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Unit 2 Energy Transformation Shani Hall Energy in an Ecosystem Primary energy source is the sun.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Energy Transformation Shani Hall Energy in an Ecosystem Primary energy source is the sun."— Presentation transcript:


2 Unit 2 Energy Transformation Shani Hall

3 Energy in an Ecosystem Primary energy source is the sun

4 Energy in an Ecosystem Producers-organism that use suns energy to make their own food (plants)

5 Energy in an ecosystem Consumers-organisms that eat other organisms

6 Types of Consumers Herbivores: consumers that eat only plants

7 Types of Consumers Carnivores: eat only animals (meat-eaters)

8 Types of Consumers Omnivore: organisms that eat both plants and animals

9 Types of Consumers Scavengers-animals that feed on dead animals

10 Types of Consumers Decomposer-break down waste and return nutrients back to the earth

11 Food Chain Is a way of showing how the energy from food moves through populations of organisms.

12 Food chains Arrows show - –Show direction that food and energy move along the chain. Start with producers (plants)-

13 Food Chain Producers(plant) primary consumers(grasshopper) secondary consumer (mouse)- tertiary consumer (cat) Organisms do not survive without the survival of other species Build the food chain!

14 Food Web Show how several food chains are related

15 Energy Loss During energy transfer energy is lost in the environment as heat. – All life processes require energy (grow, search for food, and reproduce)-energy is being used by organisms –can not be replaced once it is lost

16 Energy Pyramid (Draw) 1. 10% of the energy is transferred to the next level. 2. Loss of energy limits the number of consumers. a. there are less consumers than producers

17 Food Chain Bubble Map LC-1. five words that relate to food chains and two pictures JR-three words, three pictures and one phrase MC-two words, four pictures and one phrase All Groups: Explain the key components of a food chain (3-5 sentences)

18 Relationship between Organisms Resources are limited in an ecosystem –Animals sharing a habitat struggle for resources: food, shelter, water and territory

19 Competition Struggle among organisms for resources in an ecosystem. –Animals that are better adapted to conditions in the habitat are more likely to survive and reproduce

20 Predation A relationship in which an organisms kills and eats another organisms. –Predator-organisms that is doing the eating –Prey-organisms that is being eaten

21 Predation


23 Symbiosis Is a close relationship between two organisms from different species that may help or harm the organisms. Example: Dodo Bird gets food and protection by riding on the rhinos back

24 Learning Assignment LC-Divide paper into three and define: predator, prey, and competition (definition, drawing and sentence) JR-Divide paper into four and define the following terms: predator, prey, competition, and symbiosis (definition, drawing and sentence) MC-Double Bubble-Predator vs. Prey A. draw your similarities B. Write your differences All groups: How do predators depend up prey? (2-3 sentences)

25 Photosynthesis Green plants are autotrophs (make their own food in their leaves) Leaves are known as food factories –Site of photosynthesis

26 Photosynthesis Food making process in plants that uses sunlight. –Food that plants make is sucrose (sugar)

27 Photosynthesis Equation Products Reactants Takes place in the chloroplast that contains the pigment (chlorophyll) that reflects green. Absorbed from atmosphere Given off into atmosphere

28 Importance of Photosynthesis Two Reasons: –1. The oxygen in the air comes from photosynthesis. plants continue to replenish the oxygen in the air. –2. All of our food comes directly or indirectly from photosynthesis.

29 Heterotrophs –Get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight

30 Energy and Living Things Energy is the ability to do work or cause change. Examples of Work –Growing –Sleeping –Running –Healing Source of energy for all organisms is food. Without energy life can not exist

31 Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration-similar to burning fuel –Breaking down food to produce energy (ATP) –Takes place in the mitochondria –Opposite of photosynthesis Equation: –Oxygen + food- water + energy + carbon dioxide –Occurs in both plants and animals Absorbed by plants

32 Importance of Cellular Respiration Removes the energy from food so that it can be used to do work.

33 Learning Experience LC-Divide paper into four and define: photosynthesis, cellular respiration, autotrophs, and heterotrophs. JR-Two paragraph letter from the leaf to the sun explaining why the sun is important to you. MC-Divide paper into four and draw a photosynthesis cartoon. Each part of cartoon should have a caption. You must include: a plant, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and food (sugar) as a part of your cartoon.

34 Properties of Water Water is important in an ecosystem and to the life. –7–70% of the body is made up of water –7–70% of the world is covered with water Therefore life can not exist without water.

35 Properties of Water 1. Water Stores Heat Efficiently –M–Making it a good source of energy

36 Properties of Water 2. Water Bonds to itself and other substances

37 Properties of Water 3. Cohesion-sticking to other surfaces

38 Properties of Water 4.Capillary Action-pressure that pulls water upward

39 Properties of Water 5. Turgor Pressure: pressure exerted on the cell wall of a plant when the vacuole is filled with water. –Causes the plant to stand upright or wilt with there is a lack of turgor pressure.

40 Water Properties 6. Water Dissolves other substances (universal solvent)

41 Learning Experience Imagine that one day you woke up and all of the water in the world is gone. Write a four paragraph story on the right side of the notebook that describes what happened the morning that you woke up and there was no water. Give your story a title:

42 Water Cycle Water never leaves the Earth. –I–I–I–It is constantly being cycled through the atmosphere, ocean, and land (water cycle). –d–d–d–driven by energy from the sun. The water cycle is important to life on earth.


44 Carbon Cycle Living things are made up of organic compounds –Contain Carbon Carbon that is found in atmosphere is CO 2(carbon dioxide)

45 Carbon Cycle Process by which carbon is recycled –Repeated movement of carbon between Earths atmosphere and living things.

46 Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the main parts of the carbon cycle. Producers use carbon dioxide to make food in photosynthesis.

47 Carbon Cycle Carbon dioxide is returned back to the atmosphere when food is used to make energy in cellular respiration. Carbon Dioxide

48 Carbon Cycle Carbon dioxide is transferred through the food chain as consumers eat other organisms.

49 Carbon Cycle Decomposers break down dead material to return carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

50 Nitrogen in the Air Organisms need nitrogen to build proteins-(needed to build and repair cells) Atmosphere is 78% nitrogen gas –Most organisms unable to use form found in atmosphere


52 Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Transform nitrogen into a usable compound. –Live in the roots of legume plants

53 Nitrogen Cycle Using and reusing nitrogen in an ecosystem

54 Read the Passage: Activating Learning When you lie down for the night, you probably think that your body is completely at rest. In fact, you will still be digesting food you ate that day, the scrape on your elbow will be healing, and your muscles and bones will be growing and developing. All of the things that are happening inside your body are the result of chemical reactions. Why is the body like a 24-hour reaction factory?

55 Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce and adapt.

56 Enzymes: Chemical Reactions Biochemical reactions must occur at a certain rate in order to sustain life. (growth, repair and reproduction)

57 Enzymes Function: To speed up slow reactions that take place in the body.

58 Enzymes Enzymes: organic catalyst that control the rate of chemical reactions within cells by speeding them up. –Reduce activation energy-energy needed to start reaction –Proteins –Without chemical reactions would occur to slowly to sustain life. –Important to life

59 Enzyme-Substrate Complex Enzymes work by providing a site for reactants (substrate) to come together to react.

60 Enzyme-Substrate Complex Active site: substrate and enzyme bind together and products are released. –Shape of substrate and enzyme or complementary in shape (lock and key) –Enzyme is unchanged and can be used over and over again.

61 Enzymes Animation /student _view0/chapter2/animation__how _enzymes_work.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw- /student _view0/chapter2/animation__how _enzymes_work.html


63 Learning Experience 1.LC-Define: enzyme, activation energy, catalyst and active site. 1.Definition, drawing, and sentence using the key term. 2.Answer Question: Why are enzymes important? 2.JR-Bubble Map-four pictures and three words. Explain in three sentences why enzymes are important. 3.MC-Come up with two objects. One will represent the substrate and the other will represent the enzyme. 1.Illustrate what happens when both the enzyme and substrate come into contact with each other. 2.Label which object is the substrate and which is the enzyme. 3.Explain why enzymes are important (3 sentences)

64 RAFT Role: Chemical Reaction Audience: Enzyme Format: Invitation Topic: You are inviting the enzyme to the chemical reaction party. Please explain the following in two-three paragraphs: the location, time, the event and why the enzyme has been invited to the party. Draw picture of the party on left side page.


66 What do these words mean?

67 Macromolecule Large Molecule that is formed by joining together smaller organic molecules.


69 CARBOHYDRATES Main source of energy in the body. They are our fuel! Provide structural support in the cell wall in plants. (Keep the cell from being a mushy mess) Broken down into simple sugar known as glucose.

70 EXAMPLES OF CARBOHYDRATES Fruits, vegetables, cookies, breads, pasta and cakesFruits, vegetables, cookies, breads, pasta and cakes

71 Lipids (Fats) Not soluble in water (WILL NOT DISSOLVE) –store energy (Insulation for animals) –Important part of the structure and function of cell membrane (controls what moves in and out of cell)


73 Proteins Amino acids (building blocks) joined together to make proteins –Promote chemical reactions-enzyme (remember function speed up chemical reaction)

74 Proteins HELP CELL TO BUILD NEW CELL PARTS Antibodies-help fight off infections Help muscle to contract (Make body movement possible)

75 Sources of Protein eggs, milk, fish, poultry, and meat

76 Nucleic Acid Nucleotides (building blocks) join together to create nucleic acids –2 Types: DNA and RNA Stores and transmits hereditary information DNA-MAP OF INDIVIDUAL Play a role in the manufacture of proteins that express our traits (eye color, hair color and height)


78 Importance of Macromolecules Cells could not function without macromolecules Life would not exist without macromolecules

79 Look at the label to the left. 3 of the 4 macromolecules can be found in foods. The 3 biochemical molecules found on a nutrition label are: 1____________________ 2____________________ 3____________________ (0 grams in this product) (13 grams in this product) (9 grams in this product)

80 Left-side Assignment Brace Map Draw a picture and write a description of each macromolecule Explain why macromolecules are important?

81 Catalog the Macromolecules Use 8 ½ by 11 sheets of paper to complete the following assignment that is due on Thursday. Remember you are advertising the macromolecules so be creative and use lots of color.

82 Cataloging Macromolecules (pp.34-41) Title Page ( Title (Be creative), name, date, period, and picture) Each Macromolecule page should have the following information –Name (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Nucleic Acid) –Picture that reflects the macromolecules (creative) –Price –Reason why the cell should purchase these items (Function: what does the molecule do for the cell) Staple all together at the end.

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