Creating a Government How did 13 different colonies form to become the United State of America?
Objectives: What you should know by the end of this power point! -The reason for creation of the Constitution. -What the Framers agreed and disagreed on. -What influenced the Framers when creating the Constitution. -The type of government we have and what that means. -The plans presented at the convention. -Our current plan. -How slavery played a role in the Constitution.
Why did the founders fear the abuse of power? “Give all power to the many, they will oppose the few. Give all the power to the few and they will oppress the many” What does Alexander Hamilton mean?
Why did the founders fear the abuse of power? “There are two passions which have a Powerful influence on the affairs of men. These are ambition and avarice [greed]; the love of power and the love of money.” What does Benjamin Franklin mean?
Why did the founders fear the abuse of power? “From the nature of man, we may be sure that those who have power in their hands… will always, when they can … increase it.” What does George Mason mean?
Background To the people their state was their country. A national government was needed. The Articles of Confederation were our first national government. (1777) After final approval in 1781 they went into effect.
Articles of Confederation Colonist two biggest fear: A strong national government / fear that some states would have more power than others. They created a weak government. Numerous problems: 1. couldn’t raise money 2. no power over states or it’s citizens 3. couldn’t enforce trade agreement 4. couldn’t regulate trade 5. Citizens felt their property rights threatened.
Shay’s Rebellion Farmers were in debt. In MA government started taking their farms. Daniel Shay organized an armed rebellion. The rebellion is crushed, but demonstrated the need for a stronger central government. A convention is arranged with the “soul and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation.”
An invitation A meeting is set for Philadelphia on May 25, 1787. 55 delegates arrive to the Congress. Delegates would submit plans to improve the A.o.C. Congress would pick a plan that worked best.
Influences On The Framers Republic – a government in which the power is held by the people who elect representatives. The founders believed a republican government was the best with several advantages: 1.Representatives are elected to serve the common good. 2.Having representatives make the laws more efficient. 3.The people would have a say in their government. 4.The representatives were responsible to the people. Disadvantages: 1.Republics worked best in smaller communities. 2.The people had to be alike without much diversity. 3.Divisions would form.
But I thought we were a democracy? Direct Democracy: the people themselves control the government. James Madison is often referred to as the “Father of the Constitution” because he adapted the idea of a Republican Government to the reality of American life. A laws would be made by elected representatives. B. representatives would be elected by large groups of people, instead of small. Using the principles of a democracy the founders eventually formed a republic.
What is a Constitutional Government? Governments organized in such a way that one person or group cannot get enough power to dominate the government. -separate the powers of the gov.=divide the power of gov. among different branches or parts. -balance the power among the branches of gov.= give each branch methods to check the use of power by the other branches.
Disagreements Representation: How many representatives should the states have in the Congress? Small – wanted equal representation. (1 vote each) Large – Proportional representation. (More people more votes)
The Virginia Plan James Madison had drafted a plan for a national government. He called it the Virginia Plan. There would be a strong national government.
The Virginia Plan Two governments would govern the people. There would be state and national governments. Both governments would get their power from the people. Federalism: a system of government where power is divided between a federal and state governments.
The Virginia Plan The national government would have the power to make and enforce its own laws. It would have the power to collect its own taxes.
The Virginia Plan The Legislative branch would be divided into two groups with larger states having more reps: House of Representatives The Senate The government would be divided into three branches: Legislative branch Executive branch Judicial Branch
The New Jersey Plan William Patterson of New Jersey led a group of small states to develop a new plan. This plan followed the framework of the Articles of Confederation.
The New Jersey Plan Favored a weak national government. One house in Congress Each state would have equal representation. Congress could collect taxes. Regulate trade between states and other nations. Three branches, where executive branch would have several members appointed by the Congress. The executive branch would appoint judges to the courts.
Compare Side by Side: Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Legislative Branch (make laws) Two (branches) houses: representation determine by state population or wealth Lower house: elected by the people Upper house: elected by the lower house One house: one vote for each state, regardless of size Elected by state legislatures Executive Branch (enforce laws) Appointed by Legislature Judicial Branch (interpret laws) Appointed by Legislature Appointed by Executive
The Great Compromise: 3 parts 1. Congress would have a bicameral legislature (2 house Congress) House of Representatives and Senate. 2. House would be based on population and have the power to pass taxes and government spending. 3. Senate would be equal representation (2 Senators per state) make changes to taxes and spending.
The Great Compromise Executive Branch Executes the laws People vote for their president Legislative Branch Two (branches) houses: House: based on population Senate: each state gets two People vote for their Reps and Senators Judicial Branch Appointed by the Executive Branch Approval required by Legislature
Slavery and the Constitution The south was an agricultural economy. They relied on slave labor to make a larger profit. Slaves were treated as property. The north was more diverse and did not rely on slave labor.
North vs South Slavery was about more than tariffs. Northern states ended the practice and were against it. (Some from the South were as well) 3 Southern states refused to be apart of the union if denied their right to slavery. Southern states also wanted to count slaves, when counting state population.
Prelude to the Civil War The national government would not end the slave trade before 1808. (Basically agreeing to deal with the issue later.) 3/5 Compromise – 3/5 of the slave population would be used for counting a states population and for tax purposes. The issue was far from settled and resulted in the Civil War years later.
Anti Federalist-people who did not support the Constitution Mercy Otis Warren wrote an essay calling for a democratic nation. Thought too much power was taken from the state. Did not guarantee people’s rights Supported from rural areas Large states with strong economies as well like New York
Federalists-people who supported the Constitution Wrote the Federalist papers (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay) Believed the division of power between state and federal was good enough
Call for the Bill of Rights Anti-federalist wanted a guarantee of their rights, example speech, bear arms Federalist insisted the Constitution only granted limited powers to the government A Bill of Rights was promised to be added after ratification.