2 Energy in an EcosystemPrimary energy source is the sun
3 Energy in an EcosystemProducers-organism that use sun’s energy to make their own food (plants)
4 Energy in an ecosystemConsumers-organisms that eat other organisms
5 Types of ConsumersHerbivores: consumers that eat only plants
6 Types of ConsumersCarnivores: eat only animals (meat-eaters)
7 Types of ConsumersOmnivore: organisms that eat both plants and animals
8 Types of ConsumersScavengers-animals that feed on dead animals
9 Types of ConsumersDecomposer-break down waste and return nutrients back to the earth
10 Food ChainIs a way of showing how the energy from food moves through populations of organisms.
11 Food chains Arrows show - Start with producers (plants)- Show direction that food and energy move along the chain.Start with producers (plants)-
12 Food ChainProducers(plant)primary consumers(grasshopper)secondary consumer (mouse)-tertiary consumer (cat)Organisms do not survive without the survival of other speciesBuild the food chain!
13 Food WebShow how several food chains are related
14 Energy LossDuring energy transfer energy is lost in the environment as heat.All life processes require energy (grow, search for food, and reproduce)-energy is being used by organismscan not be replaced once it is lost
15 Energy Pyramid (Draw)1. 10% of the energy is transferred to the next level.2. Loss of energy limits the number of consumers.a. there are less consumers than producers
16 Food Chain Bubble MapLC-1. five words that relate to food chains and two picturesJR-three words, three pictures and one phraseMC-two words, four pictures and one phraseAll Groups: Explain the key components of a food chain (3-5 sentences)
17 Relationship between Organisms Resources are limited in an ecosystemAnimals sharing a habitat struggle for resources: food, shelter, water and territory
18 Competition Struggle among organisms for resources in an ecosystem. Animals that are better adapted to conditions in the habitat are more likely to survive and reproduce
19 PredationA relationship in which an organisms kills and eats another organisms.Predator-organisms that is doing the eatingPrey-organisms that is being eaten
22 SymbiosisIs a close relationship between two organisms from different species that may help or harm the organisms.Example:Dodo Bird gets food and protection by riding on the rhino’s back
23 Learning AssignmentLC-Divide paper into three and define: predator, prey, and competition (definition, drawing and sentence)JR-Divide paper into four and define the following terms: predator, prey, competition, and symbiosis (definition, drawing and sentence)MC-Double Bubble-Predator vs. PreyA. draw your similaritiesB. Write your differencesAll groups: How do predators depend up prey? (2-3 sentences)
24 PhotosynthesisGreen plants are autotrophs (make their own food in their leaves)Leaves are known as “ food factories”Site of photosynthesis
25 Photosynthesis Food making process in plants that uses sunlight. Food that plants make is sucrose (sugar)
26 Photosynthesis Equation Given off into atmosphereAbsorbed from atmosphereReactantsProductsTakes place in the chloroplast that contains the pigment (chlorophyll) that reflects green.
27 Importance of Photosynthesis Two Reasons:1. The oxygen in the air comes from photosynthesis.plants continue to replenish the oxygen in the air.2. All of our food comes directly or indirectly from photosynthesis.
28 Heterotrophs Heterotrophs Get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight
29 Energy and Living Things Energy is the ability to do work or cause change.Examples of WorkGrowingSleepingRunningHealingSource of energy for all organisms is food.Without energy life can not exist
30 Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration-similar to burning fuel Breaking down food to produce energy (ATP)Takes place in the mitochondriaOpposite of photosynthesisEquation:Oxygen + food-water + energy + carbon dioxideOccurs in both plants and animalsAbsorbed by plants
31 Importance of Cellular Respiration Removes the energy from food so that it can be used to do work.
32 Learning ExperienceLC-Divide paper into four and define: photosynthesis, cellular respiration, autotrophs, and heterotrophs.JR-Two paragraph letter from the leaf to the sun explaining why the sun is important to you.MC-Divide paper into four and draw a photosynthesis cartoon. Each part of cartoon should have a caption. You must include: a plant, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and food (sugar) as a part of your cartoon.
33 Properties of WaterWater is important in an ecosystem and to the life.70% of the body is made up of water70% of the world is covered with waterTherefore life can not exist without water.
34 Properties of Water 1. Water Stores Heat Efficiently Making it a good source of energy
35 Properties of Water2. Water Bonds to itself and other substances
36 Properties of Water3. Cohesion-sticking to other surfaces
37 Properties of Water4.Capillary Action-pressure that pulls water upward
38 Properties of Water5. Turgor Pressure: pressure exerted on the cell wall of a plant when the vacuole is filled with water.Causes the plant to stand upright or wilt with there is a lack of turgor pressure.
39 Water Properties6. Water Dissolves other substances (universal solvent)
40 Learning ExperienceImagine that one day you woke up and all of the water in the world is gone. Write a four paragraph story on the right side of the notebook that describes what happened the morning that you woke up and there was no water. Give your story a title:
41 Water Cycle Water never leaves the Earth. It is constantly being cycled through the atmosphere, ocean, and land (water cycle).driven by energy from the sun.The water cycle is important to life on earth.
51 Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Transform nitrogen into a usable compound.Live in the roots of legume plants
52 Nitrogen CycleUsing and reusing nitrogen in an ecosystem
53 Read the Passage: Activating Learning When you lie down for the night, you probably think that your body is completely at rest. In fact, you will still be digesting food you ate that day, the scrape on your elbow will be healing, and your muscles and bones will be growing and developing. All of the things that are happening inside your body are the result of chemical reactions.Why is the body like a 24-hour reaction factory?
54 Chemical ReactionsChemical Reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce and adapt.
55 Enzymes: Chemical Reactions Biochemical reactions must occur at a certain rate in order to sustain life. (growth, repair and reproduction)
56 EnzymesFunction: To speed up slow reactions that take place in the body.
57 EnzymesEnzymes: organic catalyst that control the rate of chemical reactions within cells by speeding them up.Reduce activation energy-energy needed to start reactionProteinsWithout chemical reactions would occur to slowly to sustain life.Important to life
58 Enzyme-Substrate Complex Enzymes work by providing a site for reactants (substrate) to come together to react.
59 Enzyme-Substrate Complex Active site: substrate and enzyme bind together and products are released.Shape of substrate and enzyme or complementary in shape (lock and key)Enzyme is unchanged and can be used over and over again.
62 Learning ExperienceLC-Define: enzyme, activation energy, catalyst and active site.Definition, drawing, and sentence using the key term.Answer Question: Why are enzymes important?JR-Bubble Map-four pictures and three words. Explain in three sentences why enzymes are important.MC-Come up with two objects. One will represent the substrate and the other will represent the enzyme.Illustrate what happens when both the enzyme and substrate come into contact with each other.Label which object is the substrate and which is the enzyme.Explain why enzymes are important (3 sentences)
63 RAFT Role: Chemical Reaction Audience: Enzyme Format: Invitation Topic: You are inviting the enzyme to the chemical reaction party. Please explain the following in two-three paragraphs: the location, time, the event and why the enzyme has been invited to the party.Draw picture of the party on left side page.
68 CARBOHYDRATES Main source of energy in the body. They are our fuel! Provide structural support in the cell wall in plants. (Keep the cell from being a mushy mess)Broken down into simple sugar known as glucose.68
69 EXAMPLES OF CARBOHYDRATES Fruits, vegetables, cookies, breads, pasta and cakes69
70 Lipids (Fats) Not soluble in water (WILL NOT DISSOLVE) store energy (Insulation for animals)Important part of the structure and function of cell membrane (controls what moves in and out of cell)
72 ProteinsAmino acids (building blocks) joined together to make proteinsPromote chemical reactions-enzyme (remember function speed up chemical reaction)
73 Proteins Antibodies-help fight off infections HELP CELL TO BUILD NEW CELL PARTSAntibodies-help fight off infectionsHelp muscle to contract (Make body movement possible)
74 Sources of Proteineggs, milk, fish, poultry, and meat
75 Nucleic AcidNucleotides (building blocks) join together to create nucleic acids2 Types: DNA and RNAStores and transmits hereditary informationDNA-MAP OF INDIVIDUALPlay a role in the manufacture of proteins that express our traits (eye color, hair color and height)
77 Importance of Macromolecules Cells could not function without macromoleculesLife would not exist without macromolecules
78 The 3 biochemical molecules found on a nutrition label are: Look at the label to the left. 3 of the 4 macromolecules can be found in foods.The 3 biochemical moleculesfound on a nutrition label are:FAT1____________________2____________________3____________________(0 grams in this product)Carbohydrates(13 grams in this product)Protein(9 grams in this product)78
79 Left-side Assignment Brace Map Draw a picture and write a description of each macromoleculeExplain why macromolecules are important?
80 Catalog the Macromolecules Use 8 ½ by 11 sheets of paper to complete the following assignment that is due on Thursday.Remember you are advertising the macromolecules so be creative and use lots of color.
81 Cataloging Macromolecules (pp.34-41) Title Page ( Title (Be creative), name, date, period, and picture)Each Macromolecule page should have the following informationName (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Nucleic Acid)Picture that reflects the macromolecules (creative)PriceReason why the cell should purchase these items (Function: what does the molecule do for the cell)Staple all together at the end.