war Increase demand of products (weapons, supplies, uniforms, equipment, etc)Need for more men in north because most had gone to warResult, many African Americans began leaving the South to pursue better economic opportunities and hopes of escaping southern racismMass movement of African Americans from rural South to northern cities continued for sever decades and was known as the Great Migration
10 REVIEW QUESTIONS Which of the following would an isolationist support? a. Staying out of WWIb. Zimmerman telegramc. Sending U. S. troops to fight in Europed. The League of NationsFor what reasons did the U. S. eventually enter World War I?3. What was the League of Nations and why did the United States Senate refuse to ratify the treaty that would have made the U.S. a member?
11 SSUSH16: Identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI STANDARD
12 The 1920sPeople of the United States wanted a “return to normalcy” after World War I.Warren G. Harding promised to do just that
13 The “Red Scare” and Immigration Americans showed fear of foreigners by retreating into nativism and isolationismAlso feared the spread of communism (economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship)The Red ScareCaused by the overthrow of Russia’sczarist regime in 1917The Bolsheviks – led by Vladamir Lenin– established a Communist state (based onthe teachings of Karl MarxCommunist Party formed in the UnitedStates13
14 The “Red Scare” and Immigration The Palmer RaidsU.S. Attorney Gen. Mitchell Palmer appointed J. Edgar Hoover as his special assistantHoover hunted down suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists (people who oppose government)Hoover violated people’s civil rights, invaded private homes and offices, jailed suspects without legal counselRaids did not turn up any evidence of a conspiracy
15 Fear of Communism Sacco and Vanzetti Red Scared fed people’s fears and suspicions of foreignersNicolo Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian immigrants and anarchists were arrested and charged with burglary and murderFound guilty and sentenced to deathPeople around the world protested
16 Immigration Restrictions “Keep America for Americans…”The Klan Rises AgainFed off of anti-immigrant feelingsTargeted Roman Catholics, Jews,and foreign-born peopleThe Quota SystemEmergency Quota Act of 1921 established a maximum number of people who could enter U.S. from each countryTemporary limit on immigrants in 1924 and permanent bans in 1929Japanese immigrants were prohibited
17 Henry Ford and the Automobile Following WWI there were a number of innovations in business and technologyHenry FordPerfected and successfully marketed the automobile using mass production and the assembly line – this made automobiles cheaper for ordinary peopleSaw his workers as consumers – paid them $5/day (a good salary) so they could afford his carsFrom 1907 – 1926, Ford build half the automobiles in the world (16,750,000)People became more mobile, lived further away from jobs – moved to suburbs
19 Cultural InfluencesAvailability of electricity in homes allowed new appliances like refrigerators, sewing machines, vacuum cleaners, and washing machinesReduced the amount of time needed to do houseworkMore women worked outside of homeHairstyles and fashion reflected changeMen and women had more leisure timeNightlife became common
20 Radio and MoviesTwo of the most impactful developments in media were the radio and movies.Radio united the nation and molded a national culture – it transformed politics by giving leaders direct access to larger numbers of peopleThe first movies were silent pictures, then movies with sound (“talkies)Fashions and lifestyles on the big screen helped define a national culture – movie stars became national icons
21 Harlem RenaissanceBlack intellectuals created a thriving Afro-American culture in new York’s Harlem.Poets, artists, novelists, and musicians such as Louis Armstrong reach back to their African roots to demonstrate the richness of their racial heritage.Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, James Weldon JohnsonThese artists inspire and encourage African Americans to remain strong in the face of racial violence.
23 Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchenWhen company comes,But I laugh,And eat well,And grow strong.Tomorrow,I'll be at the tableWhen company comes.Nobody'll dareSay to me,"Eat in the kitchen,"Then.Besides,They'll see how beautiful I amAnd be ashamed –I, too, am America.Langston Hughes
24 StorytellerZora Neal Hurston“I saw no curse in being black.”
25 Tin Pan AlleyTin Pan Alley grew to be an important center of the music industry during this time.The name referred to the various music houses in New York City where songwriters and musicians composed and published songs.Irving Berlin became the most famousComposed over 3,000 songs: “White Christmas,” “God Bless America,” and “There’s No Business Like Show Business”
26 Review 1. The term “Red Scare” refers to A. US concerns about communism.B. citizens fears concerning the social changes of the 1920s.C. specific legislation restricting immigration.D. white fears inspired by the Harlem Renaissance.2. Tin Pan Alley is most associated withA. Langston Hughes. C. Irving Berlin.B. the Red Scare. D. Henry Ford.3. Describe Henry Ford’s impact on the car industry and business practices in general.
27 SSUSH19: Identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government.Standard
28 The United States Musters Its Forces After WWI, the U.S. had retreated into isolationism and neutralityOnce again, war threatened EuropeItaly was Fascist; Germany was Nazi, and Soviet Union was Communist
29 Causes of World War II: Hitler and Mussolini Following WWI, Europe was devastated by the effects of a worldwide economic depressionPeople blamed government leaders for their hardshipsTotalitarian governments rose to powerAdolf Hitler in Germany and Benito Mussolini in Italy seized power (two became allies)Hitler was able to win support for the Nazi Party, blaming the Jews, the betrayal of the former German republic, and Germany’s enemies in WWI for the nation’s troublesPromised to restore the glory of the nationCalled himself “Fuhrer” (leader) of Germany and labeled his new government the “Third Reich”, an empire lasting a thousand years
30 Hitler’s Aggression1936, Hitler moved German troops in Rhineland – violating the Treaty of VersaillesBritain and France ignored the moveMarch 1938, Hitler Annexed Austria – no reactionSeptember 1938, Hitler demanded Sudetenland (in western Czechoslovakia)Britain and France used the policy of “appeasement” – agreed to giving Hitler Sudetenland if he did not take anymore territoriesWinston Churchill opposed the policy: “Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.”
31 Japan 1920s and 1930s, Japan began aggressively expanding its territoryIt lacked natural resources, so it began to conquer territory in the South PacificJapan invaded Manchuria (in China) in 1931The League of Nations demanded they leave – Japan withdrew from the League instead1937, Japan began trying to seize the rest of ChinaBy 1938, had captured major cities along the Chinese coast1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the Axis Powers
32 The United States Musters Its Forces Moving Cautiously Away From NeutralityFranklin Delano Roosevelt is presidentSeptember 1939, Roosevelt convinced Congress to pass a “cash and carry” provision that allowed warring nations to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid cash and transported them on their own ships
33 US ReactionsFDR was also dealing with racial tension in the US armed forcesBlacks and whites served in segregated unitsOn ships, whites got more sophisticated duties, blacks served as cooks, janitors1941, African-American leader A. Philip Randolph proposed a march on Washington to protest discriminationFDR responded with the Fair Employment Act – outlawing discrimination – Randolph canceled the march
34 Review1. Who was the totalitarian dictator who rose to power in Germany and aggressively seized foreign territory that set the stage for another world war?A. Benito Mussolini B. Axis PowersC. Adolf Hitler D. A.P. Randolph2. Which country aggressively conquered parts of China and other areas in the South Pacific in the 1920s and 1930?A. Germany B. Italy C. Japan D. Ethiopia3. Why did A. Philip Randolph and others propose a march on Washington, DC in 1947? Describe the effect their actions had on government action and race relations.
35 Major Events and Battles of WWII: The War in Europe September 1, 1939 Hitler launched WWII in Europe when he invaded Poland – it stood between Germany and the Soviet UnionHitler wanted to conquer the Soviet UnionSigned a peace treaty with the Soviets – “non-aggression pact” (wouldn’t attack each other)Hitler had to conquer France first to keep them from aiding the USSR – once France was defeated he could forget the pact and invade USSRJoseph Stalin was not fooled, but signed pact anywayGreat Britain and France declared war on Germany
36 Fall of France and the Battle of Britain April 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway and then moved on to Belgium, the Netherlands and FranceHitler forced France to sign an armistice, then tried to establish peace with Great Britain – Britain refused, so he turned on them as wellUS was still neutral, the Soviet Union had not entered the warLeaving Great Britain alone to face German domination of EuropeBattle of Britain raged from July – October 1940Germany bombed British cities nightly – London citizens slept in subwaysChurchill inspired the British people with a strong sense of nationalism and hopeBritish able to fight off the Germans with their Royal Air Force – forcing Hitler to give up invading Great Britain
39 The United States Musters Its Forces Building U.S. DefensesU.S. increased spending on national defenseInstituted the draft – Selective Training and Service ActMen between ages of 21 and 35 were registeredRoosevelt Runs for Third TermBroke tradition of running for two terms
40 The United States Enters the War FDR: “If Great Britain goes down, all of us in the Americas would be living at the point of a gun. We must be the great arsenal of democracy.”March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease ActCould send aid to any nation whose defense was considered vital to the US’s national security – the countries could pay later“If your neighbor’s house is on fire, you don’t sell him a hose, you give it to him.”
41 Japan Attacks the United States U.S. decodes a secret Japanese communicationJapan was planning to attack U.S.; when and where was not knownThe Attack on Pearl Harbor“A day which will live in infamy”December 7, 1941, 180 Japanesewarplanes flew over Pearl Harbor droppingbombs for an hour and a half2043 Americans killed, 1178 wounded
42 Japan Attacks the United States Reaction to Pearl HarborPres. Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of warGermany and Italy declared war on the United StatesU.S. had enteredWorld War II
43 Internment of Japanese, German, and Italian Americans Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor made Americans suspicious of Japanese, German, and Italian Americans – they may support the Axis PowersThousands of these citizens were forced into internment camps – located in remote areas so they could be monitoredJapanese suffered more than Germans and Italians100,000 Japanese Americans were forced from their homes and businesses – losing everything1944, US Supreme Court said internment was lawful and justified1983, US formally recognized injustice – paid $20,000 to living Japanese Americans who suffered
44 The Amache Japanese Internment Camp in Colorado
46 Americans Join the War Effort Japan thought their attack on Pearl Harbor would make Americans shrink from conflict. NOT!Selective Service and the GIAfter Pearl Harbor, eager youngAmericans jammed recruiting offices5 million volunteers was not enough to fight on two fronts: Europe and the Pacific10 million men were drafted
47 The United States and Britain Join Forces British Prime Minster – Winston Churchill“We are in the same boat”Churchill and Roosevelt met to work out war strategy for Europe and JapanThe Battle of the AtlanticHitler ordered submarine raids against ships along America’s east coastGermans wanted to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain and the Soviet UnionAllies used convoys escorted by destroyers with sonar to detect submarines; airplanes were also used
48 The War in EuropeThree days after Pearl Harbor, Germany and Italy declared war on the United StatesHitler had attacked the Soviet UnionThe US, Britain, and the Soviet Union stood together as the Allied Powers – drove Axis out of North Africa, took parts of Italy then planned invasion of Western Europe
49 The War in Europe D-DAY Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin met December 1943 Stalin wanted to invade France, US and Britain agreedGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed to serve as supreme allied commander in charge of planning Operation Overlordgathered 3 million British, American, and Canadian troops to attack Normandy in northern FranceJune 6, 1944 Allied air forces landed behind German lines, followed by thousands of seaborne soldiersLargest land-sea-air operation in army historyGerman retaliation was brutal on Omaha Beach
53 The Allies Liberate Europe The Allies Gain GroundThe suffered heavy casualties, but held the beachheadsBy September 1944 the Allies had freed France, Belgium, and LuxembourgRoosevelt was elected to a fourth termDon’t “change horses in midstream”
54 The Allies Liberate Europe The Battle of the BulgeTurning point of WWIIGerman troops drove 60 miles into Allied territory in Germany creating a bulge in the lines between American and Britain forcesGermans captured 120 American soldiers and mowed them down with machine gunsNazis were forced to retreat after losing 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes
55 The HolocaustThe invasion of Europe exposed the horrible atrocities committed by the Nazis against the JewsHitler used anti-Semitism to ascend to power – blaming Jews for Germany’s financial problemsHitler’s “Final Solution” was to exterminate the Jewish race – he rounded them up and put them in concentration camps where they were killed or used as slave laborAllied forces pressed eastward into German heartland and the Soviet army pushed westward across Poland toward BerlinSoviet troops reach the death camps firstFound a thousand starving prisoners and the world largest crematorium, storehouse of 800,000 shoesSix million Jews died during the Holocaust
58 The Allies Liberate Europe Unconditional SurrenderApril 25, 1945 Soviet army had stormed BerlinHitler hid in underground headquarters; shot himself, new wife drank poisonBodies were burnedPresident Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945Allied countries celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) on May 8, 1945Harry S. Truman becomes 33rd president
59 War in the PacificHours after attacking Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the Philippines, destroying nearly half of the US airplanes stationed thereTook 75,000+ US soldiers and Filipinos as POWs – forced to walk 60 miles to war camps, many died (Bataan Death March)Japanese troops had overrun Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, and much of China80,000 American and Filipino troops under Gen. Douglas MacArthur battled the Japanese
60 The Battle of Midway and Island Hopping Japanese Admiral Yamamoto considered a military genius for attack on Pearl HarborThe Battle of Midway – June 1942Midway was an island northwest of HawaiiAllies were able to prevent Japanese from taking islandAmericans torpedoed Japanese planes and dive bombersWas the turning point in the Pacific WarImproved morale of US’s Pacific forces
61 The Allies Go on the Offensive Allies started “island hopping” (regaining one island at a time) moving toward JapanJapanese DefenseJapanese started kamikaze attacks (suicide-planes)Flew 424 kamikaze missions in the PhilippinesIwo JimaAllies able to retake PhilippinesThey took Iwo Jima as a strategic point to reach Japan with bombers
62 The Allies Go on the Offensive The Battle for OkinawaFinal assault on JapanApril 1945, U.S. Marines invaded OkinawaJapanese unleashed 1,900 kamikaze attacks on Allies; sank 30 ships, damaged 300 more, killed 5,000 seamenJapan lost 110,000 lives
63 A Production Miracle Mobilization of Scientists 1941, Roosevelt created Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into war effort – headed by J. Robert OppenheimerManhattan ProjectSecret project to build the atomic bombTook place in labs at Los Alamos, New MexicoTested in the desert on July 16, 1945 – explosion shattered windows 125 miles away
64 The Atomic BombHarry S. Truman attended the Potsdam Conference to discuss postwar policies with Prime Minister Churchill and Joseph StalinPotsdam Declaration – allied leaders restated their policy of “unconditional surrender” – allies would determine terms of peace with no conditions accepted from JapanJapan refused to surrender
65 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War Hiroshima and NagasakiPres. Truman approved the use of the bombB29 bomber Enola Gay released the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, three days later on Nagasaki (dropped second bomb because Japan still did not surrender)Killed 200,000; every building collapsed; radiation and poisoning occurredAugust 14, 1945 Japan finally surrenderedWWII was over!US celebrated V-J Day (Victory over Japan)
68 Review1. The US entered the fighting in WWII specifically because of what event?A. Japan’s attack on Pearl HarborB. Germany’s invasion of PolandC. Germany’s and the USSR’s non-aggression pactD. the fall of France2. Who would have been most excited about the US’ Lend-Lease Act?A. Adolf Hitler C. Winston ChurchillB. Isoroku Yamamoto D. Benito Mussolini
69 Review 3. What was the purpose of US internment camps? A. to protect Japanese, German, and Italian American citizens from racists who might harm themB. to provide a place to train soldiers to fight in WWIIC. to allow a secluded place for scientists to work on the atomic bombD. to keep a close eye on citizens who might be a threat to the US war effort4. Describe how German, Italian, and Japanese Americans were treated by the US government during WWII.5. What was the atomic bomb, why was it used, and what effect did it have on the war?
70 The War at Home: Government Action The government paid artists to design patriotic war posters; movie theaters began playing newsreels depicting the US war effort in a positive lightUS economy had to switch from peacetime to wartime quicklyPres. Roosevelt established the War Production Board (WPB)Re-directed resources away from consumer goods to materials needed for warUS economy boomed, unemployed found jobs
71 The War at Home: Government Action Income Taxes and War BondsUS needed to raise moneyMore people required to pay income taxes (withholding income tax)Held war bond drives to promote the purchase of bonds ($60 million was raised)
72 The War at Home: Citizen Sacrifice The government also asked people to sacrifice resourcesCitizens grew victory gardens so more food could be sent to feed soldiersRationingDesigned to make sure essentials were available for the militaryHouseholds received ration books with coupons to buy meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gas
73 The War at Home: “Rosie the Riveter” US men were going off to war, women became important part of the workforceShortage of workers to meet industrial and military needsWomen were used to fill the jobs – women were able to prove themselves“Rosie the Riveter” was a popular song that described a woman who worked in the factory as a riveter while her boyfriend served in the marinesBecame the symbol of those women whoentered the workforce to fill the gap left vacant by men serving in the war
74 Review 1. The term “Rosie the Riveter” refers to A. people who raised victory gardens.B. women who worked jobs so men could fight in WWII.C. women who joined the military.D. the head of the War Production Board.2. What was the purpose of the War Production Board?3. How did the war affect citizens and the role of women in US society?
76 StandardSSUSH17: Analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression.
77 Initial ProsperityPres. Harding’s administration was racked by scandalsAfter he died in 1923 Vice President Calvin Coolidge became presidentCoolidge supported big business and believed in laissez-faire economics (gov’t shouldn’t regulate business)“The business of the American people is business.”
78 Hoover Takes the Nation The Election of 1928Herbert Hoover, a Republican, won an overwhelming victory in 1928Dreams of Riches in the Stock MarketIn 1929, economists began to warn of weaknesses in the economyAmericans remained confident – stock prices rosePeople engaged in speculation (ignoring risks and buying stocks for quick profit)Others bought began buying on margin (paying a small percentage of stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest)
79 Initial Prosperity Mechanization transformed industry Products could be made faster and more efficiently, making them cheaperMore people purchased cars, clothes, appliancesConsumerism became more normal and people spent more than they savedEconomic times seemed good
80 Overproduction Industries in Trouble Railroads, textiles, and steel barely made a profitRailroads lost business to trucks, buses, and private automobilesMining and lumbering were no longer in high demand after the warCoal mining was impacted by new forms of energy: hydroelectric power, fuel oil, natural gasIndustries such as autos, construction, and consumer goods also sufferedWhen the market has more of a product than consumers want it is called overproductionConsumers’ reluctance to buy is referred to as underconsumption
81 Economic Troubles on the Horizon Agriculture suffered the mostAfter the war, demand fell, crop prices declinedFarmers boosted production, which depressed prices furtherMidwestern farmers unknowingly stripped much of the land and left it damagedThis damage combined with droughts left the soil dry and easily swept away by high windsThe Dust Bowl was a series of storms that hit the Midwest, causing enormous, black clouds of dust that blanketed farms and entire cities, displacing hundreds of thousands of farmers
82 Economic Troubles on the Horizon Consumers Have Less Money to SpendFarmers bought fewer goods and servicesAmericans were buying less because of rising prices, stagnant wages, unbalanced distribution of income, and overbuying on creditProduction had grown faster than wagesWidened gap between rich and poor
83 Economic Troubles on the Horizon Living on CreditMany Americans had been living beyond their meansThey bought on credit (an arrangement in which consumers agreed to buy now and pay later)Easy credit encouraged Americans to pile up large amounts of debtPeople had trouble paying off their debt, cut back on spending
84 Economic Troubles on the Horizon Uneven Distribution of IncomeThe rich got richer and the poor got poorerIncomes of the wealthiest 1% rose by 75%70% of American families earned less than $2,500 per year – even families earning twice that could not afford household productsAverage men and women bought one new outfit per yearHalf the homes had electricity or heat
85 The Stock Market Crashes September 1929, stock prices rose then fellBlack TuesdayOctober 29, 1929 the bottom fell out of the stock market, known as Black Tuesdayshareholders tried to sell before prices fell to low16.4 million shares were sold in one dayPeople who bought on credit were stuck with huge debtsOthers lost their savingsBy November investors had lost $30 billion
86 Financial Collapse Bank and Business Failures People panicked and withdrew money from banksSome couldn’t get moneyBy 1933, 25,000 banks had closedBusinesses closed, millions lost their jobs, others faced pay cuts and reduced hoursSome people did wellJoseph Kennedy (father of JFK) had sold off his stock before the crash
87 Causes of the Great Depression 1. Overproduction and Underconsumption that led to falling prices2. Consumerism: citizens began buying and spending more money than they saved3. Buying risky stocks on Speculation and “Buying on the Margin”4. Stock Market Crash of 1929 (“Black Tuesday”)
88 The Depression Devastates People’s Lives The Depression in the CitiesPeople were evicted from homesMany slept in parks and sewer pipes wrapped in newspaperOthers built shacks which became shantytowns (little towns consisting of shacks) – later called HoovervillesPeople dug through garbage for foodCharities opened soup kitchens and bread lines
91 The Depression Devastates People’s Lives The Depression in the Cities continued…Latinos and African Americans had it worseHigher unemployment rates, lowest wages, racial violence (lynchings)Americans wanted Latinos deported – many relocated to MexicoThe Depression in Rural AreasFarmers had the advantage of being able to grow their own foodLots of farmers lost their farmsMany turned to tenant farming
92 The Depression Devastates People’s Lives The Dust BowlA drought had wreaked havoc on the Great PlainsLand had been exhausted from overproduction of cropsWind scattered topsoilStates hit hardest were: Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and ColoradoFamilies picked up and left, headed for California
93 Effect on the American Family Women Struggle to SurviveMany women canned food and sewed clothes, managed household budgetsWomen worked outside the home for lower wages than menMarried women were frowned upon in the workforceWomen were starving to death in cold attics and rooming houses
94 Effect on the American Family Children Suffer HardshipsPoor diets and lack of healthcare led to health problemsRise in malnutritionMany schools had shorteryears or closed because ofloss of revenueTeenagers, especially boyshopped on freight trainsSome were murdered or lockedin ice cars by mistake
95 Effect on the American Family Most families stayed togetherMen in the StreetsSome men abandoned their families because they could not find work300,000 transients (hoboes)wandered the country, hitchingrides or railroad boxcars, sleepingunder bridges
96 Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation Hoover’s PhilosophyAmericans should depend on themselves and not the governmentAmericans were shocked by his responseHoover Takes Cautious StepsHe asked business, banking, and labor to work togetherHe asked employers not to cut wages and layoff workersTried to help charitiesNothing worked
97 Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation Boulder DamBuilding of the dam on the Colorado River helpedWorld’s tallest damProvided electricity and flood control and regular water supply to California
98 Hoover Takes Action Federal Home Loan Bank Act Lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and farmers could refinanceReconstruction Finance CorporationAuthorized $2 billion for emergency financing for banks, life insurance companies, railroads, and other large businessesThese measures were too late!!
99 Review 1. The greatest economic crisis in US history is known as A. overproduction C. The Great DepressionB. The Dust Bowl D. Black Tuesday2. What was the Dust Bowl and how did overproduction and droughts contribute to it? What effect did it have on farmers?3. Describe some of the causes of the Great Depression?
100 StandardSSUSH18: Describe Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the Depression and compare the ways government programs aided those in need.
101 FDR Confronts the Nation’s Crisis 1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) electedRepublicans did not expect Hoover to be reelectedAmericans blamed Hoover for doing too little too lateFDR, the Democratic candidate, was a two-term governor from New YorkHe won an overwhelming victory
102 Americans Get a New Deal Waiting for Roosevelt to TakeoverFDR would not be inaugurated until March 1933, four months after the election in November 1932He worked with his team while he waited to take officeFormulated a set of policies that would be known as the New Deal
103 Americans Get a New Deal In FDR’s first Hundred Days Congress passed 15 major pieces of legislationSignificantly expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economyFDR used fireside chats (radio talk shows) to talk to the American public about issues of concernRegulations for banking and finance were put into place to protect consumers
104 Roosevelt’s First New Deal The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)The Federal Deposit InsuranceCorporation (FDIC)Put young men aged to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, flood control projectsSought to raise crop prices by lowering production (paid farmers not to grow)1933 insured bank deposits up to $100,000
105 Roosevelt’s First New Deal National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)Sought to bolster industrial prices and prevent US business failures. Included Public Works Administration (PWA) which built dams, highways, bridges – helped put people to workBuilt hydroelectric dams to create jobs and bring cheap electricity to parts of the South. Parts of Appalachians prospered because of TVA
106 Roosevelt Extends Relief One of Roosevelt’s largest program was the Works Progress Administration (WPA)It set out to create as many jobs as possible as quickly as possibleBetween , $11 billion was spent to give jobs to 8 million workersThey built airports, constructed roads and streets, and put up public buildingsIt also employed professionals to write guides to cities, collected slave narratives, painted murals on the walls of schools, and performed in theater troupes around the country
107 Roosevelt’s CriticsRoosevelt’s reforms were applauded by many but criticized by othersCalled a socialistOthers wanted more radical reformsHuey P. Long of Louisiana had headed a ruthless political machine and built support by helping poor and underprivilegedAdvocated a redistribution of wealth (take from rich and give to poor)Wanted to cap incomes at $1 million/yearAssassinated in September 1935
108 The Second New Deal National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) Social Security Act (SSA)Revenue Act of 1935Also known as the Wagner Act – created a board to monitor unfair management practices against union members; allowed workers to organize unions, use collective bargaining, and go on strikeEstablished retirement income for all workers at age 65; provided benefits to unemployed; only program still around todayRaised taxes on those making $50,000/year as well as corporate and estate taxes
109 The Court-Packing Scheme Another source of resistance to Roosevelt’s programs was the US Supreme CourtIt struck down a number of New Deal ideasFebruary 1937, Roosevelt proposed his “court-packing scheme” – proposed enlarging the Court from nine to 15 judges so he could “pack” the Court with justices favorable to his programsFaced fierce oppositionPolitical pressures forced Roosevelt towithdraw his request
110 Improving Labor and Other Reforms Improving Labor ConditionsOne reform of the Second New Deal was the passage of the Wagner Act – reestablished the NIRA provision of collective bargainingThis protected the rights of workersProhibited unfair labor practices such as threatening workers, firing union members, and interfering with union organizingSet up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to hear testimony about unfair practices
112 FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition an alignment of diverse groups dedicated to supporting the Democratic PartyIncluded Southern whites, various urban groups, African Americans, and unionize industrial workersLabor Unions FlourishUnion members enjoyed better working conditions because of the Wagner Act and other pro-labor legislation
113 FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition Labor Unions Flourish continued…Between 1933 and 1941, union membership grew from less than 3 million to more than 10 millionThe AFL limited its membership to craft unions such as carpenters and electriciansThe Congress of Industrial Organization was formed to embrace other laborersSplit from the AFL until 1935
114 FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition Labor DisputesLabor unions used the sit-down strike effectivelyFactory owners were unable to carry on production with strikebreakers, or scabsSome labor disputes became violentAt the Republic Steel plant in Chicago – Memorial Day, 1937 (Memorial Day Massacre)Ten people were killed, 84 wounded when police attacked strikers
115 Women and MinoritiesWomen and minorities did not benefit from the New Deal as much as white malesPrograms favored men because they were the breadwinners of their familiesAllowed businesses to pay women less – did not regulate domestic workMany minorities still worked as farmers and migrant workers so they were excluded from Social SecurityNew Deal programs sanctioned racial segregationBlacks had higher rates of unemployment, but did get some jobs as a result of programs – caused shift in black support
116 New Deal Reforms Endure Expanding Government’s Role in the Economy continued…The New Deal did not end the Great Depression, but it helped reduce sufferingThe government went into deep debt to provide jobs and aid to the American peopleWhat really ended the Great Depression was World War II
117 FDR and International Concerns New Deal programs contributed to worldwide depressionFDR supported high tariffs (taxes on foreign imports) to encourage Americans to buy US productsForeign nations responded with their own tariffs making the depression worse around the globeLed to the start of WWII
118 The Neutrality ActIn Europe militaristic dictators rose to power in Germany and Italy and threatened to lead the entire continent back into warJapan seized parts of China and threatened to continue expanding their Southeast Asian empire by military forceUS continued to practice isolationism – Americans wanted to focus on problems at home not abroadCongress passed the Neutrality Act in 1935 – prohibited the sale of weapons to warring nations
119 Eleanor RooseveltFDR’s wife Eleanor Roosevelt, was one of the most impactful first ladies in US historyNiece of former president, Theodore Roosevelt, and distant cousin of her husbandSocial activistWorked for reforms in state government and public housing, fought for the rights of working women, supported distribution of information on birth controlSupporter of the “common citizen”Visited military veterans demanding payment for WWI serviceOften traveled in place of her husband who was paralyzed by polioRefused to obey Jim Crow laws in the South and sat with blacks and whites at interracial gatherings
120 Review1. What were FDR’s government programs for dealing with the Great Depression called?A. National Recovery Programs C. the Court-Packing SchemeB. the New Deal D. Neutrality Acts2. How did Pres. Roosevelt feel about the government providing direct relief?A. He supported the idea.B. He opposed the idea because it had already proven to be a failure.C. He only favored the idea after Eleanor convinced him.D. He only supported the idea after Huey Long criticized him.3. What were some of the arguments for and against the New Deal?4. Describe how Eleanor Roosevelt distinguished herself as a first lady?
121 SSUSH20: Analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. STANDARDS
123 NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization 123123
124 The Cold War Begins: Conflict in Europe Following WWII, tensions were high between western Allies and the Soviet Union – neither side trusted the otherWestern powers were capitalist market systemsSoviet Union was a socialist state led by Communist PartySoviets Tighten Their Grip on Eastern EuropeSoviet Union emerged from WWII stronger economically and militarilySoviets had suffered devastation on their soil; felt they had a right to Eastern Europe – felt they could prevent future invasions from the westThe European continent was divided between western democracies and Soviet satellite nationsWinston Churchill: “ A shadow has fallen…an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
125 US Post-war Policies in Europe An “iron curtain” divided EuropeUS diplomat George Kennan“Time to stop babying the Soviets.”Proposed a policy of containment – take measures to prevent the spread of communism - Eastern Europe could not be saved; contain it to those countriesTruman Doctrine – reaffirmed Kennan’s philosophyUS would not hesitate to intervene and aid nations overseas resist communismThe Marshall PlanWestern Europe was in chaos and ruinsSec. of State George Marshall proposed U.S. provide aid to all European nations that needed itRevived European hopes – prevented Soviet advances into Western Europe
126 A Divided Germany Germany was divided into four zones after WWII Occupied by U.S., Great Britain, France (west Germany), Soviet Union (east Germany)Intended to be a temporary divisionStalin had different ideasWest Germany became the Federal Republic of GermanyStalin made East Germany the German Democratic Republic under communist ruleThousands of people fled East Germany for West GermanyStalin responded by cutting off the city of Berlin from suppliesTruman authorized the Berlin Airlift – US and British planes delivered needed supplies to West Berlin
127 A Divided Germany The Berlin Airlift American and British flew food and supplies into West Berlin for 327 days,around the clockHelped West Berlin survive; officially became a new nation
128 A Divided GermanyThe conflict between U.S. and U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) became known as the “Cold War”It dominated both nations’ foreign policies and many feared it would lead to actual war
129 Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.Divided Germany129129
130 China and Korea: China’s Communist Revolution Chiang Kai-shek, a Nationalist, ruled China prior to Japanese invasion in the early 1930sCommunists were led by Mao Tse-tung (Zedong)The two joined forces to fight the Japanese in WWII
131 China Becomes a Communist Country Renewed Civil WarCooperation between Nationalists and Communists ended after WWIIU.S. played peacemakerSupported Chiang Kai-shekCommunists eventually won out (People’s Republic of China)America Reacts to Communists TakeoverContainment had failed!
132 The Korean War Japan had taken over Korea in 1910, and ruled until 1945Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to SovietsJapanese troops south of the 38th parallel surrendered to U.S.Korea became divided: Communist (North Korea) and Democratic (South Korea)
133 The Korean War North Korea Attacks South Korea June 25, 1950 North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South KoreaPres. Truman ordered American troops to support South Korea16 nations sent 520,000 troops to aid South Korea
134 The Korean War MacArthur’s Counterattack The Chinese Fight Back September 15,1950 U.S. troops, under Gen. McArthur, made a surprise amphibious attack on North Korea – other troops moved north from PusanTrapped, half North Korean troops surrendered, the rest fled back across the 38th parallelThe Chinese Fight BackChinese needed North Korea as a Communist buffer zoneChinese troops forced UN troops southwardChinese captured South Korean capital of SeoulTruman fired MacArthur after the general criticized the president’s handling of the warBoth sides signed a truce in 1953
135 Fear of Communist Influence Americans feared Communism in U.S.The US and USSR engaged in a nuclear arms racePrivate citizens built fallout shelters – to protect them against a Soviet nuclear attackSchools conducted nuclear drills where students were taught to “duck and cover”80,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist Party – many questioned their loyaltyCommunist revolutions in China and North Korea’s invasion of South Korea concerned AmericansUS government investigated, arrested, harassed suspected Communists – called the Red Scare
138 Government Policies with Communism Truman created the Department of Defense, National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to spy on the USSR and its alliesThe House Un-American Activities CommitteeHUAC investigated possible Communist influence in and out of governmentTargeted Hollywood film industryHollywood Ten – ten “unfriendly” witnesses who refused to testify; they believed hearings were unconstitutional. They were sent to prisonMany stars were blacklisted – couldn’t work in Hollywood,careers were ruined
139 Government Policies Dealing with Communism Alger HissAccused of spying for the Soviet UnionHe was convicted of perjury and sent to jailHe proclaimed his innocence, said he was framedThe RosenbergsEthel and Julius Rosenberg were accusedof giving bomb secrets to the Soviet UnionAccused of being CommunistsConvicted and sentenced to death; died in electric chair in June 1953
140 Joseph McCarthyMost famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy – Republican from WisconsinMcCarthy’s Tactics (“McCarthyism”)Made unsupported accusationsMcCarthyism – attacks on suspected CommunistsNever had proof or evidence; accused Democratic Party of allowing Communist infiltrationRepublicans did nothing to stop him
141 McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” McCarthy’s Downfall1954, McCarthy made accusations against the U.S. Army – became a televised Senate investigationMcCarthy bullied witnesses which cost him public supportSenate condemned him for improper conductDied of alcoholism three years later
142 Review Questions 1. The term “Cold War’ refers to A. the distrust between the US and USSR that many feared would lead to actual war in the years following WWII.B. the war fought in Germany after WWII between Communists and Democrats.C. the war fought between North and South Korea.D. the war fought between the US and China following the Chinese Revolution.2. The Truman Doctrine stated thatA. the US would not tolerate Communists in high levels of US government.B. the US would not hesitate to intervene to help foreign nations resist communism.C. the US would not cross the 38th parallel during the Korean War.D. the US would support Mao’s revolution in China.
143 Review Questions3. What was the goal of the United States’ “containment policy” and why did the US believe it was the best approach to dealing with Soviet communism?4. What was the purpose of HUAC? Who was Joseph McCarthy and how did he become famous?
144 StandardsSSUSH22: Identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement,SSUSH23: Describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and 1970SSUSH24: Analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s.
145 The Civil Rights Movement WWII and the efforts of A. Philip Randolph’s efforts showed that African Americans were willing to die for there country just like white soldiers.As a result African Americans started to question racism in America.
147 Civil Rights Movement1945 Harry S. Truman became President after the death of FDR.Supporter of Civil RightsTruman’s support of civil rights split the Democratic Party.A new party was formed called the “Dixiecrats” who were Democrats not in favor of integration.
148 Civil Rights MovementTruman signed an executive order to integrate the armed forces.Jackie Robinson became thefirst African American to playprofessional major leaguebaseball.
149 Civil Rights MovementBrown v. Board of Education was passed in 1954 overturned Plessy v. Ferguson making segregation in public schools illegal.
150 Civil Rights Movement Little Rock Arkansas (1957) A response to Brown v. BoardPresident Eisenhower had to send military forces to Arkansas because the governor refused to integrate his school.Students who integrated known as the “Little Rock Nine”.
152 Civil Rights MovementMississippi defied the Supreme Court and attempted to prevent an African American named James Meredith.The university admitted Meredith after President Kennedy sent federal authorities to Mississippi.Governor George Wallace tried to prevent the integration of University of Alabama by physically blocking the doors of the college.
153 George Wallace in front of University of Alabama
154 Civil Rights MovementAtlanta, Georgia under Mayor William Hartsfield, managed to avoid much of the violence and turmoil found in other southern states.“Atlanta is the city too busy to hate”
155 The Civil Rights Movement Leader: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.African Americans refused to ride the bus until Montgomery integrated the buses.The Montgomery public transportation lost major $$$$$$$$$$$.It lasted over a year until the Supreme Court ruled that Montgomery must integrate.
156 The Civil Rights Movement SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceLeader: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.Relied on voter registration and education as a method for civil rights.
157 The Civil Rights Movement “Letter from Birmingham Jail”Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.Response to white ministers who wrote a statement arguing that the battle for civil rights should be done in court, not protest.King wrote that he believed that protest were necessary to gain equality.
158 The Civil Rights Movement March on Washington (1963) – influenced Kennedy’s support for civil rights200,000 civil right activists in protest demanding equality.Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.delivered his “I Have a Dream”speech.
159 The Civil Rights Movement Sit-ins: Nonviolent protests in which blacks sat in segregated places until they were served or arrested.February 1, 1960; Greensboro, North CarolinaSNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, students that devoted themselves to non-violent protest
160 The Civil Rights Movement In 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality or CORE (an organization founded in 1942 and devoted to social change through nonviolent action) organized “freedom rides”Freedom Rides gained national attention to the cause of civil rights.
161 Civil Rights MovementAt times, students who joined the SNCC and Core CRITICIZED the SCLC.Younger African Americans tended to be more radical and wanted to take a more confrontational approach to civil rights.SNCC and CORE members began to reject nonviolent protest as being too slow and ineffective and began advocating “Black Power”.
162 Civil Rights Movements After the March on Washington, President John F. Kennedy proposed new civil rights laws.President Lyndon B. Johnson urged Congress to pass Civil Rights legislation proposed by Kennedy before he died.
163 Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act of 1964 The act prohibited segregation in public accommodations (hotels, restaurants, theaters) and discrimination in education and employment, and gave the President the right to enforce it.1964; 24th Amendment: poll tax illegal
164 Civil Rights Movement“Bloody Sunday”: March 7, 1965; from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery.500 supportersTelevision captured the horrific scene
165 Civil Rights MovementVoting Rights Act of 1965: President Johnson signed to get rid of literacy tests for voter registration and sent officials to register voters in the event that county officials failed to do so.Increased the amount of African American candidates elected to public office.
166 Social and Political Currents During the 1950’s and 60’s the US Supreme Court used its power to bring about social change.Earl Warren served as justice from 1953 to 1969.Brown v. Board of Education (segregation)Mapp v. Ohio (illegal searches)Gideon v. Wainwright (provide legal counsel)
167 Social and Political Currents The Warren Court’s biggest rulingMiranda v. ArizonaMiranda Rights: “You have the right to remain silent…”
168 Social and Political Currents Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Great Society”Social programs centered around “The War on Poverty”The Economic Opportunity ActMedicare: Healthcare for the elderlyMedicaid: Healthcare for lower income families
169 Social and Political Currents Democratic National Convention of 1968Political convention where the Democratic Party nominated its candidates for president and vice president for the ’68 election.Large numbers of radicals and protesters descended on the city where the convention was held and, eventually voted against the Vietnam Peace ResolutionPolice began clubbing those involved in the rally while television cameras caught most of the violence.
171 Social and Political Currents Migrant Workers MovementUnited Farm Workers was founded in 1962 by Cesar Chavez to support the rights of migrant farm workers, many of which were poor Hispanic immigrants.
172 Social and Political Currents 1968Antiwar Movement against Vietnam WarAssassination of Dr. Martin Luther KingAssassination of Robert Kennedy
173 Social and Political Currents The Women’s MovementChanging the roles of women starting with Betty Friedan book “The Feminine Mystique”National Organization for Women which devoted itself to political activism and promoting feminist causes.
174 Social and Political Currents Environmentalist MovementEnvironmentalists are concerned with preserving the earth’s resources and species of life.Rachel Carson: Scientist and writer published Silent Spring which argued against the use of harmful chemicalsEarth Day (started in 1970)Al GoreWrote the “Inconvenient Truth”EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)Federal agency enforcing laws that protect the environment
175 Social and Political Currents The Rise of ConservatismThe belief that government should not try to regulate too much.Conservatives resented higher taxes and didn’t want their hard earned money to go toward individuals they viewed as lazy and unwilling to work.
176 Social and Political Currents Barry Goldwater and the Election of 64’Arizona US senator that believed in states rights and property rightsHe won the Republican nomination and parts of the South over a Democratic presidentThe Solid South was over! Showed Southerners were willing to put conservative ideals above party loyalty.
177 Review Questions1. Rachel Carson is credited with inspiring the modernA. environmental movement.B. women’s movement.C. migrant worker’s movement.D. anti-war movement.2. The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Miranda case officially established thatA. Mexican immigrants must be treated equal to whites.B. law enforcement officials must have a warrant before conducting a search.C. anyone arrested of a crime must be informed of their right to an attorney and their right not to incriminate themselves.D. the government must provide lawyers for criminal defendants who cannot afford to hire their own.
178 Review Questions3. What was Johnson’s “Great Society” and what was it intended to do? What were some of the problems and criticisms of the program?4. Describe the year 1968 and list some of the major events that occurred.5. What is conservatism and why did many in the western US and the Deep South embrace it during the 1960s?
179 The Late Cold War and Modern Politics SSUSH25: Describe changes in national politics since 1968.
180 The Late Cold War and Modern Politics Nixon, Ford, and CarterNixon’s Detente Plan: Nixon sought to use diplomacy rather than intimidation to ease tensions that existed between the US and communist nations.1st President to recognize China’s communist government.
185 NixonNixon had a “middle of the road” stance on civil rights in America.Swann v. Charlotte-MecklenburgOver the practice of having students attend schools outside the boundaries of what would normally be in their district in order to achieve racial integration.Supreme Court ruled that voluntary integration was not working so integration should be done by busing.
186 Civil RightsAffirmative Action: 1970’s policy that aimed at increasing minority representation in the workplace, educational institutions, social setting, etc.Regents of UC v. BakkeBakke applied to the University of California Medical School and did not get accepted. The University had 16 slots available for qualified minorities. Bakke challenged the school’s affirmative action policy stating that he was better qualified than those students accepted because of affirmative action.Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bakke. (14th Amendment cited)
187 The Economy and NixonNixon had to deal with a recession while in office.Stagflation: When inflation and unemployment rise together. Economic Nightmare!!!Nixon proposed a tax increased that Congress blocked. He also asked the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates in an attempt to curb inflation, only to see the action result in a stock market collapse.
188 Nixon’s Problems get Worse!!! The United States backed Israel in a war Israel fought with Egypt and Syria.The Arab states comprising OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) imposed an oil embargo against the US.Exposed the United States heavy dependence on foreign oil and reminded people that natural resources were not limitless.
189 WomenWomen wanted an amendment to the Constitution making sexual discrimination illegal that the states failed to ratify.
190 WomenRoe v. Wade (One of the most controversial court cases in history)Prior to 1973, states could outlaw or restrict abortions during a woman’s pregnancy.Citing an implied right to privacy, the Supreme Court ruled state laws restricting a women’s right to an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy to be unconstitutional.Doe v. Bolton in conjunction with Roe currently grants women the right to end the life of the fetus through all nine months of pregnancy for any reason, including just prior to birth.
191 Watergate The Rise of Nixon The turmoil within the Democratic Party benefited former vice president Richard Nixon.Nixon campaigned and won on a promise to restore law and order. He successfully appealed to many middle-class Americans fed up with years of riots and protest
192 WatergateThe Watergate scandal centered on the Nixon administration’s attempt to cover up a burglary of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C.
193 Watergate The President’s Men An Imperial Presidency “A president must not be one of the crowd…”Nixon expanded the power of the presidency with little regard to checks and balancesHe believed he was all powerful and untouchableThe President’s MenNixon had an inner circle of advisors to whom he confided everything; they shared his desire for secrecy; they believed they were above the law
194 The Inner Circle Chief of Staff Chief Domestic Advisor H.R. Haldeman John EhrlichmannJohn Mitchell Attorney GeneralJohn W. Dean, Presidential Counsel
195 The Drive Toward Reelection A Bungled BurglaryThe cover-up began quicklyDocuments were shreddedThe CIA was told to stop investigating because of national securityTwo reporters at the Washington Post, Bob Woodruff and Carl Bernstein followed the story closely
196 Watergate A Bungled Burglary The Committee to Reelect the President (CRP) paid the burglars $450,000 to keep silentThe White House consistently denied all charges and promised peace in VietnamNixon won reelection in 1972 by a landslide
197 Watergate Declared Nixon had been deeply involved in the cover-up Startling Testimony“What did the president know and when did he know it?”John Dean, presidential counsel, testified for 30 hoursDeclared Nixon had been deeply involved in the cover-upWhite House said Dean was lyingWho was telling the truth?Presidential aide Alexander Butterfield said Nixon taped all of his presidential conversations
198 The Fall of a PresidentMarch 1974, a grand jury indicted seven presidential aides on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury.Nixon Releases the TapesSpring of 1974, Nixon told American public he was releasing 1,254 pages of edited transcriptsInvestigators wanted unedited tapesCase went before the Supreme Court – president was forced to surrender the tapes
199 The Fall of a President The President Resigns August 5 Nixon released the tapesThey contained many gaps – on 18 ½ minutes longSaid Nixon’s secretary “accidentally” erased portions of the tapeBefore the full House vote on the articles of impeachment, Nixon announced his resignationHe admitted no guiltGerald Ford was sworn in as the 38th President
200 Gerald Ford “Our long national nightmare is over.” Ford Americans to put the Watergate scandal behind them.A Ford, Not A LincolnLikable and honestFord pardoned Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974 so the country could move beyond Watergate
201 Gerald Ford Ford Tries to “Whip” Inflation America’s economy had gone from bad to worse.”Inflation and unemployment were rising –”public enemy #!”Gasoline and heating prices were up“Whip Inflation Now” (WIN) – called on Americans to cut back on their use of gas and oil and take energy-saving measuresThe plan fell flatCut government spending and raised interest ratesTriggered the worst recession in 40 years
202 Jimmy CarterRepublican Ford faced Democrat James “Jimmy” Carter in the 1976 electionCarter was an unknown peanut farmer and former governor of GeorgiaMr. Carter Goes to WashingtonSoft-spoken, personablePromised to restore integrity to the nation’s highest office, “I will never tell a lie to the American people.”Carter won by a narrow margin – becoming the 39th president of the United States
203 Carter’s Foreign Policy The Camp David AccordsIn 1977, Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin met in Jerusalem to discuss peaceSummer of 1978, Carter invited Sadat and Begin to the presidential retreat in Maryland, Camp David when peace talks stalled between the menAfter 12 days the three leaders reached anagreement known as the Camp David Accords –Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula;Egypt formally recognized Israel’s right to exist
204 The Iranian Hostage Crisis The Iran Hostage CrisisThe Shah of Iran was an ally of the United States, however Iranians resented his corruption and dictatorial tacticsRevolution broke out in 1979 – Muslim religious leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini led the rebels in overthrowing the shah – established a religious state based on the Qur’anThe shah entered the U.S. in October 1979 for cancer treatmentsRevolutionaries were furious – armed students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took 52 Americans hostageIn return they wanted the Shah – the U.S. refused
205 Ronald Reagan and the End of the Cold War: The Conservative Giant In 1980 Ronald Wilson Reagan ran against Jimmy CarterReagan chose George H.W. Bush as his running mateReagan was a former actor and former governor of CaliforniaHe was relaxed, charming, and affableReagan won the election by a narrow marginConservatives had their manIt’s “morning in America.”Hostages were released after 444 days, after Ronald Reagan was sworn in as the 40th president of the U.S.
206 Review Questions 1. Richard Nixon was A. a president who took a hard-line military stand against the Chinese and enthusiastically supported civil rights legislation.B. the first president to publicly recognize communist China and eventually resigned due to a scandal.C. the only man ever to serve as both president and vice president without being elected to either office.D. a former governor of Georgia who went on to become president and improve relations with communist nations.2. Jimmy Carter was praised for which of the following?A. Watergate B. his handling of the Iranian Hostage CrisisC. the Camp David Accords D. instituting WIN
207 Review Questions3. What was Watergate and how did it affect the presidency?4. Describe the Iranian Hostage Crisis and explain how it affected the 1980 presidential election.
208 “Reaganomics” Takes Over Reagan immediately worked to reduce the size and influence of the federal governmentBudget CutsMade deep cuts in government spending on social programsMost of his cuts hurt the poor – mass transit, food stamps, welfare benefits, job training, Medicaid, school lunches, and student loans
209 “Reaganomics” Takes Over Tax CutsSupply-side economics – theory that if people paid fewer taxes they would save more money; banks could then loan money to businesses, which would invest money to improve productivity, leading to lower pricesIncreased Defense SpendingAuthorized increases in military spendingStrategic Defense Initiative (SDS) – program to develop a defense system that would keep Americans safe from enemy missiles – estimated to cost trillions of dollars
210 Reagan and the “Evil Empire” In March 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionGorbachev Initiates ReformSoviets had destroyed their economy by trying to keep up with U.S. defense spendingAdvocated glasnost – openness, allowed open criticism of the government and freedom of pressPerestroika – less government control of the economy, introduced private enterprise and democratic government
211 The Iron Curtain Comes Down The Collapse of Communist RegimesGorbachev reduced the number of Soviet troops before he resigned and encouraged East Germany and Eastern Europe to go their separate waysNov. 9, 1989 East Germany opened the Berlin Wall – East Berliners pounded at the wall with hammers and other toolsOther European Nationsadopted democratic reforms
212 The Iran-Contra Scandal In 1983, terrorist groups loyal to Iran took a number of Americans hostage in LebanonReagan refused to negotiate with terroristsIn 1986, Pres. Reagan had approved the sale of arms to Iran in exchange for the release of seven American hostages; part of the profitswere sent to the Contras inNicaragua (illegal)Congress held hearings toinvestigate212
213 Review Questions1. Reagan’s economic plan once he took office was nicknamedA. “conservative money theory” B. “national debt”C. “Reaganomics” D. “stagflation”2. Which of the following best describes Reagan’s view of government?A. It should be bigger and better funded so that it can fully regulate society.B. It should be reduced because too much government is the source of the US’ problems.C. Governments should be abolished because they serve no worthwhile purpose.D. Government should have more control over the economy and health care without funding welfare.3. Describe Reagan’s view of the Soviet Union prior to 1985, how his approach changed after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, and what actions Reagan took that contributed to the end of the Cold War.4. Describe the Iran-Contra Affair.
214 The 1990s: George H.W. Bush and the Persian Gulf War The 1988 Presidential ElectionReagan’s vice president, George H.W. Bush ran for president by building on Reagan’s legacyWas in office when the Berlin Wall fellCommander-in-chief during the Persian Gulf War in 19911990 Saddam Hussein invaded neighboring KuwaitUS relied on Kuwait for oilAn alliance of 28 countries went after Saddam; war lasted 42 days – but allowed Saddam to stay in power
215 Election of 1992 Bush’s popularity soared after the war Economy had taken a downturn by 1992“It’s the economy, stupid.” Democrats portrayed Bush as out of touch with common citizensBush broke a promise not to raise taxes – “Read my lips: no new taxes!”Democrats nominated Bill Clinton – gifted politician and public speaker
216 The Clinton Presidency Governor William Jefferson Clinton of Arkansas became the first member of the baby-boom generation to win the presidency.The Election of 1992Pres. George H.W. Bush’s popularity had dropped because of recessionClinton promised to get the country out of a recession
217 The Clinton Presidency A “New” DemocratClinton said he would move away from traditional Democratic policiesWanted to move people off of welfare and grow private businessesWorked to move democratic party to the center
218 NAFTA Trade and the Global Economy North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – brought Mexico into the free-trade zone that the U.S. and Canada already had formedSupporters – would strengthen all three economiesOpponents – said it would transfer American jobs to Mexico
219 Health Care Health Care Reform Wanted to create affordable health care for all Americans (Healthcare Reform Bill)Congress debated the plan for a year, was never passed
220 Scandal and Impeachment Clinton ImpeachedAccused of improperly usingmoney from a land deal with theWhitewater Development Companyto fund his 1984 gubernatorial raceHad also lied under oath about having an improper relationship with a young White House internDecember 1988, the House of Representatives approved to articles of impeachment – charged with perjury and obstruction of justiceHe was acquitted
221 Review Questions 1. Bill Clinton was A. the first Democrat to win the presidency since 1976.B. the first Democrat elected president since Franklin Roosevelt.C. the first Democrat to serve only one term as president during the twentieth century.D. the first person ever to serve as governor of a southern state before becoming president.2. Describe the Pres. Clinton’s battle with Congress over the federal budget in What was the final outcome?3. What was NAFTA and why did it cause controversy?4. Why was Pres. Clinton impeached and what was the outcome of his impeachment?
222 Into a New Century: The Presidential Election of 2000 Al Gore vs. George W. BushClosest election in US history to dateDecided by 537 votes in the state of FloridaVoting irregularities extended the debate over who won for a monthDecember 12, 2000, the US Supreme Court voted 5 – 4 to stop future recountsGeorge W. Bush became 43rd president
224 The Middle East and the Rise of Terrorism Hostility has existed between Arab and Persian Gulf nations, which are mostly and Muslim, and Israel, which is mostly JewishMany Middle East countries believe that Israel belongs to Palestinian ArabsUS support for Israel has made US a target of hatred and terrorists (criminals who destroy property and kill innocent civilians in the name of a political or social cause)Radical Islam advocates violence to overthrow the US and other western nations
225 The Middle East and the Rise of Terrorism Al-Qaeda the most formidable and best known Islamic terrorist groupHeaded by rich Saudi radical Osama bin LadenAfter the Soviets withdrew from the country in 1989, bin Laden and other radicals wanted to continue the “fight for Islamic causes”bin Laden was angered by US presence on Muslim soil during Persian Gulf War
226 The Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 and the War on Terror September 11, 2001Terrorists hijacked airliners and flewthem into the World Trade Center inNew York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DCA third plane crashed into a field in PennsylvaniaAttacks brought the reality of terrorism home to the USNot since the bombing of Pearl Harbor had the US experienced an attack on its own soil
228 Bush’s Response Bush had only been in office 8 months when 9/11 happenedHe declared a “war on terror”Created the Department of Homeland SecurityIncreased airline securitySigned into law the US PATRIOT ActIncreased authority of law enforcement to use measures to obtain information
229 Operation Enduring Freedom US and a coalition of other nations took military action against Afghanistan, believed to be where bin Laden was hiding under the protection of the TalibanTaliban refused to turn over bin LadenOctober 2001, Operation Enduring Freedom was launchedTroops remain in Afghanistan today rebuilding the country, supporting the new government, battling insurgents, looking for terrorists
232 War in Iraq Bush’s war on terror extended in Iraq in 2003 Intelligence on weapons of mass destruction led to the War in Iraqit was believed that Saddam Hussein had ties to Al-Qaeda – he had a history of using chemical weapons against ethnic groupsWith support from allies but not the United Nations, the US brought down the government of Iraq in 21 days
233 War in Iraq No “weapons of mass destruction” were found in Iraq Bush administration came under harsh criticism for its claims against IraqIraq has formed a new government, new constitution, better opportunities for women2007 additional troops (troop surge) were sent to assist the new government2010 last combat troops left Iraq, but about 50,000 stayed to help the Iraqi military
237 How Attitudes Towards Government Have Changed After 1960s, US citizens’ attitudes towards the government changed radically.Television changed access to informationImages of Vietnam War, civil rights protests, political demonstrations, and Congressional hearings made people more skeptical and less trusting of governmentIn the ’60s many called for more regulationLater conservatives like Ronald Reagan proclaimed government the problem and called for less regulationThere continues to be conflicts over less government vs. more government programs to address healthcare, education, etc.
238 Review Questions1. The state of Florida played a key role in the 2000 presidential election becauseA. both major candidates were from Florida.B. it was the last state where people voted.C. it was the only state in which no winner was ever declared.D. it carried enough electoral votes to determine the winner.
239 Review Questions2. Presidential Bush authorized Operation Enduring FreedomA. in hopes of liberating Iraq.B. in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks.C. in an effort to find Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction.D. in an attempt to establish a federal department in charge of homeland security.3. Describe how attitudes of US citizens towards government have changed since World War II.
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