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Unit 2: European Settlement of North America

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1 Unit 2: European Settlement of North America
U.S. History Unit 2: European Settlement of North America

2 European Settlement of North America
SSUSH1: Describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. A. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as the Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.

3 The First Europeans I. The Spanish and French
First inhabitants (Native Americans) of North America migrated from Asia using a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska they established the first societies Some were advanced in art, science, technology, and agriculture First Europeans arrived in the 15th & 16th centuries (Spain, France, Great Britain

4 The First Europeans I. The Spanish and French continued
The Spanish were the first to arrive, dominating much of South America, modern-day Mexico, and what eventually became the US Southwest, Florida, and parts of Georgia Next came the French who took advantage of rivers and inland waterways; made a lot of money from fur trading Obtained fur by trapping animals or trading with Indians Developed a reciprocal relationship with Indians for commerce First successful colony in North America was established in Quebec in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain – rested on high ground along the St. Lawrence River Location was good for trading and as a military position to protect interests against European rivals

5 Jamestown, Virginia Jamestown became the first
successful English colony in 1607 Founded by a joint-stock Company (company owned by investors) called the Virginia Company sponsored the colony and hoped to make money off the production of raw materials The settlers were not used to doing hard, manual labor – they came to get rich

6 Jamestown, Virginia The settlers did not concern themselves with raising crops; they came looking for gold and other riches Jamestown was in a swampy area, vulnerable to disease-carrying mosquitoes Freezing winters, infectious diseases, and starvation killed many settlers

7 Jamestown, Virginia Captain John Smith took over the colony and forced the settlers to work – “He who does not work, shall not eat.” John Rolfe saved the colony when he discovered tobacco (“brown gold) Became extremely profitable and the colony’s chief source of income Created a class of wealthy, large landowners To attract more settlers to the colony, Virginia instituted the headright system Promised 50 acres of land to those who settled in the colony

8 Virginians and Native Americans
When the British colonists arrived they found Indians living under a tribal confederation led by Chief Powhatan Native Americans initially helped the settlers survive its first winter Later 200 Native Americans attacked Jamestown The settlers used canons, then negotiated a peace Powhatan remained distrustful and watchful March 1622, Powhatan’s brother, Openchancanough, led a surprise attack on Jamestown killing 300 colonists Jamestown residents retaliated killing just as many Indians Openchancanough attacked again in 1644 at age 100 and was killed

9 Virginia’s Social Structure
A small group of wealthy landowners exercised most of the power in each colony In Virginia Landowners, poor farmers, indentured servants, slaves Indentured servants – people who could not afford to come to North America on their own; they agreed to work for a landowner for up to seven years in exchange for the landowner paying for their trip

10 Virginia’s Social Structure
Once indentured servants had served their 7 years, they became small landowners More landowners caused a gradual shift further and further west Increased conflicts with Native Americans

11 Virginia’s Social Structure
Nathaniel Bacon – wealthy Virginia planter and aristocrat Wanted Gov. Berkeley of Jamestown to deal more harshly with Native Americans Felt Berkeley favored the rich Bacon’s Rebellion – Bacon rallied forces to fight Native American; then turned his small army on Jamestown burning it to the ground; Bacon’s death ended the rebellion Showed the discontent of the ordinary citizens Virginia eventually turned away from indentured servants and relied on slave labor

12 Slavery Arises in Virginia
Slavery a system in which people are “owned” like property. English colonists eventually viewed Africa as their most efficient source for slaves The first Africans came in 1619 as indentured servants The plantation system resulted from slavery Plantations were huge farms owned by wealthy landowners who raised cash crops (crops grown for trade and profit) Plantations required lots of manual labor

13 Virginia’s Government
The colonies’ distance from England led to a policy of salutary neglect English government basically let the colonists govern themselves The colonists setup representative governments based on the rights of citizens Legislatures consisted of two houses: one an advisory council appointed by the governor, the other was a body of elected eligible voters

14 Virginia’s Government
1619 Virginians established the colonies’ first elected legislative body the - House of Burgesses Helped lay a foundation for the ideas about representative government that would develop in the colonies

15 Review: The First Europeans
1. The French founded Quebec mainly for what reason? A. They wanted a place in North America to raise tobacco. B. It was a good spot to wage war against the Spanish. C. It provided an excellent location for both trade and defense. D. They thought it would allow them to establish more colonies up and down the east coast. 2. Which of the following best describes Jamestown? A. It was the first English colony in North America. B. The colony thrived most before tobacco was discovered. C. Colonists normally lived in peace with Native Americans. D. Slavery became less important after Bacon’s Rebellion. 3. What were plantations and how did they help make slavery an important part of colonial culture?

16 Southern, Middle, and New England Colonies
New England colonies: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut Middle colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware Southern colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia Some colonies were established as royal colonies, governed direct by the king through an appointed royal governor Other colonies were proprietary or charter colonies Proprietary – colonies granted to a group of private owners for development Charter – colonies to which the crown granted a charter for the purpose of establishing a government

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18 Southern Colonies Southern Colonial Society Strong class distinctions
People believed that male members of the upper class should be the ones in positions of power and authority Public education did not exist – some education took place in homes; wealthy used private tutors or sent their children to Europe Rich landowners remained part of the Church of England Methodist and Baptist congregations became common among poorer southerners

19 Southern Colonies Southern Colonial Economy
Tobacco became an important cash crop for Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina Rice and indigo were important crops for South Carolina and Georgia Southern colonies also produced tar, pitch, and turpentine Staple crops (crops in large demand and provide income) such as tobacco and rice led to plantation system and more reliance on slave labor These plantations were along waterways which were good for transporting products As a result, the South did not develop major centers of commerce like the North did

20 European Settlement of North America
SSUSH1: Describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. B. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g. King Philip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of Massachusetts charter.

21 New England Colonies Besides wealth, people came to North America because of religious dissent (disagreement with the Anglican Church) English leaders viewed any protest or refusal to follow Anglican teachings as a betrayal Many left to escape persecution Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church and have a community built on “pure biblical teaching” In 1620 Puritans, called Pilgrims established a colony in Plymouth, MA (celebrated first Thanksgiving in 1621) Another group of Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony

22 New England Colonies New England’s Colonial Economy
Didn’t raise cash crops Relied on the Atlantic Ocean Leading industries were shipbuilding, trade, and fishing Transported goods from England and the West Indies Acquired sugarcane, molasses, rum in that they traded for African slaves Boston, MA became a major urban center Had small farms for self-sufficiency

23 New England Colonies New England Education
Puritans had strong sense of faith, family, and community and were the first British colonists to promote public education Wanted everyone to be able to read the Bible In 1647, Massachusetts passed laws requiring public schools for towns of 50 families or more Towns of 100+ had to establish grammar schools to prepare boys for college Girls were trained in “womanly duties” at home and did not usually go to school New England founded the nation’s earliest colleges: Harvard and Yale (to train ministers)

24 New England Colonies New England Government
Mayflower Compact defined New England’s first efforts at self-government Document was drafted while the Puritans (Pilgrims) were still on board the Mayflower ship Established an elected legislature and said the government derived its power from the people Wanted rule by local government not England Used town meetings where local, tax-paying citizens met to discuss and vote on issues Established democratic ideals Puritan beliefs meant power rested in the hands of church leaders

25 New England Colonies Religion and Dissent
Puritan church was central part of life in New England In Massachusetts every settler had to attend and support the Puritan church Dissenters were often banished from the colony Roger Williams and Anne Hutchison both left Massachusetts because they disagreed with teachings of the Puritan Church Founded Rhode Island Thomas Hooker left Mass. and founded Connecticut in 1636, he wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Stated that the government’s power came on from the “free consent of the people” Massachusetts lost is charter in 1684 and became a royal colony in 1691

26 New England Colonies The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trials
Puritans established the Half-way Covenant to allow the offspring of early Puritans to stay in the church without undergoing “conversion experiences” Children and grandchildren only needed to be baptized to be partial members In 1692, commitment to protect the Puritan faith led to the Salem Witch Trials Young girls were accused of being witches and put to death Also affected independent-minded women

27 New England Colonies New Englanders and Native Americans
First interactions were peaceful Series of wars broke out as settlers continued to move west, pushing Native Americans off their land 1675, Metacom (“King Philip”) united Native Americas in New England unsuccessfully against English settlers King Philip’s War: nearly 2000 colonists killed; Metacom was forced to retreat and was killed in Rhode Island English colonists gained firmer control over area

28 European Settlement of North America
SSUSH1: Describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. C. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam, and English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania

29 Middle Colonies Culturally diverse – settled by other nationalities (Dutch, Swedes, etc.) Mid-Colonial Economy Depended on farming and commerce Raised staple crops like wheat, barley, rye Had urban centers such as New York and Philadelphia – important ports for shipping products Few slaves; had a fur trade Had an economic relationship with Natives

30 Middle Colonies Diversity in the Middle Colonies
William Penn founded Pennsylvania as a homeland and haven for Quakers Did not recognize class differences, promoted equality of the sexes, pacifists, dealt fairly with Native Americans Believed in religious tolerance: attracted German Lutherans, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, and Swiss Mennonites New York was founded as a Dutch colony Jews and Christians made New York home Social order emerged Upper class: merchants (foreign trade) Middle class: craftsmen, retailers, businessmen Lower class: sailors, unskilled workers, some artisans

31 Middle Colonies From “New Amsterdam” to New York
Dutch (Europeans form the Netherlands) originally settled the area known as New York – calling it New Netherland, establishing a trading post at New Amsterdam Built a successful trading industry Area was taken from the Dutch by England in 1664 when King Charles II put his brother, the Duke of York, in charge Area renamed New York

32 Review: Southern, Middle, and New England Colonies
1. Historians traditionally divide the original thirteen English colonies into which of the following categories? A. North, West, East, and South B. North, Middle, South C. New England, Middle, Southern D. New England, Middle, Plantation 2. Which colonial region was most known for plantations, large numbers of slaves, and the production of rice and tobacco? A. New England C. Middle B. Southern D. Atlantic

33 Review: Southern, Middle, and New England Colonies
3. In what ways were the motivations for founding the southern colonies different from those for founding the New England colonies? How did these differences affect the practice of religion in each region? 4. What factors led to the middle colonies being more diverse than the New England and southern colonies? 5. Explain the importance of New Amsterdam and describe how it came to be know as New York.

34 European Settlement of North America
SSUSH2: Trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed. A. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade. B. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture.

35 Colonial Culture Slavery and African Americans
The Atlantic Slave Trade Portugal established the slave trade in the 15th century Grew drastically from the 15th to the 19th centuries, ending the 1800s When Portuguese arrived in Africa, African Kingdoms sold their POWs into slavery to other Africans and to foreigners Portuguese tapped into the system, shipping slaves to the Americas

36 Slavery and African Americans
Soon the Dutch, British, Spanish, and French joined the slave trade Slave ships carried millions of Africans to the Americas They arrived via the Middle Passage – route taken by ships carrying slaves from Africa to North America The Middle Passage the middle leg of the “triangular trade” (Europe, Africa, the Americas)

37 The Atlantic Slave Trade

38 Colonial African American Culture
Africans came from many different cultures within Africa Spoke different languages, had different religious beliefs, different traditions Adopted aspects of Christian religion mixed with their African traditions Regional differences determined work of slaves South – worked on plantations North – worked as artisans Some slaves bought their freedom, others were freed by masters, others escaped and began maroon settlements – communities formed in frontier areas by escaped slaves

39 European Settlement of North America
SSUSH2: Trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed. C. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility.

40 Individualism and Social Mobility
Many Europeans came to North America for social mobility (moving from one social status to another) In the colonies land was abundant Indentured servants could eventually own land, earn the right to vote Every individual could work hard and advance – individualism Led to universal suffrage for white males and democracy

41 Individualism and Social Mobility
Benjamin Franklin Inventor, scientist, writer, ambassador, founding father Example of individualism and social mobility Not born in the upper class Parents could not afford to educate him Quit school at 10, became an apprentice in his older brother’s print shop Built a fortune as a writer, inventor, scientist As a political theorist he became very respected in government Used his natural abilities, hard work, and creativity to climb the social ladder

42 European Settlement of North America
SSUSH2: Trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed. D. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.

43 Religious Expression First Great Awakening
Religious movement that featured passionate preaching from evangelists like Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield Believed colonists had forsaken God Wanted to “awaken” religious feelings through the use of revivals Encouraged colonists to think for themselves on religious matters Ensured principles like freedom of religion and separation of church and state

44 Mercantilism and Trade
Mercantilism – countries grow wealthier and maintain their national security by consistently exporting more than they import Wanted to maintain a “favorable balance of trade” (export more than the import) Needed the colonies for additional resources and markets Shipped colonies’ products and raw materials to England and the West Indies (trans-Atlantic trade) England passed Navigation Acts in 1660 which required British colonies to sell certain goods only to England Products sold to other countries were charged a British duty (tax) Colonists did not like the policies and traded illegally

45 Review: Colonial Culture
1. The colonial business in which Europeans transported African slaves to America and sold them to white slave owners was called what? A. mercantilism C. individualism B. triangular trade route D. the Atlantic slave trade 2. Which of the following is true regarding African Americans in the American colonies? A. Most of them were slaves who gained freedom after 7 yrs. of service. B. They came to America from a variety of different backgrounds. C. They were all slaves because the law prevented blacks from ever being free. D. Most enjoyed a great amount of social mobility in the colonies.

46 Review: Colonial Culture
3. Define “individualism” and “social mobility.” How was Benjamin Franklin an example of each? 4. What was mercantilism and why did nations that believed it want colonies?


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