2In the 15th and 16th centuries, it is important to remember that many countries were involved in exploring the "New World."The players in this drama of discovery were the English, French, Italian, Chinese, as well as the Portuguese and Spanish.Rivalries between these powers sustained and advanced exploration as each sought to outstrip the other in terms of raw goods and riches provided by their overseas empires.Every single European institution, from the Church to the average citizen, felt the effects of the voyages of exploration.
3So why did Europeans explore the world during the Age of Exploration So why did Europeans explore the world during the Age of Exploration? Many different European countries paid for explorations for many different reasons.Some of the reasons that they explored were:To find a sea route to the spices of AsiaTo find gold, silver, and precious stonesTo expand their knowledge of the worldTo control a larger empireTo expand ChristianityTo find animal furs
4SpicesSpices were used as a preservative but also to add to the flavor of food.Gold, Silver, and Precious StonesEuropean rulers fought many wars. They fought against each other and against the Turkish Empire.These wars were very expensive, so they needed to find lots of gold, silver, and precious stones to pay for them.They believed that Asia was loaded with gold, silver, and precious stones, so they decided to find it and bring it back.
5Expand KnowledgeIn the late 1400s, not much was known about the world. Most Europeans had never been outside of Europe.The European map of the world included only Europe, Asia, and the top of Africa. They thought there was only one ocean.Although many people thought the world was flat, educated Europeans knew that it was round. The problem was they had no idea how large the world was.
8Larger EmpiresSome European rulers, especially the King of Spain and the King of Portugal, wanted to claim as much land as they could.They wanted to take all of the natural resources from this land and use the people that lived there as slaves to do their work.
9European rulers were (or appeared to be) very religious. Expand ChristianityIn the late 1400s, there was only one religion in Europe, Christianity.European rulers were (or appeared to be) very religious.They wanted to convert everyone to Christianity, Catholicism in particular even though there were now different Protestant religions, Catholicism was still the largest religion
10Animal FursEventually, the French found that animal furs, especially beaver hats, were very valuable in Europe.Imagine everyone walking around in a beaver hat!
11Prince Henry theNavigatorPortugalCreated a school fornavigationNever actually wenton a voyage ofexplorationSponsored expeditionsthat went down theWestern Coast of Africa
12Caravels It could accommodate a crew of 20 sailors The caravel (also spelled carvel) is a light sailing ship that that was developed by the Portuguese in the late 1400's, and was used for the next 300 years.The caravel was an improvement on older ships because it could sail very fast and also sail well into the windIt could accommodate a crew of 20 sailorsTwo of Christopher Columbus' three ships were caravels (the Niña and the Pinta)
14Two types of ships were developed: small ships for exploration: caravelsa shallow draft to chart unknown watersability to sail to windward (lateen sails)small crewcargo space for voyages of up to a yearlarger ships for war and commerce: carrackshigh platforms at front and back from which to fire at opponentsarmed with cannonssquare sails for more sail arealarge payload
15View of a caravel with lanteen sails (triangular sails that caught the wind and increased the speed)
18Treaty of TordesillasThe Treaty of Tordesillas was agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion over newly claimed land in the New World.After Columbus discovered the New World in 1492, it was clear that conflict would soon arise over land claims by Spain and Portugal.The treaty provided an imaginary line drawn by the Pope to split the world north & south (Line of Demarcation)All lands to the east went to Portugal; all lands to the west went to SpainWho got the biggest portion?Spain!
20AMERIGO VESPUCCIAmerigo Vespucci isremembered as the man America was named afterBorn in Florence, Italy in 1454On his second voyage to the New World in 1501, he wrote two letters to a friend in Europe.He described his travels andwas the first to identify the New World of North and South America as separate from Asia.Vespucci's third voyage to the New World was his last for he contracted malaria and died in Spain in 1512 at the age of 58.
22Ferdinand Magellan ( ) was a Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition that sailed around the world ( ).Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean (the name means that it is a calm, peaceful ocean).Magellan proposed to King Charles V of Spain that a westward voyage around the tip of South America would take them to the Moluccas (spice-rich islands) and avoid the Portuguese (with whom they were competing fiercely).The round the world voyage lasted for 3 yrs.(began September 8, 1519, and lasted until September 6, 1522)Magellan was killed towards the end of the voyage, on an island in the Philippines, during a battle with the natives. His navigator Juan Sebastián de Elcano (del Cano) completed the trip.
24Vasco da Gama ( ) was a Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East.Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon, Portugal, on July 8, 1497, heading to the East.At the time, many people thought that da Gama's trip would be impossible because it was assumed that the Indian Ocean was not connected to any other seas.Da Gama rounded Africa's Cape of Good Hope on November 22, 1497, and continued on to India.After many stops in Africa, and problems with Muslim traders who did not want interference in their profitable trade routes, da Gama reached Calicut, India on May 20, 1498.
27The Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange was the widespread exchange of animals, foods, people (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres.ANIMALS: Old World to New WorldHorses CowsPigs ChickensBees SheepCats Goats
28NEW WORLD TO OLD WORLD:Turkey LlamaGuinea Pig AlpacaFOOD: Old World To New WorldBanana OnionCoffee RiceCabbage TeaCantaloupe WatermelonLettuce Citrus
29Food: New World To Old World Cocoa (chocolate)BlueberryBeansBell PepperPineapplePotatoTomatoSquashSweet potato
30Diseases: Old World to New World Bubonic PlagueSmallpoxChicken poxMeaslesYellow FeverLeprosyInfluenzaSyphillisHepatitis
33The destruction of Indian America The arrival of Europeans in the Americas marked the beginning of the end of the way of life many Indians had known for centuries.Waves of European explorers, fur traders, missionaries, and settlers swept across the New World.Many settlers thought they were superior to the Indians and tried to force Indians to adopt their ways.Missionaries tried to persuade Indians to abandon their traditional religions and convert to Christianity.33
34A Difference in Philosophy Land became a major issue between the Europeans and the Indians.The settlers wanted the land for farming, for grazing cattle, and for mining.Europeans believed in the individual ownership of land.Native Americans, on the other hand, generally considered themselves caretakers of the land.34
35A Difference in Philosophy NA believed that they did not own the land individually and therefore had no right to sell it or give it away.Consequently, when Indians "sold" land, they might believe they were only agreeing to let the whites use it.The Indians expected to keep hunting or farming there.35
36A Difference in Philosophy When the settlers tried to keep the Indians off what the settlers now considered their property, fighting broke out.Through the years, more and more Indians were forced off their land as more and more newcomers arrived.This would continue until the 20th century.36
38Chinese ExplorationEmperor Yong Le tried to boost his damaged prestige as a usurper by a display of China's might abroad, sending spectacular fleets on great voyages and by bringing foreign ambassadors to his court.The Emperor put foreign trade under a strict Imperial monopoly by taking control from overseas Chinese merchants.Command of the fleet was given to his favorite Zheng He, an impressive figure said to be over eight feet tall.
39Zheng HeIn 1405, Zheng was chosen to lead the biggest Chinese naval expedition in history up to that time.Over the next 28 years ( ), he commanded seven fleets that visited 37 countries, through Southeast Asia, Africa, and Arabia.In those years, China had by far the biggest ships of the time.
40A great fleet of big ships, with nine masts and manned by 500 men, each set sail in July 1405, half a century before Columbus's voyage to America.There were great treasure ships over 300-feet long and 150-feet wide, the biggest being 440-feet long and 186-across, capable of carrying 1,000 passengers.
41Zheng He - Chinese Explorations compared to Columbus’ Santa Maria
43Zheng He's first fleet included 27,870 men on 317 ships, including sailors, clerks, interpreters, soldiers, artisans, medical men and meteorologists.On board were large quantities of cargo including silk goods, porcelain, gold and silverware, copper utensils, iron implements and cotton goods.The fleet sailed along China's coast close to Vietnam and, after crossing the South China Sea, visited Java, Sumatra and reached Sri Lanka by passing through the Strait of Malacca.On the way back it sailed along the west coast of India and returned home in Envoys from Calicut in India and several countries in Asia and the Middle East also boarded the ships to pay visits to China.Zheng He's second and third voyages taken shortly after, followed roughly the same route.