Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Evolution Genetic change in a population over time What are the 3 necessary ingredients for evolution?

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Evolution Genetic change in a population over time What are the 3 necessary ingredients for evolution?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution Genetic change in a population over time What are the 3 necessary ingredients for evolution?

2 Evolution is a natural phenomenon that will occur wherever suitable conditions exist Its a genetic change in a population over time Is the example below macroevolution or microevolution?

3 Evidences for Evolution Fossils: What is a fossil? Comparative Embryology Comparative Biochemistry Comparative Anatomy

4 Fossil Evidence Preservation in ice and acid Preservation in amber Preserved hard parts Petrification Molds and casts Imprints

5 Preservation in Ice & Acid Organisms are kept from decaying in ice or strongly acidic conditions. Why are bogs conducive to preservation and not decomposition?

6 Preservation in Amber Fossilized tree sap

7 Preserved Hard Parts Organic materials in hard parts of living things leech out and are replaced by minerals in the surrounding rock

8 Petrification Organic materials in tree tissue leech out and are replaced by minerals in the surrounding rock

9 Molds & Casts Molds impressions Casts 3-D Identify the 3 pictures as molds or casts.

10 Imprints Impressions or indentations in rock

11 Stratification strata What does the root word stratamean? How fossils are formed Becoming a Fossil

12 Relative Dating estimating the age of something compared to something else

13 Absolute Dating RadioMetric Dating Video:

14 radioactive:decay of nuclei of unstable atoms half-life uranium 238 = 4.5billion yrs uranium lead C 14 up to 40,000yrs C 14 C 12 half life 5700 If a piece of rock is found with a Lead:Uranium ratio of 7:1, how old is the rock?

15 Comparative Embryology "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" each embryo has to repeat the adult stages of its biological predecessors Haeckel was a fraud!

16 Comparative Biochemistry DNA sequence and protein molecules What is the adjacent picture called? What is the name of the process which generates it?

17 Comparative Anatomy Homologous structures Analogous structures Vestigial structures

18 Homologous Structures Similar in design, different in function

19 Divergent Evolution offspring of a common (similar) ancestor diverge b/c they are adapted by different environments Adaptive Radiation process by which ancestral species evolve into a number of diff species

20 Analogous Structures similar in function different in design offspring nonrelated (different) ancestors converge b/c they are adapted by similar environments Speed and stealth in the water

21 Rolling for defense

22 What is the name of this animal?

23 Echolocation for feeding in darkness (Oil bird and bat)

24 Convergent Evol. result of geographic isolation and niches to be filled process by which different species evolve similar structures or adaptations to similar (but diff) environments

25 Parallel Evolution

26 Divergent, Convergent & Parallel Evolution Make a Venn comparing the 3 types of evolution. 3 facts per group.

27 Hummingbird flowers What kind of evolution do these flowers exhibit? Why?

28 Co-Evolution When two different organisms change in response to each other How many bees are on the screen? Write your answer and then watch the videos. Evolution of CamouflageEvolution of Camouflage: Orchard Wasps

29 Mimicry Will the REAL stinging insect please stand up! How many stinging insects on the screen? Mimicry only works if there are more _____________

30 Vestigial structures a structure or organ that has no apparent use if organisms use the minimal amount of E to survive,why would they use E to form a structure that has no use?

31 Theories of Evolution Empedocles Aristotle Linnaeus Lamarck Cuvier Lyell Wallace/DarwinDarwin Stanley/Gould Write at least 1 fact about each theorist.

32 Lamarck & Acquired Characteristics Acquired characteristics traits acquired during life can be passed to offspring Theory of Use & Disuse what we use gets larger and what we dont gradually disappears

33 Natural Selection (Darwin & Wallace)Darwin Overproduction Struggle for existence/ Competition Variation within a species Survival of the fittest problem: how did variations arise? How does Evolution Really Work

34 Overproduction Thomas Malthus "Essay on Principles of Population" Malthus geometric/expo nential progression (vs arithmetic)

35 Gradualism Gradualism vs Punctuated EquilibriumPunctuated Equilibrium Permian Extinction Cambrian Explosion

36 Speciation Formation of a new species (group of organisms that can reproduce fertile offspring) needs: 1. Available niche 2. Genetic Isolation 3. Time

37 Genetic Isolation Geographic/allopatric Isolation results from physical separation Ecological/sympatric Isolation: Mechanical (post/pre zygotic) Temporal Ethological (behavioral) Isolating Lacewing songs

38 Directional Selection Selection against one extreme Fit to be ONE extreme

39 Stabilizing Selection Selection against both extremes Fit to be AVERAGE

40 Disruptive Selection Selection against the average It is fit to be BOTH extremes

41 Give a plausible example of each of the 2 types of speciation. Give a plausible example of each of the 3 types of selection. Making a Cladistic: Try the following activity:

42 Why Does Evolution Matter Now? Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance Biological Invaders

43 References Absolute Dating: 01intro/ 01intro/1dating.html PBS Evolution Library: Mimicry: Mimic.html Mimic.html

Download ppt "Evolution Genetic change in a population over time What are the 3 necessary ingredients for evolution?"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google