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2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Image and Activity Bank Resources

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Dynamic Earth Chapter 3 Table of Contents Section 1 The Geosphere Section 2 The Atmosphere Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bell Ringer August 22, 2013 1.If I dont use this resource, someone else will. 2.Helps determine a products worth 3.May be used to determine how much to spend to control pollution 4.Diverse individual economies 5.Humans needs may be met indefinitely a.cost = benefit analysis b.Sustainability c.Tragedy of the Commons d.Developed nation e.Law of supply and demand

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 The Geosphere Objectives Describe the composition and structure of the Earth. Describe the Earths tectonic plates. Explain the main cause of earthquakes and their effects. Identify the relationship between volcanic eruptions and climate change. Describe how wind and water alter the Earths surface. Chapter 3

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each other. Scientists divided this system into four parts: The Geosphere (rock) The Atmosphere (air) The Hydrosphere (water) The Biosphere (living things) Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Earth as a System Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Earth as a System The geosphere is the mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth that extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust. The atmosphere is the mixture of gases that makes up the air we breathe. Nearly all of these gases are found in the first 30 km above the Earths surface. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Earth as a System The hydrosphere makes up all of the water on or near the Earths surface. Much of this water is in the oceans, which cover nearly three-quarters of the globe. However, water is also found in the atmosphere, on land, and in the soil. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Earth as a System The biosphere is the part of the Earth where life exists. It is a thin layer at the Earths surface that extends from about 9 km above the Earths surface down to the bottom of the ocean. The biosphere is therefore made up of parts of the geosphere, the atmosphere, and the hydrosphere. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering Earths Interior Scientists use seismic waves to learn about Earths interior. Seismic waves are the same waves that travel through Earths interior during and earthquake. A similar process would be you tapping on a melon to see if it is ripe. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering Earths Interior A seismic wave is altered by the nature of the material through which it travels. Seismologists measure changes in the speed and direction of seismic waves that penetrate the interior of the planet. With this technique seismologists have learned that the Earth is made up of different layers and have inferred what substances make up each layer. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering Earths Interior Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Composition of the Earth Scientists divide the Earth into three layers: The crust The mantle The core These layers are made up of progressively denser material toward the center of the Earth. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Composition of the Earth The crust is the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle. It is the thinnest layer, and makes up less than 1 percent of the planets mass. It is 5 km to 8 km thick beneath the oceans and is 20 km to 70 km thick beneath the continents. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Composition of the Earth The mantle is the layer of rock between the Earths crust and core. The mantle is made of rocks of medium density, and makes up 64 percent of the mass of the Earth. The core is the central part of the Earth below the mantle, and is composed of the densest elements. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Structure of the Earth The Earth can be divided into five layers based on the physical properties of each layer. The lithosphere is the solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle. It is a cool, rigid layer that is 15 km to 300 km thick and is divided into huge pieces called tectonic plates. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Structure of the Earth The asthenosphere is the solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere. It is made of mantle rock that flows slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it. Beneath the asthenosphere is the mesosphere, the lower part of the mantle. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Structure of the Earth The Earths outer core is a dense liquid layer. At the center of the Earth is a dense, solid inner core, which is made up mostly of iron and nickel. Although the temperature of the inner core is estimated to be between 4,000°C to 5,000°C, it is solid because it is under enormous pressure. The inner and outer core make up about one-third of Earths mass. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Layers Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Tectonics Tectonic plates are blocks of lithosphere that consist of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle and glide across the underlying asthenosphere. The continents are located on tectonic plates and move around with them. The major tectonic plates include the Pacific, North America,South America, Africa, Eurasian, and Antarctic plates. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Boundaries Much of the geological activity at the surface of the Earth takes place at the boundaries between tectonic plates. Tectonic plates may separate, collide, or slip past one another. Enormous forces are generated with these actions causing mountains to form, earthquakes to shake the crust, and volcanoes to erupt along the plate boundaries. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building Tectonic Plates are continually moving around the Earths surface. When tectonic plates collide, slip by one another, or pull apart, enormous forces cause rock to break and buckle. Where plates collide, the crust becomes thicker and eventually forms mountain ranges, such as the Himalaya Mountains. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earthquakes A fault is a break in the Earths crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another. When rocks that are under stress suddenly break along a fault, a series of ground vibrations, known as earthquakes, is set off. Earthquakes are occurring all the time. Many are so small that we cannot feel them, but some are enormous movements of the Earths crust that cause widespread damage. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earthquakes The measure of the energy released by an earthquake is called magnitude. The smallest magnitude that can be felt is 2.0, and the largest magnitude ever recorded is 9.5. Magnitudes greater than 7.0 cause widespread damage. Each increase of magnitude by one whole number indicates the release of 31.7 times more energy than the whole number below it. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Where do Earthquakes Occur? The majority of earthquakes take place at or near tectonic plate boundaries because of the enormous stresses that are generated when tectonic plates separate, collide or slip past each other. Over the past 15 million to 20 million years, large numbers of earthquakes have occurred along the San Andreas fault in California, where parts of the North America plate and the Pacific plate are slipping past one another. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Where do Earthquakes Occur? Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earthquake Hazard Scientists cannot predicts when earthquakes will take place. However, they can help provide information about where earthquakes are likely to occur giving helping people prepare. An areas earthquake-hazard level is determined by past and present seismic activity. Earthquake-resistant buildings, built in high risk areas, are slightly flexible so that they can sway with the ground motion preventing them from collapsing. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Volcanoes A volcano is a mountain built from magma, or melted rock, that rises from the Earths interior to the surface, and can occur on land or in the sea. Volcanoes are often located near tectonic plate boundaries where plates are either colliding or separating from one another. The majority of the worlds active volcanoes on land are located along tectonic plate boundaries that surround the Pacific Ocean. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Volcanoes: The Ring of Fire Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Local Effect of Volcanic Eruptions Clouds of host ash, dust, and gases can flow down the slope of a volcano at speeds of up to 200 km/hr and sear everything in their path. During and eruption, volcanic ash can mix with water and produce mudflow that runs downhill. In addition, ash that falls to the ground can cause buildings to collapse under its weight, bury crops, damage the engines of vehicles, and cause breathing difficulties. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Global Effects of Volcanic Eruptions Major volcanic eruptions can change Earths climate for several years. In large eruptions, clouds of volcanic ash and sulfur rich gases may reach the upper atmosphere, and spread across the planet reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches the Earths surface. The reduction in sunlight can cause a drop in the average global surface temperature. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Erosion The Earths surface is continually battered by wind and scoured by running water, which moves rocks around and changes their appearance. Erosion is the process in which the materials of the Earths surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transported form one place to another by a natural agent, such as wind, water, ice or gravity. Erosion wears downs rocks and makes them smoother as times passes. Older mountains are therefore smoother than younger ones. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Water Erosion Erosion by both rivers and oceans can produce dramatic changes on Earths surface. Waves from ocean storms can erode coastlines to give rise to a variety of landforms, Over time, rivers can carve deep gorges into the landscape. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Wind Erosion Wind also changes the landscape of the planet. In places where few plants grow, such as beaches and deserts, wind can blow soil away very quickly. Soft rocks, such as sandstone, erode more easily than hard rocks, such as granite do. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu EARTHS LAYERS FOLDABLE

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu August 23, 2013 Bell Ringer 1.What often occurs at tectonic plate boundaries? a.Increased air pressure b.Thinning of the biosphere c.Mountain building d.Increased erosion 2.What physical layer of Earth is located beneath the lithosphere? a.Asthenosphere b.Inner core c.Mesosphere d.Outer core 3.What type of system is Earth? a.Layered b.Integrated c.Related d.Compressed 4.What is the temperature of the Earths inner core? a.4000oC to 5000oC b.3000oC to 4000oC c.400oC to 500oC d.300oC 400oC 5.How did the Himalayan Mountains form? a.Erosion b.Convection c.Glacial movements d.Colliding tectonic plates

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Atmosphere Objectives Describe the composition of the Earths atmosphere. Describe the layers of the Earths atmosphere. Explain three mechanisms of heat transfer in Earths atmosphere. Explain the greenhouse effect. Chapter 3

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Atmosphere The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases are all parts of this mixture. Gases can be added to and removed from the atmosphere through living organisms. For example, animals remove oxygen when they breathe in and add carbon dioxide when they breath out. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Atmosphere Volcanic eruptions also add gases to the atmosphere, while vehicles both add and remove gases. The atmosphere also insulates Earths surface. This insulation slows the rate at which the Earths surface loses heat and keeps Earth temperature at which living things can survive. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Composition of the Atmosphere Nitrogen makes up 78 percent of the Earths atmosphere, and enters the atmosphere when volcanoes erupt and when dead plants and animals decay. Oxygen is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere and is primarily produced by plants. In addition to gases, the atmosphere contains many types of tiny, solid particles, or atmospheric dust. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Composition of the Atmosphere In addition to nitrogen and oxygen, other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor make up the rest of the atmosphere. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Air Pressure Earths atmosphere is pulled toward Earths surface by gravity and as a result, the atmosphere is denser near the Earths surface. Almost the entire mass of Earths atmospheric gases is located within 30 km of the surface. Air also becomes less dense with elevation, so breathing at higher elevations is more difficult. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Layers of the Atmosphere The atmosphere is divided into four layers based on temperature changes that occur at different distances above the Earths surface. The Troposphere The Stratosphere The Mesosphere The Thermosphere Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Layers of the Atmosphere Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Troposphere The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases. This is the part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist. The troposphere is Earths densest atmospheric layer and extends to 18 km above Earths surface. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Stratosphere The stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere that lies immediately above the troposphere and extends from about 10 to 50 km above the Earths surface increases. Temperature rises as altitude increases because ozone in the stratosphere absorbs the suns ultraviolet (UV) energy and warms the air. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Stratosphere Ozone is a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms. Almost all of the ozone in the atmosphere is concentrated in the stratosphere. Because ozone absorbs UV radiation, it reduces amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth. UV radiation that does reach Earth can damage living cells. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Mesosphere The layer above the stratosphere is the mesosphere. This layer extends to an altitude of about 80 km. This is the coldest layer of the atmosphere where temperatures have been measured as low as –93ºC. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Thermosphere The atmospheric layer located farthest from Earths surface is the thermosphere. Here, nitrogen and oxygen absorb solar radiation resulting in temperatures measuring above 2,000 ºC. The air in the thermosphere is so thin that air particles rarely collide, so little heat is transferred, and would therefore not feel hot to us. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Thermosphere The absorption of X rays and gamma rays by nitrogen and oxygen causes atoms to become electrically charged. Electrically charged atoms are called ions, and the lower thermosphere is called the ionosphere. Ions can radiate energy as light, and these lights often glow in spectacular colors in the night skies near the Earths North and South Poles. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Radiation is the energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves. Conduction is the transfer of energy as heat through a material. Convection is the movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temperature variations an can result in the transfer of energy as heat. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Heating of the Atmosphere Solar energy reaches the Earth as electromagnetic radiation, which includes visible light, infrared radiation, and ultraviolet light. About half of the solar energy that enters the atmosphere passes through it and reaches the Earths surface, while the rest of the energy is absorbed or reflected in the atmosphere by clouds, gases, and dust or it is reflected by Earths surface. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Heating of the Atmosphere The Earth does not continue to get warmer because the oceans and the land radiate the absorbed energy back into the atmosphere. Dark-colored objects absorb more solar radiation that light-colored objects, so dark colored objects have more energy to release as heat. This is one reason the temperature in cities is higher that the temperature in the surrounding countryside. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Movement of Energy in the Atmosphere As a current of air, warmed by Earths surface, rises into the atmosphere, it begins to cool, and eventually becomes more dense the air around it and sinks.This current then moves back toward the Earth until heated and less dense and then begins to rise again. The continual process of warm air rising and cool air sinking moves air in a circular motion is called a convection current. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth would be too cold for life to exist. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Greenhouse Effect Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Greenhouse Effect The gases in the atmosphere that trap and radiate heat are called greenhouse gases. The most abundant greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, although none exist in high concentrations. The quantities of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere vary considerable as a result of natural and industrial processes. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE FOLDABLE

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bell Ringer August 26, 2013 1.The mixture of gases that make up the air we breathe 2.Earths thin outer layer 3.How air is heated near the Earths surface 4.The coldest layer of the atmosphere 5.The layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface a.Crust b.Conduction c.Mesosphere d.Atmosphere e.Troposphere

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere Objectives Name the three major processes in the water cycle. Describe the properties of ocean water. Describe the two types of ocean currents. Explain how the ocean regulates Earths temperature. Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere. Explain the difference between open and closed systems. Chapter 3

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Hydrosphere The hydrosphere includes all of the water on or near the Earths surface. This includes water in the oceans, lakes, rivers, wetlands, polar ice caps, soil, rock layers beneath Earths surface, and clouds. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

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66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Did you know that … there is the same amount of water in the world now as there was hundreds of millions of years ago?

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu So ….. Where does it come from? And where does it go?

68 Evaporation The conversion (or changing) of a liquid to a gas when heated.

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evaporation Water in the sea, lakes, rivers, streams, ponds and puddles is heated by the sun.

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evaporation The heated water evaporates to become water vapour. This is light, and floats up into the air – like the steam from a hot cup of tea.

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Condensation As the water vapour rises into the air, it gradually cools and condenses to form minute droplets of water. These billions of tiny droplets gather together to form clouds.

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rain When these droplets become too heavy, they fall as rain.

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Back to the sea The rainwater flows into streams and rivers and into underground stores. Eventually, the rivers reach the sea and the cycle starts all over again. evaporation condensation

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Can you fill in the missing words? When water in the sea is heated by the sun it and changes into This is light, and floats up into the air like from a hot cup of tea. steam evaporates water vapour

75 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu As the rises into the air it gradually cools and to form tiny droplets of water. These join together to make condenses water vapour clouds

76 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu When the droplets become too heavy, they fall as

77 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The rain flows into streams and rivers, and eventually the rivers reach the Now, the cycle

78 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How much water is on the earth? There are about 326 million cubic miles of water. There are over a million gallons of water per cubic mile.

79 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How much water do living things contain? All living things consist mostly of water. Humans are 60% water.

80 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What is the largest single use of water? The largest single use of water is by industry. It takes about 80 gallons of water to make the paper for one Sunday newspaper.

81 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How much of the earths water is fresh? Only about 3% of the earths water is fresh. About 75% of the earths fresh water is frozen in ice caps and glaciers.

82 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How much water does a person use every day? On average, each person in the United States uses more than 100 gallons of water a day in the home.

83 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Can water ever be used up? Water is used and reused over and over againit is never used up. Every glass of water you drink contains molecules of water that have been used countless times before.

84 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Can you label the water cycle diagram? Colour the water and the sky blue Colour the land green. Colour the trees and the sheep and the sun Add arrows to show evaporation from the sea. Add some arrows to show evaporation from the land. Add some arrows to show evaporation from the rivers and streams. Add the word evaporation Draw some clouds. Add the word condensation. Draw rain falling over the mountain. Draw an arrow to show the river flowing to the sea. Add the title – The Water Cycle

85 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Water Cycle Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

86 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Oceans All of the oceans are joined in a single large interconnected body of water called the world ocean. The world ocean play important roles in the regulation of the planets environment. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

87 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Ocean The largest ocean on Earth is the Pacific Ocean with a surface area of about 165,640,000 km 2. The deepest point on the ocean floor, the Challenger Deep, is found in the Pacific Ocean. The Challenger Deep is located east of the Philippine islands and the bottom of the Mariana Trench and is 11,033m below sea level which is deeper than Mount Everest is tall. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

88 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Oceans Oceanographers often divide the Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific and South Pacific based on the direction of the surface current flow in each half of the Pacific Ocean. Surface currents in the Pacific move in a clockwise direction north of the equator. Surface currents in the Pacific move in a counter- clockwise direction south of the equator. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

89 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Oceans The second largest ocean on Earth is the Atlantic Ocean, and covers about half the area of the Pacific Ocean which is a surface area of about 81,630,000 km 2. Like the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean can be divided into a north and south half based on the directions of surface current flow north and south of the equator. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

90 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Oceans The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean on Earth with a surface area of 73,420,000 km 2. The smallest ocean is the Artic ocean which covers 14,350,000 km 2. The Artic Ocean is unique because much of its surface is covered by floating ice, called pack ice, which forms when either waves or wind drive together frozen seawater, known as sea ice, into a large mass. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

91 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ocean Water The difference between ocean water and fresh water is that ocean water contains more salts. Salinity is a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid. Salinity is lower in places that get a lot of rain or in places where fresh water flows in to the sea. In contrast, salinity is higher where water evaporates rapidly and leaves the salts behind. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

92 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ocean Water Most of the salt in the ocean is sodium chloride, which is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine, although many other elements can be found in the ocean as well. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

93 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Temperature Zones The surface of the ocean is warmed by the sun, while the depths of the ocean, where sunlight never reaches, are very cold, just above freezing. Surface waters are stirred up by waves and currents so the warm surface zone may be as much as 350 m deep. Below the surface zone is the thermocline, which is layer about 300 to 700 m deep where the temperature falls rapidly. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

94 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Temperature Zones Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

95 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu A Global Temperature Regulator One of the most important functions of the world ocean is to absorb and store energy from sunlight which in turn regulates temperatures in Earths atmosphere. Because the ocean both absorbs and releases heat slower than land, the temperature of the atmosphere changes more slowly. If the ocean did not regulate atmospheric and surface temperatures, temperatures would be too extreme for life to exist on Earth. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

96 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu A Global Temperature Regulator Local temperatures in different areas of the planet are also regulated by the world ocean. Currents that circulate warm water causing land areas they flow past to have more moderate climates. For example, the British Isles are warmed by the waters of the Gulf Stream. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

97 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ocean Currents Streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface of the ocean are called surface currents. Surface currents are wind driven and result from global wind patterns. Surface currents can be warm or cold water currents. However, currents of warm water an currents of cold water do not readily mix with one another. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

98 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ocean Currents Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

99 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ocean Currents Deep currents are streamlike movements of water that flow very slowly along the ocean floor. Deep currents form when the cold, dense water from the poles inks below warmer, less dense ocean water and flows toward the equator. The densest and coldest ocean water is located off the coast of Antarctica and flows very slowly northward producing a deep current called the Antarctic Bottom Water. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

100 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fresh Water and River Systems Fresh water is water that contains insignificant amounts of salts. Most of the fresh water is locked up in icecaps and glaciers while the rest is found in places like lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil and atmosphere. A river system is a network of streams that drains an area of land and contains all of the land drained by a river including the main river and all its smaller streams or rivers that flow into larger ones, or tributaries. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

101 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ground water Rain and melting snow sink into the ground and run off the land. Most of this water trickles down through the ground and collects as groundwater. Although it makes up only 1 percent of all the water on Earth, groundwater fulfills the human need for fresh drinking water, and supplies agricultural and industrial need. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

102 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Aquifers A rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater is called an aquifer. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

103 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Biosphere The biosphere is the part of Earth where life exists, extending about 11 km into the ocean and about 9 km into the atmosphere. The materials that organisms require must be continually recycled. Gravity allows a planet to maintain an atmosphere and to cycle materials. Suitable combinations that organisms need to survive are found only in the biosphere. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

104 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Biosphere The biosphere is located near Earths surface because most of the sunlight is available near the surface. Plants need sunlight to produce their food, and almost every other organism gets its food from plants and algae. Most of the algae float at the surface of the ocean and is known as phytoplankton. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

105 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Energy Flow in the Biosphere The energy used by organisms must be obtained in the biosphere and must be constantly supplied for life to continue. When an organism dies, its body is broken down and the nutrients in it become available for use by other organisms. This flow of energy allows life on Earth to continue to exist. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

106 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Energy Flow in the Biosphere Closed systems are systems that cannot exchange matter or energy with its surroundings. Open systems are systems that can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings. Today, the Earth is essentially a closed system with respect to matter, but an open system for energy as energy travels from plant to animal which is eaten by other animals. In the process, some energy is lost as heat to the environment. Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

107 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bellringer Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

108 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Layers Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

109 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Tectonic Plates Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

110 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bellringer Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

111 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Earths Atmosphere Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

112 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Energy in Earths Atmosphere Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

113 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bellringer Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

114 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Surface Currents of the World Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

115 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3 1.What is the cool, rigid, outermost layer of the Earth? A.the asthenosphere B.the geosphere C.the lithosphere D.the mesosphere

116 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1.What is the cool, rigid, outermost layer of the Earth? A.the asthenosphere B.the geosphere C.the lithosphere D.the mesosphere Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

117 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. The collision of tectonic plates creates what geologic feature? F.earthquakes G.faults H.mountains I.volcanoes Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

118 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. The collision of tectonic plates creates what geologic feature? F.earthquakes G.faults H.mountains I.volcanoes Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

119 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.What determines the weather we experience on Earth? A.movement of water over land masses B.gases trapping heat near Earths surface C.absorption of radiation by the thermosphere D.air constantly moving through Earths atmosphere Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

120 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.What determines the weather we experience on Earth? A.movement of water over land masses B.gases trapping heat near Earths surface C.absorption of radiation by the thermosphere D.air constantly moving through Earths atmosphere Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

121 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4.What is the difference between evaporation and condensation? F.Evaporation is the first stage of the water cycle; condensation is the last stage. G.Evaporation is the change from water to vapor; condensation is the change from vapor to water. H.Evaporation is the process where water is heated by the sea; condensation is the process where water droplets fall from clouds. I.Evaporation is the process where water vapor forms droplets; condensation is the process where water vapor forms clouds. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

122 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4.What is the difference between evaporation and condensation? F.Evaporation is the first stage of the water cycle; condensation is the last stage. G.Evaporation is the change from water to vapor; condensation is the change from vapor to water. H.Evaporation is the process where water is heated by the sea; condensation is the process where water droplets fall from clouds. I.Evaporation is the process where water vapor forms droplets; condensation is the process where water vapor forms clouds. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

123 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5.Which of the following statements is true? A.The world ocean covers 70% of Earths surface. B.The world ocean is the body of water south of Africa. C.The world ocean has little effect on Earths environment. D.The world ocean consists of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

124 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5.Which of the following statements is true? A.The world ocean covers 70% of Earths surface. B.The world ocean is the body of water south of Africa. C.The world ocean has little effect on Earths environment. D.The world ocean consists of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

125 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Use this map to answer question 6. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

126 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6.What determines the salinity of the oceans water? F.chlorine G.chlorine and sulfur H.sodium I.sodium and chlorine Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

127 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6.What determines the salinity of the oceans water? F.chlorine G.chlorine and sulfur H.sodium I.sodium and chlorine Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

128 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7.The Atlantic Ocean covers 81,630,000 km 2 of Earths surface area and the Pacific Ocean covers 165,640,000 km 2. How much more surface area is covered by the Pacific Ocean than the Atlantic Ocean, in millions of km 2 ? A.72 B.84 C.96 D.108 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

129 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7. The Atlantic Ocean covers 81,630,000 km 2 of Earths surface area and the Pacific Ocean covers 165,640,000 km 2. How much more surface area is covered by the Pacific Ocean than the Atlantic Ocean, in millions of km 2 ? A.72 B.84 C.96 D.108 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 3

130 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Section 1 The Geosphere Chapter 3

131 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

132 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

133 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

134 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

135 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 1 The Geosphere

136 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Section 2 The Atmosphere Chapter 3

137 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

138 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

139 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

140 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 2 The Atmosphere

141 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere Chapter 3

142 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

143 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

144 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

145 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

146 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

147 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

148 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 3 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere


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