2New World Exploration New World Exploration Many factors led to exploration of the new world of North and South America:1st: The European merchants wanted to increase their profits in trading spices in the East Indies.2nd: Most people believe that there was a short cut to these islands if they sailed west rather than east.3rd: The monarchs of Europe desired more gold.
4Who discovered the New World? In 1492, Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas.He sailed with three improved ships under the Spain’s flag.Sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella.He used astrolabe, and compasses to determined locations.Prince Henry of Portugal, aka “the Navigator”, sponsored expeditions in the late 1400s, led by Bartholomeu Dias and Vasco da Gama.Magellan is known for leading the first expedition to go around the earth.The European brought the Catholic Church in the New World after the unsuccessful attempt to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims.
5European ExplorersThe three main groups of Indians in Central America were the Mayas, the Incas and the AztecsSpanish conqueror Hernando Cortes, with the help of diseases such as smallpox, conquered Central and South America.
6Native AmericansNorth American Indians lived in tribes, headed by chieftains.For the most part the North American Indians were hunter gatherers.While the relationship between colonists and Indians was once peaceful, the colonists undid this unwritten treaty and stole the land from the Indians.
8Navigational Advancements Prince Henry gathered geographers astronomers mapmakers and navigators.Together they made a ship that could sail with or against the wind and even magnetic compasses.These advancements made it possible so sail to the new world, and led to the age of Discovery.
10More Explorations English also led expeditions to the New World: 1st at Roanoke, North Carolina – Failed2nd was a successful colony at James Town, Virginia, 1607.France also sent explorers down the Mississippi River and claimed this area for Louis XIV.The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 was bought by France, they had control over it for over 100 years.The Dutch set up a colony called New Netherlands, whose main city they called New Amsterdam, now known as New York.
11Age of ExplorationThe age of discovery/exploration was mainly a race of nation-states to inhabit and explore the new land.The nations that participated were the one’s with the biggest ports. Ex. Spain, France and England.This age of Discovery increased competition between nations and lead to advancements in the science of navigation by sea.Spain, Portugal, England, France and Holland were the 5 countries that financed the majority of the explorations in the new world in the 1600’s.
12European ReligionsEach European nation wanted to spread their religion, this read to a rise of Protestantism vs. Catholicism in the new world.Spain established encomiendas in the new world.The monarch of Spain appointed viceroys who served as governors in the new world.They had no direct power, and served orders from Spain.
13Words to knowViceroy- governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign.Haciendas- Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America.Encomiendas- a trusteeship labor system used during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.Mestizos- persons of mixed Spanish and Indian cultural background.
14Settlements in North America The French settled much of North America, present day Canada.The French lost their territories in North America after their defeat to England in the French and Indian war.The Dutch attracted many of its settlers by offering large amounts of land to people who came in a group of at least 50 settlers.The English, unlike other nations, would start families and establish self-government in the New World.
16Immigration and Emigration Raleigh was settled by the French in 1587, and when the relief ship returned to an Empty island it was coined the “Lost Colony”.The Virginia Company established Jamestown, where John Rolfe found tobacco to be the cash crop they needed.In ,000 puritans emigrated from England to the New World.Royal colonies were controlled by the crown, while proprietary colonies were ruled by the men to whom the land had been granted.
17Words to knowSir Walter Raleigh: is a famed English writer, poet, courtier and explorer; established the first English colony in the New World.Land grant: is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or rewards for military service, or especially academic institutions.The Massachusetts Bay Colony: was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century, in New England, centered around the present-day cities of Salem and Boston.
18More Western Democratic Revolutions.. In 1660, upon the death of Cromwell and the son who succeeded him, the monarchy was restored back to the Stuart dynasty.Charles II beheaded king, and was in charge of the Restoration period in England. He wanted to keep the concept of Divine Right but he did not succeed.The processions of William III and Mary II into England is called the Glorious Revolution because:1st: there was no recorded bloodshed in the event.2nd: because of the great benefits it brought to the English people ad hence to America.Among the rights gained by the English citizens as a result of the Glorious Revolution was a Bill of Rights.
19Wars fought during this time In 1588, the English navy, under the rule of Elizabeth I, defeated the mighty Spanish Armada. After this, England was free to colonize the eastern seaboard of America.The French and Indian War (1756 – 1763) caused by trading; the conflict resulted in the British acquiring Canada, while Spain gained Louisiana in compensation for its loss of Florida to the British. French administrative presence in North America was almost completely removed.
22Colonists’ Ideals differ Mercantilism was An economic philosophy advocating that countries should simultaneously encourage exports and discourage imports.Dividing the 13 colonies into 3 economic and social groups.-You would get the New England colonies, which were settled by the Puritans.You would also get the Middle colonies which consisted of the “Bread Basket” colonies.Finally you would receive the southern colonies which consisted of mostly farms.
24Words to knowRobert R. Livingston: was a delegate to the New York state constitutional convention and a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence.Roger Sherman: was an early American lawyer and politician.John Adams: was a politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Adams was a sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and a diplomat in the 1770s.Thomas Jefferson: was the third President of the United States, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776).
25Scientific and Commercial Revolutions Geocentric Theory stated that the earth was stationary and was the center of the universe. (SIKE!!)Heliocentric Theory stated that the earth revolves around the sun and the man that figured this out was Nicholas Copernicus of Poland in 1500s.Galileo improved the existing telescope and found some of Jupiter’s moons and spots on the sun.Isaac Newton, and English man, is credited with establishing the law of gravity and was a co-discovered of calculus.
27Words to knowCapitalism: refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately owned and operated for profit.Mercantilism: an economic theory that holds the prosperity of a nation depends upon its supply of capital.Laissez-faire: “to leave alone”
28European InfluencesThe French and Indian War ( ) was fought between the French with the help of the Indians, and England with the help of the colonists.The colonists wanted more land, while England simply wished to no longer defend against the French & Indians.After their victory the colonists weren’t dependent on the English for protection, for economic strength or for political control.
29Words to knowJoint-Stock company: formed to make money for their investors.Slave Trade: trading human beings for labor.
30English OppressionEngland decided to act more strictly upon laws in place such as the Navigation Acts.They sent more inspectors to America to search for smuggled goods to tax.Following this act came the Sugar and the Stamp act.Stamps were expensive and under the Stamp Act, they were now mandatory for papered goods such as mortgages, wills, pamphlets and newspapers.Townsend Acts taxed glass, paint, paper and tea, and colonists who protested this were tried in military courts.The quartering act made it mandatory for colonists to house British soldiers.
31Colonists RebelAt the Stamp Act Congress, 9 of the colonies’ delegates decided to boycott British goods.Samuel Adams started the Committee of Correspondence, which spread the word of opposition and revolution among the colonists.In 1773 colonists dressed as Indians to throw tea off a British boat at The Boston Tea Party.The British responded by imposing the intolerable acts.
33American RevolutionThomas Jefferson was the leader of the American Revolution. He borrowed heavily from the philosophers of the EnlightenmentWrote the Declarations of Independence.The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that became the United States of America gained independence from the British Empire.The Revolution included a series of broad intellectual and social shifts that occurred in the early American society, such as the new republican ideals that took hold in the American population.
34The Revolutionary WarIn the revolutionary war many women served as nurses and some 5,000 African Americans served active duty.The battle of Saratoga spurred French interests in the revolutionary war, and they soon became our allies.Baron Von Steuben and Marquis de Lafayette of France came to America to train American troops.Washington, along with Rochambeau and Lafayette, cut the British off and won the Revolutionary war at the Battle of Yorktown.
35An Independent America King George III hired German mercenaries to fight the colonies.The colonists believed the declaration of independence would help them to receive support from European enemies of Britain.Thomas Jefferson was the designated writer among a group of 5 men appointed to write the Declaration of Independence.On July 4th the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress.
37Western Democratic Revolutions Kings in Europe often viewed themselves as “God’s representatives” on earth, this is called Divine right.In 1625, Charles I became the king of England. He believed in the concept of Divine right. He taxed the people of England very heavily.When Charles I asked the Parliament for money to finance various wars and expeditions, they presented him with the document called the Petition of Right.Because Charles I ignored the Petition of Right, and dismissed the Parliament; this led to the English Civil War.Oliver Cromwell put Charles on trial for treason, and later on he dismissed the Parliament and then established a decade of dictatorship known as Protectorate.
38Effects of the Enlightenment on the America and French Revolutions The root of enlightenment is in the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries.Enlightened thinkers shared the following beliefs.People should examine all accepted ways of thinking and pursue new ideas and discoveries.Knowledge comes from experience.Truth comes from observation.We should move away from the backwards teachings of the church and pursue knowledge through scientific methods.Jean Jacques Rousseau ( ) wrote The Social Contract in Argued for civil liberty and defended democratic form of government. Opposed the divine right of Kings and believed the authority of the government rest with the majority.
39Words to knowRenaissance – literally means “ rebirth “. It refers to the great cultural change, which began in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Western Europe.Humanism – focused on the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations and emphasized the dignity and worth of the individual.The following marked the Renaissance:decrease in political and social influence of the Roman Catholic Church.Spirit of innovation, curiosity, and new ideas in the arts and sciencesCultural diffusion as a result of The Crusades that helped to spread new ideas.Emphases upon the total person, mind, body, and character.Aztec the Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples under the control of the Mexico, Aztec Empire was the Valley of Mexico, where their capital Tenochtitlan was built upon raised islets in Lake Texcoco.
41French Revolution Causes of the French Revolution: The Social make-up of France.First Estate – High ranking Church officials and the clergy (priest).Second Estate – The Nobility including the landed aristocracy.Third Estate – merchants, doctors lawyers, middle class and peasants.Causes of the French Revolution:Increasing and unequal taxes. The Third Estate paid the majority of taxes. The Third Estate also made up 97% of the French population.Persecution of religious minorities, mostly Jews and Protestants.Inefficient government administration and court system.Rising food prices and shortages
42Words to knowLimited monarchy: this idea limited the power of a monarch.The Glorious Revolution: also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by Parliamentarians.National Assembly: is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries.Parliament: a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom.
43Industrial revolution A major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions in the 18th century.An economy based on manual labor was replaced by one dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery.Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways.An outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century.As national border controls became more effective, the spread of disease was lessened, therefore preventing the epidemics common in previous times.
45Role of Geographic Location Rivers played a major role during the Industrial revolution. Rivers were used to power the looms that ran textile mills.Also, the natural resources in a given country influences the way the country will develops.
46Topographic Terminology Plate tectonics: shows how the continent used to belong to one large land mass.Topography: surface features.Continents: are the largest land massed on out surface; includes North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, and Antarctica.Isthmus: a narrow strip of land that connects two large land masses.Peninsulas: portions of land nearly surrounded by water.Plains: gentle rolling land, usually in a low, relatively level area.Plateaus: generally level, like plains, but are always located at very high elevations.Mountains: always higher in elevation than hills.Hills: small in comparison to mountains.Island: a unique of landmass surrounds by water.
49Key World FeaturesTropical climate include areas lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.Rainforest are characterized by high temperatures and high levels of rainfall throughout the year.Savannas are characterized by high temperatures year round, but with dry conditions in the winter.Dry climates are located near or in deserts, where rainfall is below ten inches a year.Desert climates are dry the entire year through and are usually hot.Steppe climates border desert regions and receive slightly more rainfall.Temperate climates exist along the middle latitudes, where warm air from the tropics meets with cold air from polar regions, thus producing a good amount of rainfall.Mediterranean climates have mild, rainy winters and hot dry summers.Sub arctic climates are continental climates in the extreme northern portions of continents.
53The Industrial Revolution In the early 19th century the Industrial Revolution spread from Europe to America.Thomas Jefferson purchased the “Louisiana Purchase territory” for an average of 3 cents per acre.Following the War of 1812 came a surge of Nationalism.Internal improvements such as the Cumberland Road and the Erie Canal were financed by the government.Railroads and Steamboats became common place, and made transportation both faster and more reliable.Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which could take the seeds out of cotton, which increased slavery dramatically.
56Manifest DestinyManifest Destiny was the belief that the US had the right to spread thru ought North America.Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the Louisiana territory.The US and Mexican war which started in April of 1846, ended with the US paying Mexico a total of $18 million.In 1848 the Gold Rush started after the discovery of gold in California.
58Political Parties Federalists were the first US political party. They were pro-British, well-off, and believed in many of the ideas of Alexander Hamilton.Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the Anti-Federalists, was sympathetic to the “common man”, was pro-French and is responsible for current day Democrats.John Marshall was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and responsible for the Judicial Review, which makes the different branches of the Government have equal power.For a period the Democratic party ran unopposed, this was known as the Era of Good Feelings.
59The WhigsThe Whig party was formed by Andrew Jackson’s administration and was led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.They opposed the “common man philosophy”, wanted high tariffs, and only ever elected 2 presidents.The republican party emerged in 1854, and Elected Abraham Lincoln in 1860.
61Words to knowSectionalism- a political philosophy, prominent in the United States in the decades before the Civil War that favored the needs and outlook of one's section of the country over the needs and outlook of the country as a whole.Whigs- the name Whig was given to people in the colonies who protested against the king and Parliament.Tariff- A duty(or tax) applied to goods transported from one country to another, or on imported products.Republican Party- The Republican party was founded as an anti-slavery party in the mid 1800s. The first Republican US President was Abraham Lincoln.
62The Civil WarThe Civil war resorted in a victory for the North and the re-admittance of the south back into the Union.Lincoln had a lenient plan of reconstruction, but after he was assassinated Johnson took over and used the Radical Republican Reconstruction plan which distributed armies thru ought all the southern states, save Tennessee.The Freedman’s Bureau helped guarantee rights to blacks and supplied protection for them.-The 13th Amendment passed in 1865 outlawed slavery in the US.-The 14th Amendment gave citizenship to African Americans.-The 15th Amendment gave the right to vote to African American men.
63Words to knowFactory system: a method of manufacturing adopted in England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.Urbanization: is the increase over time in the population of cities in relation to the region's rural population.Marxism: describes the race towards communism in a number of stages, the first stage being feudalism, followed by capitalism and socialism, and the final stage being communism.Luddites: a social movement of English textile workers in the early 1800s who protested against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their livelihood.
64World War IIt was a global military conflict that took place mostly in Europe between 1914 and It left millions dead and re-shaped the modern world.The Allied Powers, led by France, Russia, the British Empire, and later, Italy and the US, defeated the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months until signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on June 28, 1919 finally ended it.
67World War IIIt was a worldwide conflict fought between the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers, from 1939 until 1945.Adolf Hitler of Germany and Mussolini of Italy were both fascist dictators during WWIIThe Germans considered themselves the “master race”Germany, Italy and Japan made up the axis power.12/7/1941 Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese.During the Holocaust the Germans killed millions of JewsThe atomic bomb was dropped by Truman on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to save American lives.After the WWII was over, the US joined the United Nations.
69World War IIWorld War II resulted in the deaths of over sixty million people, making it the deadliest conflict in human history. The war ended with an Allied victory.Weapons and technology improved rapidly during World War II and some of these played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. Many major technologies were used for the first time, including nuclear weapons, radar, proximity fuses, jet engines, ballistic missiles, and data-processing analog devices.
72Words to knowNationalism: an ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles.Trench warfare: a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense.The Treaty of Versailles: (1919) the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire.Imperialism: a policy of exerting effective and continuing control over foreign entities.
73Our Inalienable Rights Dorothea Dix spent her life improving the care of the mentally ill.Horace Mann led a nationwide demand for public primary education.The women’s rights movement started at Seneca Falls with the Women’s Rights Convention in 1848.In 1920 the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.Frederick Douglass was a strong advocate of the abolitionist movement.
74Global IssuesAs industrialization developed, the world has created the unfortunate side effect of global pollution.Pollution from factories and automobiles can deplete the ozone layer, and create acid rain killing many kinds of animals.Besides that, world hunger is also one of the major problem due to population growth.Terrorism is also causing many issues, which involves the use of violence as a means of coercion, has led to plane hijackings, hostage situations, bombing of cars, trains, and buildings, and mass murder.
79Foreign RelationsThe end of WWII divided Korea into both North and South.North Korea was under communistic rule, while the south Korea was led by an American supported dictator.The US become more enrolled in Vietnam, and remained there for 20 years until 1973.After this war, Americans were less fond of the idea of America being democracy’s policeman.
80Words to knowFilibuster- A device, used only in the Senate, to delay or prevent a vote by time-consuming talk.Malcolm X- a leader in the Black Power movement of the 1960s who became a symbol of a more militant and separatist side of the civil rights movement.Ku Klux Klan- a secret organization that began in Georgia in 1915 and is known for terrorizing immigrants, Jews, and especially blacks.Roe v. Wade- The court ruled that a woman’s decision to have an abortion is protected by the right to privacy implicit in the Constitution.Rosa Parks- United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery and so triggered the national civil rights movement.Boycott- To protest by refusing to purchase from someone, or otherwise do business with them.
81The Cold WarThe US and Soviet Union both had nuclear weapons, but they did not want to start a nuclear war, so the war b/w US and USSR was called the cold war.The US gave over 400 millions dollars to prevent the expansion of USSR.The Marshal plan supplied European countries with 12 billions dollars to combat the spread of communism.NATO: North Atlantic Treaty organization, was designed to stop the spread of communism.
8420th Century RevolutionThe computer has had one of the most far-reaching effects on out daily lives. Computers can now be used for almost anything; in fact, computers are being used for jobs previously done by humans.Space technology has skyrocketed since the earliest days of the space race between the US and USSR. Humans now can go to space.Medical Advances continue to be achieved at a blister rate. Vaccines for many disease exist. Now can cure many sickness.United nations, formed after WWII, has been actively involved in obtaining peace in the former Yugoslavia and other war-torn parts of the world.Greenpeace actively involved in stopping global environmental damage.
87Citizenship Qualifications The Constitution states: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the state wherein they reside.Naturalization: process which a person not born under the circumstances above must do to become US citizen.
89Constitutional Rights Common law, limited government, and representative government were all part of the heritage brought by the English when they moved to the New World.The English Bill of Rights (1689) forms the basis for much of the American government and courts.The English settlers believe in individual liberties and the rights of man. These ideals were included in the US Constitution.The US Constitution is the supreme law of land --- no law is higher than the Constitution.Each court system, federal and state, has appellate courts.
91Words to knowCommon law: a major part of the law of those countries of the world with a history as British territories or colonies.Appellate courts: is the title of a court which has the power to consider or hear an appeal.Due process: is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a person's legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property.Habeas Corpus: "you should have the body", is the name of a legal action or writ by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment.
93Values of a Democratic Heritage There are five basic concepts on which American democracy is built:1st: The fundamental worth and dignity of the individual2nd: Equality of all persons3rd: Majority rule and minority rights4th: The necessity of compromise5th: Individual freedom
94Amendments1st: Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition and assembly.2nd: The right to keep and bear arms.3rd: No soldiers shall be quartered without owner consent during peacetimeor war times.4th: Right to privacy. No search without probable case and a warrant.5th: Rights of the accused to remain silent and to have an attorney.6th: Speedy trial and a trial by jury.7th: Jury trial in civil cases.8th: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, norcruel and unusual punishment inflicted.9th: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not beconstrued to deny or disparage others retained by the people.10th: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, norprohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively,or to the people.
95Amendments 13rd Amendment: Forbids slavery in US and territories 14th Amendment: - give citizenship to former slaves.- defines rights of natural-born or naturalized US citizen- guarantees privileges and immunities of citizens.- makes due process of law in the 5th Amendmentapplicable to the states.- requires states to provide the equal protection of the law to allcitizens within their jurisdiction.15th Amendment: Guarantees the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previousconditions of servitude.17th Amendment: Changes the way Senators are elected – directly by the people.19th Amendment: Grants women the right to vote in national elections.21st Amendment: repealed Prohibition.22nd Amendment: limited president terms.23rd Amendment: gives the right to vote for president and vice-president to the peoplein the District of Columbia.24th Amendment: abolished pill taxes which had been used in some states to preventblacks from voting.26th Amendment: lowered the voting age to 18 in all states.