Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: European Settlement of North America"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 2: European Settlement of North America U.S. HistoryUnit 2: European Settlement of North America
2European Settlement of North America SSUSH1: Describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century.A. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as the Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
3The First Europeans I. The Spanish and French First inhabitants (Native Americans) of North America migrated from Asia using a land bridge between Siberia and Alaskathey established the first societiesSome were advanced in art,science, technology, and agricultureFirst Europeans arrived in the15th & 16th centuries (Spain,France, Great Britain
4The First Europeans I. The Spanish and French continued The Spanish were the first to arrive, dominating much of South America, modern-day Mexico, and what eventually became the US Southwest, Florida, and parts of GeorgiaNext came the French who tookadvantage of rivers and inland waterways;made a lot of money from fur tradingObtained fur by trapping animals ortrading with IndiansDeveloped a reciprocal relationship withIndians for commerceFirst successful colony in North America wasestablished in Quebec in 1608 by Samuel deChamplain – rested on high ground along theSt. Lawrence RiverLocation was good for trading and as a militaryposition to protect interests against European rivals
5Jamestown, Virginia Jamestown became the first successful English colony in 1607Founded by a joint-stockCompany (company owned byinvestors) called the VirginiaCompany sponsored the colony and hoped to make money off the production of raw materialsThe settlers were not used to doing hard, manual labor – they came to get rich
6Jamestown, VirginiaThe settlers did not concern themselves with raising crops; they came looking for gold and other richesJamestown was in a swampy area, vulnerable to disease-carrying mosquitoesFreezing winters, infectious diseases, and starvation killed many settlers
7Jamestown, VirginiaCaptain John Smith took over the colony and forced the settlers to work – “He who does not work, shall not eat.”John Rolfe saved the colony when he discovered tobacco (“brown gold)Became extremely profitable and the colony’s chief source of incomeCreated a class of wealthy, large landownersTo attract more settlers to the colony, Virginia instituted the headright systemPromised 50 acres of land to those who settled in the colony
8Virginians and Native Americans When the British colonists arrived they found Indians living under a tribal confederation led by Chief PowhatanNative Americans initially helped the settlers survive its first winterLater 200 Native Americans attacked JamestownThe settlers used canons, then negotiated a peacePowhatan remained distrustful and watchfulMarch 1622, Powhatan’s brother,Openchancanough, led a surprise attack onJamestown killing 300 colonistsJamestown residents retaliated killing justas many IndiansOpenchancanough attacked again in 1644at age 100 and was killed
9Virginia’s Social Structure A small group of wealthy landowners exercised most of the power in each colonyIn VirginiaLandowners, poor farmers, indentured servants, slavesIndentured servants – people who could not afford to come to North America on their own; they agreed to work for a landowner for up to seven years in exchange for the landowner paying for their trip
10Virginia’s Social Structure Once indentured servants had served their 7 years, they became small landownersMore landowners caused a gradual shift further and further westIncreased conflicts with Native Americans
11Virginia’s Social Structure Nathaniel Bacon – wealthy Virginia planter and aristocratWanted Gov. Berkeley of Jamestown todeal more harshly with Native AmericansFelt Berkeley favored the richBacon’s Rebellion – Bacon rallied forces to fight Native American; then turned his small army on Jamestown burning it to the ground; Bacon’s death ended the rebellionShowed the discontent of the ordinary citizensVirginia eventually turned away from indentured servants and relied on slave labor
12Slavery Arises in Virginia Slavery a system in which people are “owned” like property.English colonists eventually viewed Africa as their most efficient source for slavesThe first Africans came in 1619 as indentured servantsThe plantation system resulted from slaveryPlantations were huge farms owned by wealthy landowners who raised cash crops (crops grown for trade and profit)Plantations required lots of manual labor
13Virginia’s Government The colonies’ distance from England led to a policy of salutary neglectEnglish government basically let the colonists govern themselvesThe colonists setup representative governments based on the rights of citizensLegislatures consisted of two houses: one an advisory council appointed by the governor, the other was a body of elected eligible voters
14Virginia’s Government 1619 Virginians established the colonies’ first elected legislative body the - House of BurgessesHelped lay a foundation for the ideas about representative government that would develop in the colonies
15Review: The First Europeans 1. The French founded Quebec mainly for what reason?A. They wanted a place in North America to raise tobacco.B. It was a good spot to wage war against the Spanish.C. It provided an excellent location for both trade and defense.D. They thought it would allow them to establish more colonies up and down the east coast.2. Which of the following best describes Jamestown?A. It was the first English colony in North America.B. The colony thrived most before tobacco was discovered.C. Colonists normally lived in peace with Native Americans.D. Slavery became less important after Bacon’s Rebellion.3. What were plantations and how did they help make slavery an important part of colonial culture?
16Southern, Middle, and New England Colonies New England colonies: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and ConnecticutMiddle colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and DelawareSouthern colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and GeorgiaSome colonies were established as royal colonies, governed direct by the king through an appointed royal governorOther colonies were proprietary or charter coloniesProprietary – colonies granted to a group of private owners for developmentCharter – colonies to which the crown granted a charter for the purpose of establishing a government
18Southern Colonies Southern Colonial Society Strong class distinctions People believed that male members of the upper class should be the ones in positions of power and authorityPublic education did not exist – some education took place in homes; wealthy used private tutors or sent their children to EuropeRich landowners remained part of the Church of EnglandMethodist and Baptist congregations became common among poorer southerners
19Southern Colonies Southern Colonial Economy Tobacco became an important cash crop for Virginia, Maryland, and North CarolinaRice and indigo were important crops for South Carolina and GeorgiaSouthern colonies also produced tar, pitch, and turpentineStaple crops (crops in large demand and provide income) such as tobacco and rice led to plantation system and more reliance on slave laborThese plantations were along waterways which were good for transporting productsAs a result, the South did not develop major centers of commerce like the North did
20European Settlement of North America SSUSH1: Describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century.B. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g. King Philip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of Massachusetts charter.
21New England ColoniesBesides wealth, people came to North America because of religious dissent (disagreement with the Anglican Church)English leaders viewed any protest or refusal to follow Anglican teachings as a betrayalMany left to escape persecutionPuritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church and have a community built on “pure biblical teaching”In 1620 Puritans, called Pilgrims established a colony in Plymouth, MA (celebrated first Thanksgiving in 1621)Another group of Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony
22New England Colonies New England’s Colonial Economy Didn’t raise cash cropsRelied on the Atlantic OceanLeading industries were shipbuilding, trade, and fishingTransported goods from England and the West IndiesAcquired sugarcane, molasses, rum in that they traded for African slavesBoston, MA became a major urban centerHad small farms for self-sufficiency
23New England Colonies New England Education Puritans had strong sense of faith, family, and community and were the first British colonists to promote public educationWanted everyone to be able to read the BibleIn 1647, Massachusetts passed laws requiring public schools for towns of 50 families or moreTowns of 100+ had to establish grammar schools to prepare boys for collegeGirls were trained in “womanly duties” at home and did not usually go to schoolNew England founded the nation’s earliest colleges: Harvard and Yale (to train ministers)
24New England Colonies New England Government Mayflower Compact defined New England’s first efforts at self-governmentDocument was drafted while the Puritans (Pilgrims) were still on board the Mayflower shipEstablished an elected legislature and said the government derived its power from the peopleWanted rule by local government not EnglandUsed town meetings where local, tax-paying citizens met to discuss and vote on issuesEstablished democratic idealsPuritan beliefs meant power rested in the hands of church leaders
25New England Colonies Religion and Dissent Puritan church was central part of life in New EnglandIn Massachusetts every settler had to attend and support the Puritan churchDissenters were often banished from the colonyRoger Williams and Anne Hutchison both left Massachusetts because they disagreed with teachings of the Puritan ChurchFounded Rhode IslandThomas Hooker left Mass. and founded Connecticut in 1636, he wrote the Fundamental Orders of ConnecticutStated that the government’s power came on from the “free consent of the people”Massachusetts lost is charter in 1684 and became a royal colony in 1691
26New England Colonies The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trials Puritans established the Half-way Covenant to allow the offspring of early Puritans to stay in the church without undergoing “conversion experiences”Children and grandchildren only needed to be baptized to be partial membersIn 1692, commitment to protect the Puritan faith led to the Salem Witch TrialsYoung girls were accused of being witches and put to deathAlso affected independent-minded women
27New England Colonies New Englanders and Native Americans First interactions were peacefulSeries of wars broke out as settlers continued to move west, pushing Native Americans off their land1675, Metacom (“King Philip”) united Native Americas in New England unsuccessfully against English settlersKing Philip’s War: nearly 2000 colonists killed; Metacom was forced to retreat and was killed in Rhode IslandEnglish colonists gained firmer control over area
28European Settlement of North America SSUSH1: Describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century.C. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam, and English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania
29Middle ColoniesCulturally diverse – settled by other nationalities (Dutch, Swedes, etc.)Mid-Colonial EconomyDepended on farming and commerceRaised staple crops like wheat, barley, ryeHad urban centers such as New York and Philadelphia – important ports for shipping productsFew slaves; had a fur tradeHad an economic relationship with Natives
30Middle Colonies Diversity in the Middle Colonies William Penn founded Pennsylvania as a homeland and haven for QuakersDid not recognize class differences, promoted equality of the sexes, pacifists, dealt fairly with Native AmericansBelieved in religious tolerance: attracted German Lutherans, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, and Swiss MennonitesNew York was founded as a Dutch colonyJews and Christians made New York homeSocial order emergedUpper class: merchants (foreign trade)Middle class: craftsmen, retailers, businessmenLower class: sailors, unskilled workers, some artisans
31Middle Colonies From “New Amsterdam” to New York Dutch (Europeans form the Netherlands) originally settled the area known as New York – calling it New Netherland, establishing a trading post at New AmsterdamBuilt a successful trading industryArea was taken from the Dutch by England in 1664 when King Charles II put his brother, the Duke of York, in chargeArea renamed New York
32Review: Southern, Middle, and New England Colonies 1. Historians traditionally divide the original thirteen English colonies into which of the following categories?A. North, West, East, and SouthB. North, Middle, SouthC. New England, Middle, SouthernD. New England, Middle, Plantation2. Which colonial region was most known for plantations, large numbers of slaves, and the production of rice and tobacco?A. New England C. MiddleB. Southern D. Atlantic
33Review: Southern, Middle, and New England Colonies 3. In what ways were the motivations for founding the southern colonies different from those for founding the New England colonies? How did these differences affect the practice of religion in each region?4. What factors led to the middle colonies being more diverse than the New England and southern colonies?5. Explain the importance of New Amsterdam and describe how it came to be know as New York.
34European Settlement of North America SSUSH2: Trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.A. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade.B. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture.
35Colonial Culture Slavery and African Americans The Atlantic Slave TradePortugal established the slave trade in the 15th centuryGrew drastically from the 15th to the 19th centuries, ending the 1800sWhen Portuguese arrived in Africa, African Kingdoms sold their POWs intoslavery to other Africans and to foreignersPortuguese tapped into the system, shipping slaves to the Americas
36Slavery and African Americans Soon the Dutch, British, Spanish, and French joined the slave tradeSlave ships carried millions of Africans to the AmericasThey arrived via the Middle Passage – route taken by ships carrying slaves from Africa to North AmericaThe Middle Passage the middle leg of the “triangular trade” (Europe, Africa, the Americas)
38Colonial African American Culture Africans came from many different cultures within AfricaSpoke different languages, had different religious beliefs, different traditionsAdopted aspects of Christian religion mixed with their African traditionsRegional differences determined work of slavesSouth – worked on plantationsNorth – worked as artisansSome slaves bought their freedom, others were freed by masters, others escaped and began maroon settlements – communities formed in frontier areas by escaped slaves
39European Settlement of North America SSUSH2: Trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.C. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility.
40Individualism and Social Mobility Many Europeans came to North America for social mobility (moving from one social status to another)In the colonies land was abundantIndentured servants could eventually own land, earn the right to voteEvery individual could work hard and advance – individualismLed to universal suffrage for white males and democracy
41Individualism and Social Mobility Benjamin FranklinInventor, scientist, writer, ambassador, founding fatherExample of individualism and social mobilityNot born in the upper classParents could not afford to educate himQuit school at 10, became an apprentice in his older brother’s print shopBuilt a fortune as a writer, inventor, scientistAs a political theorist he became very respected in governmentUsed his natural abilities, hard work, and creativity to climb the social ladder
42European Settlement of North America SSUSH2: Trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.D. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.
43Religious Expression First Great Awakening Religious movement that featured passionate preaching from evangelists like Jonathan Edwards and George WhitfieldBelieved colonists had forsaken GodWanted to “awaken” religious feelings through the use of revivalsEncouraged colonists to think for themselves on religious mattersEnsured principles like freedom of religion and separation of church and state
44Mercantilism and Trade Mercantilism – countries grow wealthier and maintain their national security by consistently exporting more than they importWanted to maintain a “favorable balance of trade” (export more than the import)Needed the colonies for additional resources and marketsShipped colonies’ products and raw materials to England and the West Indies (trans-Atlantic trade)England passed Navigation Acts in 1660 which required British colonies to sell certain goods only to EnglandProducts sold to other countries were charged a British duty (tax)Colonists did not like the policies and traded illegally
45Review: Colonial Culture 1. The colonial business in which Europeans transported African slaves to America and sold them to white slave owners was called what?A. mercantilism C. individualismB. triangular trade route D. the Atlantic slave trade2. Which of the following is true regarding African Americans in the American colonies?A. Most of them were slaves who gained freedom after 7 yrs. of service.B. They came to America from a variety of different backgrounds.C. They were all slaves because the law prevented blacks from ever being free.D. Most enjoyed a great amount of social mobility in the colonies.
46Review: Colonial Culture 3. Define “individualism” and “social mobility.” How was Benjamin Franklin an example of each?4. What was mercantilism and why did nations that believed it want colonies?