Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Notes Slavery, Secession, and Civil War"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 5 Notes Slavery, Secession, and Civil War U.S. HistoryUnit 5 NotesSlavery, Secession, and Civil War
2Unit 5SSUSH8: Explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.
3Tension Over SlaverySlavery – system in which African Americans were bought, sold, and owned like property.Continued to rise during the mid-19th century.Southern politicians fought to uphold slavery because the South’s plantation depended heavily on agriculture and large plantationsNorth’s economy was more industrializedMany northern states had emancipated (freed) their slaves by the mid-1800s
5Tension Over Slavery I. State’s Rights Supporters believed the federal government should only have powers specified in the Constitution; all other powers should be left to the statesII. South Carolina Nullification CrisisSouth Carolina protested high tariffs (taxes on imports) on British goodsBelieved tariffs helped rich, northern businessmen, while hurting small landowners and southern plantations
6Tension Over Slavery South Carolina Nullification Crisis Cont’d… John C. Calhoun (SC senator, former VP for Jackson) wrote Exposition and Protest in which he argued for states’ rights and advocated the doctrine of nullification (belief that states could disobey federal laws they believed to be unconstitutional)South Carolina threatened to secede (leave the Union) if the tariffs were not repealedPres. Jackson threatened to hang Calhoun and send federal troops to SC to prevent secession
7Tension Over Slavery South Carolina Nullification Crisis Senator Henry Clay proposed a compromiseThe tariff would be gradually eliminated over ten yearsThis ended the crisis but hardened sectionalism (regional differences that divide the country)III. Slaves and AbolitionistsSlaves and Free BlacksMost blacks were in the antebellum (pre-Civil War) South were slaves in the 1800sSecond Middle Passage – sale of slaves from the Upper South (VA, MD, KY, MO) to the Deep South and West
8Tension Over Slavery Slaves and Free Blacks Continued… Families were often separated from each other, never to see other againWhite slaveholders justified slavery by appealing to paternalism: the idea that they were actually caring for and nurturing their slaves – believed blacks needed “care” and “nurturing” and had been “rescued” from “savage” and “uncivilized” societies in AfricaThere were some free blacks living in slave states who had purchased their freedom or were freed by mastersStill did not enjoy the same rights as whites
9Tension Over Slavery The Abolitionist Movement Advocated the abolition of slaveryWilliam Lloyd Garrison – founder of antislavery newspaper The Liberator in 1831 and established the American Anti-Slavery SocietyGrimke sisters (Sarah and Angelina) – members of a prominent slaveholding family in South Carolina; gave passionate anti-slavery speeches
10Tension Over Slavery The Abolitionist Movement Continued… Frederick Douglass –escaped from slavery, educated himself; became a prominent speaker for the abolition of slavery; helped John Brown plan the Harper’s Ferry raidNat Turner’s RebellionTurner was a preacher and slave who believed he was on a divine mission (from God) to deliver his people from slavery; organized a revolt in August 1831160 blacks and whites were killedStrict slave codes were enacted in the SouthTurner was hanged along with 19 others
11Tension Over Slavery IV. Slavery and New Territories Acquiring new western territories intensified the debate over slaveryThe Missouri CompromiseNorthern states wanted new states to be free; southern states wanted new states to be slave (there was an equal balance in Senate)Missouri applied for statehood in 1819 (would upset the balance)The Missouri Compromise – Missouri entered as a slave state, Maine as a free state; southern boundary was set at 36 30’ – states north would be free, states south would be slave
13Tension Over Slavery The Wilmot Proviso Pennsylvanian congressman David Wilmot put forth a proviso (condition) proposing to ban slavery from any land purchased from Mexico after the War with MexicoSupported by northerners, denounced by southernersVoted down in Congress
14Tension Over Slavery Compromise of 1850 Admitted California as a free state and declared unorganized western territories freeUtah and New Mexico could decide based on the idea of popular sovereignty (the will of the majority); people living in these territories could vote to allow or not allow slaveryIncluded a provision for the Fugitive Slave Law: required northern states to forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the South (very unpopular in the North so they refused to obey it)
17Tension Over Slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854, allowed unorganized territories of Kansas and Nebraska to choose to permit or not slavery by popular sovereignty; repealed the Missouri CompromiseSupporters of slavery and abolitionists rushed to Kansas; there were armed clashes between two groups (“Bleeding Kansas”)Sen. Charles Sumner of MA opposed slavery; congressman Preston Brooks of SC supported slaveryBrooks beat Sumner with a cane on the Senate floor almost killing him – Sumner was out for 3 yearsBeating was an example of the passionate debate over slavery
19Tension Over Slavery The Dred Scott Decision 1857, Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri who traveled with his master to a free state and lived there for four years, then was returned to MissouriHis owner died, Scott sued for his freedomSupreme Court ruled that Scott had no right to sue, slaves are not citizens they are propertyStruck down the Missouri Compromise as a violation of the Fifth Amendment – due process
20Tension Over Slavery John Brown’s Raid October 1859, radical abolitionist John Brown attacked the federal arsenal at Harper’s FerryWanted to seize weapons and give them to slaves for an armed rebellionFederal troops under Colonel Robert E. Lee surrounded the arsenal and forced Brown to surrenderBrown was hanged
21Review 1. State’s rights is best defined as the belief that A. the federal government should tell the states what to do.B. states should not have slaves.C. states should oppose tariffs.D. states should be able to decide most matters for themselves.
22Review 2. John C. Calhoun is best described as A. a southern hero and supporter of state’s rights.B. a southern hero who opposed state’s rights.C. a radical abolitionist.D. the first Southern president.3. The Missouri Compromise, Wilmot Proviso, and Compromise of 1850 were all designed toA. end slavery in the South.B. emancipate slaves.C. extend slavery to new US territories.D. deal with the issue of slavery in new territories.
23Review4. What was the abolitionist movement and who were some of its leaders?5. Who was John Brown and what impact did his raid on Harper’s Ferry have?
24Secession and Civil War SSUSH9: Identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.
25Secession and Civil War I. Lincoln and the Election of 1860Republican Party (northern Democrats who opposed slavery, Whigs, Free Soilers)New party opposed the extension of slavery into new territoriesAbraham Lincoln, congressman from Illinois chosen to run for president in 1860Slavery was a hot-button issueSouth Carolina seceded (withdrew) from the Union in response to Lincoln’s candidacy; six other states followed: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, TexasSeceded states formed the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis president
26Secession and Civil War II. Fort Sumterthe issue of slavery had torn the country apartWar was inevitable, but Lincoln wanted the South to hit firstWhen Lincoln sent food to Union troops in South Carolina – Confederate forces opened fireThis was considered an attack on the Union and Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteersSlaves states in the upper South (border states) Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and northwest Virginia stayed in the Union; rest of Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee joined the ConfederacyThe capital of the Confederacy moved from Montgomery, AL to Richmond, VAThe Civil War had begun
28Secession and Civil War III. Key Figures of the Civil WarAbraham Lincoln: president of the U.S. during the Civil War; first Republican president in historyUlysses S. Grant: Union general; defeated the South and accepted Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse; later the 18th president of U.S.William T. Sherman: Union general of western forces; captured Atlanta in 1864 and burned city to the ground on his “march to the sea”
31Secession and Civil War Key Figures of the Civil War Continued…Jefferson Davis: first and only president of the Confederate States of AmericaRobert E. Lee: command of the Confederate army; won several victories for the South; surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox CourthouseThomas “Stonewall” Jackson: Confederate general and right-hand man of Robert E. Lee; won the Battle of Chancellorsville; was later accidentally shot by one of his own men
34Secession and Civil War IV. Lincoln and the WarThe Anaconda PlanThe First Battle of Bull Run (aka First Manasses) was the first confrontation between the two sidesUnion forces were defeated – war would be longer than expectedGen. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan: surround the Confederacy, cutting off supply lines; restricted southern trade and communications by seizing control of the Mississippi River, cutting Confederate territory in half, instituting coastal blockadesSmugglers got around the blockade, getting supplies to the South
36Secession and Civil War Lincoln’s Political StrugglesDeclared martial law in Maryland, suspended habeas corpus (guarantee that a person cannot be imprisoned without going before a judge) jailed strongest supporters of the ConfederacyDesigned to keep Maryland from secedingEstablished a draft: policy in which the government selects individuals for military serviceWealthy citizens could pay $300 or hire substitutes
37Secession and Civil War Lincoln’s Political Struggles Continued…100 people killed, 11 African Americans lynched in draft riots in New York CityCopperheads were Union Democrats who criticized Lincoln and the war; encouraged Union soldiers to desert (abandon) the army
38Secession and Civil War The Emancipation ProclamationJanuary 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation: freed slaves in the Confederate States, maintaining slavery in the border statesKept border states loyal to the UnionGave the war a moral focus, undermined the South’s reliance on slave laborEncouraged free African Americans to serve in the Union army; integrated on ships, but segregated in the army (54th Massachusetts regiment – all black)
39Secession and Civil War Election of 1864 and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural AddressSherman’s capture of Atlanta signaled that Union victory was at handLincoln won reelection in 1864In his second inaugural address Lincoln expressed that slavery was evil and his desire to reunite the nation
40Secession and Civil War V. Key Battles of the Civil WarThe Eastern Theater (fronts)Robert E. Lee’s first major victories came at the Second Battle of Bull Run (aka Second Manassas)Ended Union hopes of invading RichmondAntietam (September 17, 1862)Union Gen. McClellan found a copy of Lee’s orders at an abandoned Confederate campBloodiest single day of the war, halted Confederate advanceMcClellan allowed Lee’s army to slip away, gets fired by Lincoln
42Secession and Civil War Key Battles of the Civil War Continued…Chancellorsville (May 1-5, 1863)“Lee’s perfect battle” – thanks to Stonewall Jackson, Lee’s army defeated more than 70,000 Union troops with only 40,000 Confederate soldiersJackson was accidentally shot by his own troops while scouting the enemy’s position at nightLeft Lee without his most talented and reliable commander
43Secession and Civil War Key Battles of the Civil War Continued…Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863)Turning point in the warUnion Gen. Meade defeated Lee’s army and ended any hope the South could invade the North51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, or missingGettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the entire Civil WarLincoln gave his famed Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating a cemetery on the sightshort, powerful affirmation of Lincoln’s desire to reunite the nation
45Secession and Civil War The Western TheaterVicksburg (May 15 - July 4, 1863)Vicksburg, MS was the last Confederate obstacle to total Union control of the Mississippi RiverGrant laid siege to Vicksburg for almost two months (cutting supplies, starving enemy)By July 4, residents were eating horses, mules, dogs, rats
47Secession and Civil War Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea (May – December 1864)Grant took command of the eastern forces and put Sherman in charge of his western forcesMay 1864, Sherman began invasion of Georgia – Atlanta was important because of its railway hub; could disrupt the South’s major rail linesConfederate Gen. Johnston tried to halt Sherman’s advance
48Secession and Civil War Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea (May – December 1864) Continued…Johnston and Sherman had a series of small, bloody fightsJuly 8, Sherman flanked Johnston’s army, crossing over the Chattahoochee RiverJefferson Davis replaced JohnstonSherman’s Atlanta campaign placed the city under Union control and reignited support for LincolnSherman began a march from Atlanta to Savannah – his march to the sea in which he destroyed the city
50Secession and Civil War VI. Union VictoryGrant began a campaign to crush the Confederate army in a series of head-to-head confrontationsEngaged Lee in a number of bloody battlesLee’s army was surrounded in VirginiaApril 9, 1865, Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox CourthouseThis ended the war
51Secession and Civil War Union VictoryThe Union had several advantagesLarger population – more men, labor force to produce supplies and keep economy runningMore railroads – to move supplies efficiently, quicklyMore industry – factories produced weapons, ammunition, clothes, blankets in larger supply than southThe South had a fiery determination and excellent military leaders
52Review 1. Why did the South fear the election of Abraham Lincoln? A. They knew that Lincoln was an adamant supporter of “popular sovereignty.”B. Lincoln had run a platform of abolishing slavery throughout the nation.C. Lincoln openly supported the Dred Scott decision.D. They feared that he would seek not only to prevent slavery in new territories, but to end it in the South also.
53Review2. It was a major turning point in the war that ended the South’s hopes of successfully invading the North. In addition, many believe that had Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson been alive the South would have won this battle and quite possible, the war. Which battle was it?A. GettysburgB. AntietamC. VicksburgD. Chancellorsville
54Review3. How did Sherman’s taking Atlanta greatly impact the election of 1864?A. It allowed Lincoln to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in Georgia, thereby assuring that only Lincoln’s supporters went to the polls.B. It inspired faith in military generals, thereby leading to Gen. McClellan being nominated for president.C. It assured people in the North that victory was in sight, thereby increasing the popularity of Pres. Lincoln and allowing him to win re-election.D. It led to Lincoln’s defeat because he lost the support of Southerners whom Sherman had abused.
55Review4. What was the Emancipation Proclamation, what impact did it have on the role of African Americans in the Civil War, and why did it have this impact?5. Describe some of the advantages the Union had during the war and explain how they contributed to the Confederacy’s defeat.
56Southern Reconstruction SSUSH10: Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction.
57Southern Reconstruction I. Andrew Johnson and the Radical RepublicansPresidential ReconstructionLincoln proposed a plan for rebuilding rather than punishing the SouthBefore he could put his plan into place, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth while watching a play at Ford’s Theater
58Southern Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction Continued…Vice President Andrew Johnson became presidentSoutherner, one-time slave owner, loyal to UnionPut his own plan for reconstruction into placeJohnson’s Presidential Reconstruction plan:Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union were pardonedFormer Confederate states could hold constitutional conventions and set up state governmentsStates had to void secession and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which ended slaveryOnce the amendment was ratified, states could hold elections and be part of the Union
59Southern Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction Continued…The plan left the same Southerners who led the Confederacy in positions of influenceSouthern states enacted black codes to limit the rights of freed blacks to points similar to slaveryHad curfews, could be forced into labor for vagrancy, had to work for whites for at least a year
60Southern Reconstruction Radical ReconstructionRadical Republicans were members of the Republican party who favored much tougher stance with former Confederate statesbelieved Johnson did not do enough to offer blacks full citizenship rightsFelt Congress should oversee Reconstruction not the president
61Southern Reconstruction Radical Reconstruction Continued…Under Radical Reconstruction:1. Southern states were put under military rule.2. Southern states had to hold new constitutional conventions.3. African Americans were allowed to vote.4. Southerners who had supported the Confederacy were not allowed to vote (temporarily).5. Southern states had to guarantee equal rights to African Americans.6. Southern states had to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment which made African Americans citizens of the U.S.
62Southern Reconstruction Federal LegislationPrior to Lincoln’s death, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment, ending slavery throughout the U.S.Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to give citizenship rights to freed slavesJohnson vetoed, Congress overrode the vetoCongress passed the Fourteenth Amendment to prevent the courts from overturning the Civil Rights Act – guaranteed life, liberty, propertyFinally, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment which granted the right to vote to African American men
63Southern Reconstruction Johnson’s ImpeachmentJohnson violated the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire Sec. of War Edwin Stanton because he was closely tied to the Radical RepublicansCongress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, voted to impeach (charge with wrongdoing) President JohnsonJohnson’s presidency was spared by one vote in the Senate
64Southern Reconstruction II. African Americans and ReconstructionFarming and the Freedmen’s BureauBlacks had to adjust to life after slaveryWith no land or money, many had to turn to sharecropping – farming a portion of a white landowner’s land in return for housing a share of the cropOthers turned to tenant farming – paid rent to farm land and owned crops they grewBoth systems kept blacks working on white-owned land
65Southern Reconstruction Farming and the Freedmen’s Bureau Cont’d…Freedmen’s Bureau was created in 1865 to help freed slavesFirst federal relief agency in US historyProvided clothes, medical attention, food, education, and landEnded in 1869 because of lack of support
66Southern Reconstruction Education and the ChurchAfrican American churches were one of the few institutions truly owned and controlled by African AmericansCenters for social and political life; ministers became leaders of communityBlacks sought educationWith the help of the Freedmen’sBureau the first black schools wereestablishedChildren and adults attendedMorehouse College was founded first as Atlanta Baptist Seminary in 1867 – called the “black Harvard”
67Southern Reconstruction Politics and Social Debate600 African Americans served in southern state legislatures, a few were elected as lieutenant-governors, one served as acting governor of Louisiana
68Southern Reconstruction White ResistanceKu Klux Klan secretive organization whose members often dressed in hooded white robesUsed violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and keep them from exercising newly acquired rightsCarpetbaggers were northerners who came South to do business; they were resented by SouthernersScalawags were southern Republicans who supported Reconstruction; targeted by the KKK
70Southern Reconstruction The End of ReconstructionIn the controversial election of 1876, Democrats agreed to give the presidency to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in exchange for loosening its grip on the southern states and removing troops from the SouthThis ended Reconstruction and gave rise to the KKKSouthern states passed Jim Crow laws that required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities
72Southern Reconstruction The End of Reconstruction Continued…To avoid upholding the Fifteenth Amendment, many states enacted literacy tests and poll taxesBlacks were also subjected to grandfather clausesWith these measures the “solid South” prevailedNearly a century after Reconstruction, only Democrats tended to win important political offices in southern states
73Review1. Describe the differences between Presidential Reconstruction and Radical Reconstruction. Who backed each view and which one eventually won?2. The purpose of the Fourteenth Amendment was toA. end slavery.B. ensure African Americans had the right to vote.C. make sure that African Americans were recognized as citizens.D. place military rule over southern states during Reconstruction.
74Review3. The Amendment to the Constitution that was intended to give African Americans the right to vote was theA. Thirteenth Amendment.B. Fourteenth Amendment.C. Fifteenth Amendment.D. Reconstruction Act of 1867.4. Describe ways that southern whites tried to resist giving equal rights to blacks during and after Reconstruction.