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Presentation on theme: "EUROPE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Europe, the smallest of the seven continents except Australia.
the entire continent is only 10 per cent larger than the United States Europe has played a dominant role in world affairs for more than 2,000 years. Ancient Greece and Rome contributed much to civilization. Great Britain, France, Spain, and other European countries have spread their cultures to many distant lands through exploration and colonization.


4 Europe is a great peninsula running west from Asia.
Europe, in turn, has a number of large peninsulas of its own including the Iberian, Balkan, Italian, and Scandinavian. Europe and Asia are often referred to as a single continent, called Eurasia, because there is no clear-cut dividing line between them.

5 IBERIAN PENINSULA Includes Spain Portugal and Andorra
Mediterranean, Atlantic Ocean & Balearic Sea

6 BALKAN PENINSULA The Balkan Peninsula therefore includes most of Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, continental Greece (including the Peloponnesus), Bulgaria, European Turkey,

7 ITALIAN PENINSULA Includes Italy Sardinia Sicily Corsica

Includes Norway Sweden Denmark Finland

9 Europe is bounded on the north by the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents seas.
The eastern boundary is usually placed at the Ural Mountains and the western shore of the Caspian Sea. On the south the continent is bounded by the Caucasus region and the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, and Mediterranean Sea. On the west is the Atlantic Ocean





14 Northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia lie within the Arctic Circle.
The prime meridian (0º longitude) runs through Great Britain, France, and Spain. The coast, about 25,000 miles (40,000 km) long, is extremely irregular and dotted with many islands. Major islands include:


16 Major islands include Iceland

17 British Isles

18 the Balearic Islands(Mallorca, Ibiza, Menorca)

19 Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, and Crete

20 Physical Features Europe can be divided into four main regions: the Northern Highlands, the Great European Plain, the Central Highlands, and the Alpine Mountains.

21 The Northern Highlands, which include the mountains of Scandinavia and of the northern British Isles(Scotland), were once overrun by huge glaciers. The glaciers left many lakes, rounded mountains, and U-shaped valleys.

22 Northern Highlands in Scotland (northern British Isles)

23 Scandinavian Mountains

24 The highest point, Galdhöpiggen, in Norway, is more than 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level.

25 The Great European Plain extends from southwestern France to the Ural Mountains in Russia.
It includes northern France, southeastern Great Britain, most of Belgium and the Netherlands, Denmark, northern Germany, and southern Sweden. Much of Europe's population and industry, and many of the continent's major cities, are located on this plain.

26 The Central Highlands, extending east-west across central Europe, are moderately high and heavily wooded. Examples of these highlands are the Massif Central and the Vosges of France, the Ardennes of Belgium, the Black Forest and Taunus mountains of Germany, and the Ore and Sudeten mountains on the Czech Republic's northern border. Except in such large river valleys as those of the Rhine, Rhône, Elbe, and Danube, the Central Highlands are sparsely settled.

27 The Alpine Mountains extend across southern Europe from Spain to southern Russia.
Among these mountains are the Sierra Nevada, Pyrenees, Alps, Pindus, Balkan, and Caucasus mountains. These are high, rugged ranges with steep slopes.

28 Rivers are of great economic importance in Europe because many of them provide navigation and large amounts of water power. Most European rivers are quite short. The Volga River, Europe’s longest river, is 2,290 miles (3,685 km) in length, about the same length as the Mississippi River. Other large southward-flowing rivers include the Dnieper, Danube, Don, Po, Rhône, and Ebro. Among the northward-flowing rivers are the Loire, Seine, Rhine, Elbe, Oder, Vistula, Western Dvina, Northern Dvina, and Pechora.

29 Most of Europe's many lakes are in the north.
Finland is the chief lake country—about 9 per cent of its area is water. Lakes Ladoga and Onega, in Russia, are Europe's largest lakes. Other large lakes include Lakes Vänern and Vättern, in Sweden; and Lake Balaton, in Hungary. Many of the Alpine lakes of central Europe are popular tourist attractions. Among the largest of these are Lakes Geneva and Constance, both on the Swiss border.

30 FRANCE France is the second largest country in Europe, with the fifth largest population in Europe. Population: 64.1 million Geographic size: 212,935 square miles Capital: Paris Major cities and population: Paris million people, Lyon million, Marseille million, Lille - 950,000 and Bordeaux - 640,000.


32 Two thirds of France is mountains and hills, with the Alps, Pyrenees and Vosges ranges.
Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest mountain in Europe The Mediterranean coast includes the popular tourist area, the French Riviera. Its hot, dry summers and mild winters make it a popular beach area. Popular Riviera cities – Nice, Antibes, Cannes, St.Tropez



35 France is about 80% the size of Texas.
It is bordered by Spain in the south, and Switzerland, Italy, Germany and Belgium on the east and north It has 4 major rivers – the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, and the Rhone Seine – flows through Paris Major bodies of water – Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea

36 Language – French along with some regional dialects
Religion – Roman Catholic 85%; Protestant – 2%; Islam 5-10%; Jewish 2% National Holiday – July 14 –Bastille Day National Anthem: La Marseillaise Monetary Unit : Euro (formerly French franc) National Landmarks – La Tour Eiffel (Eiffel Tower; Arc de Triomphe, Notre Dame Cathedral; the Louvre Museum

37 Eiffel Tower Built for 1889 World’s Fair

38 Arc de Triomphe

39 Notre Dame Cathedral – built from 1163-1345

40 The Louvre


42 United Kingdom The United Kingdom, consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Great Britain consists of England, Wales and Scotland The UK is twice the size of New York State Mountain ranges are: Cheviot Hills Pennine Mountains the Cambrian Mountains, the Cotswolds


44 Surrounded by Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, English Channel
Important rivers: Thames Humber Tees Tyne

45 Union Flag – created 1606

46 St. George's flag England
St. Andrew's flag Scotland St. Patrick's flag Ireland

47 Climate: Generally mild and temperate; weather is subject to frequent changes but not often to temperature extremes. Population (July 2011 est.): 62,698,362 Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan pop. about million). Other cities--Birmingham, Glasgow, West Yorkshire, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bradford, Manchester, Edinburgh, Bristol, Belfast.

48 Major languages: English, Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic
Type of government: Constitutional monarchy Current monarch: Elizabeth II – has ruled the United Kingdom since 1952 upon the death of her father, George VI

49 HM The Queen

50 Buckingham Palace



53 Government Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state), prime minister (head of government) Current Prime Minister: David Cameron Legislative--bicameral Parliament: House of Commons, House of Lords Judicial : various courts

54 Parliament



57 1. What does “Benelux” stand for?
2. What are the main 2 languages of Belgium? 3. Where is “Benelux” located? 4. What is the capital of Belgium? 5. What are the names of the 2 geographic regions of Belgium?

58 BENELUX BENELUX=Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg

59 Benelux is an economic union comprising three neighboring monarchies, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The name is formed from the beginning of each country's name These countries are located in northwestern Europe between France & Germany.


61 BELGIUM Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union. Belgium covers an area of 11,787 sq mi it has a population of about 11 million people. Belgium is home to two main language groups, the Dutch-speakers, mostly Flemish, and the French-speakers mostly Walloons, plus a small group of German-speakers.

62 Belgium's two largest regions are the Flanders in the north and Wallonia in the South.
The capital, Brussels, officially bilingual, is a mostly French-speaking region located in Flanders. A German-speaking community exists in eastern Wallonia.




66 Historically, Belgium, the Netherlands
and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries The region was called Belgica in Latin named for the Roman province Gallia Belgica which covered more or less the same area

67 The Romans were the first of many to invade Belgium.
In fact, the country’s name even harks back to these times – Julius Caesar mentioned the Belgae during his conquest of Gaul, and when the nation needed a name following independence, the word ‘Belgium’ was born. Caesar’s armies invaded in 57 BC and held Gallia Belgica for 500 years

68 Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830;
It was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands

69 about the size of Maryland

70 Lowest point: North Sea
Highest point: Botrange Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, other (includes Protestant) 25% Population: 10,431,477 (July 2011 est.) Major cities – Brussels (capital), Antwerp; Ghent; Bruges

71 Antwerp – Diamond “Capital”




75 Government type: parliamentary democracy/constitutional monarchy
Current monarch: King Albert II Head of government: Prime Minister (Yves Leterme) Bicameral Parliament

76 King Albert II (1993- present)


78 the colors were those of WILLIAM I, Prince of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century;

79 The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579;
during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom.

80 Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
AKA: Holland slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey mostly coastal lowland (lots of flooding)





85 Nationality: Dutch Official language: Dutch Amsterdam (capital) Important cities: Rotterdam; The Hague (seat of government) Government: Constitutional Monarchy Current Monarch: Queen Beatrix (1980-present)


87 Crown Prince Willem-Alexander





92 Rotterdam


94 The Hague

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