Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: What are the similarities & differences among the Spanish, French, Dutch, & British patterns of colonization in America? CPUSH Agenda."— Presentation transcript:
1 Essential Question:What are the similarities & differences among the Spanish, French, Dutch, & British patterns of colonization in America?CPUSH Agenda for Unit 1.1:Clicker preview questions“Compare the Spanish, French, Dutch, & British colonies” notesToday’s HW: 2.1Unit 1 Test: Friday, August 19
2 TitleClass Discussion: What was North America like before the “discovery” of America by Columbus in 1492?
3 Cherokee farming village Before the arrival of Europeans, North America was dominated by diverse Indian groupsIn the East, Indians like the Iroquois, Powhatans, & Cherokee were settled into farming villagesCherokee farming villageIroquois farmers
4 The “jump-kill” technique drove buffalo off cliffs Before the arrival of Europeans, North America was dominated by diverse Indian groupsIn the central plains, Indians like the Sioux & Cheyenne hunted buffalo using mass-hunting techniquesThe “jump-kill” technique drove buffalo off cliffs
5 The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan Before the arrival of Europeans, North America was dominated by diverse Indian groupsIn central America, the Aztecs formed a powerful empire & dominated surrounding IndiansThe Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan
6 European explorers found new trade routes & formed overseas colonies During the Renaissance, a desire for new trade routes to Asia led to an Age of ExplorationEuropean explorers found new trade routes & formed overseas coloniesChristopher Columbus’ “discovery” of America in 1492 transformed the future of American Indians & Europeans
7 The arrival of Europeans led to the introduction of new products between Indians & Europeans called the Columbian ExchangeTraffic across the Atlantic did not flow in just one direction, however.Europeans introduced various livestock animals into the Americas. Theseincluded horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Foods from Africa (including some thatoriginated in Asia) migrated west in European ships. They included bananas,black-eyed peas, and yams. Grains introduced to the Americas included wheat,rice, barley, and oats.Some aspects of the Columbian Exchange had a tragic impact on many NativeAmericans. Disease was just as much a part of the Columbian Exchange asgoods and food. The diseases Europeans brought with them, which includedsmallpox and measles, led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans.
8 The introduction of potatoes & corn helped improve the diets & life expectancy of people throughout the worldThe introduction of European grains, horses, & cattle transformed many Indian culturesThe introduction of European diseases like smallpox & influenza killed as many as 90% of Native AmericasTraffic across the Atlantic did not flow in just one direction, however.Europeans introduced various livestock animals into the Americas. Theseincluded horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Foods from Africa (including some thatoriginated in Asia) migrated west in European ships. They included bananas,black-eyed peas, and yams. Grains introduced to the Americas included wheat,rice, barley, and oats.Some aspects of the Columbian Exchange had a tragic impact on many NativeAmericans. Disease was just as much a part of the Columbian Exchange asgoods and food. The diseases Europeans brought with them, which includedsmallpox and measles, led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans.
9 Cortez conquered the Aztecs Spain sent explorers called conquistadors to the New World to find gold & conquer landsCortez conquered the AztecsSpain sent explorers to the New World to find gold, claim land, & spread ChristianityCortez conquered Mexico & destroyed the Aztec civilizationPizarro conquered Peru & destroyed the Incan civilizationPizarro conquered the IncaGold from America increased Spain’s wealth & power
10 The success of the Spanish colonies encouraged other European powers to form permanent colonies in North America
11 --Bartolome de las Casas Use these documents to guess what the Spanish colonies in North America were like“I find it confounding to attempt to Christianize the native peoples, and then, when we have done so, to make slaves of them on our estates. In God’s name is that any way to treat Christians?”--Bartolome de las CasasSpanish peninsulare
12 Spanish conquistadors searched for gold & silver In the 1600s & 1700s, Spain dominated Central & South Americas and the SE & SW regions of North AmericaSpanish conquistadors searched for gold & silverSpain converting Indians to Catholicism & created missions in AmericaWhy did the Spanish colonize in America?Red = Spanish missions
13 The King of Spain who sent viceroys to strictly govern the colonies (Colonists could not vote & had few freedoms)
14 The economy of the Spanish colonies was based on mining gold & silver (bullion)… … & haciendas (plantations) using the encomienda system of Indian workers to farm cash crops like sugarEconomy: Desire for wealthUsed Indian & African slave labor to mine gold & silverBuilt encomiendas (plantations) to farm cash crops
15 Spanish colonial society was strictly controlled Viceroys (royal governors) had power & were at the top of societyWhite Spanish colonists (creoles) had land & wealthThe lack of colonial women led to intermarriages between white colonists & Indians (mixed-race Indians were mestizos)Native Indians & African slaves made up the bottom of colonial society
16 Use these documents to guess what the French colonies in North America were like
17 Why did the French colonize in America? In the 1600s, French explorer Samuel de Champlain failed to find a NW passage through Canada but created the French colony of QuebecFrance claimed land from Canada to New Orleans & controlled territory along the Mississippi RiverWhy did the French colonize in America?
18 Yellow = French missions Like Spain, the French colonists focused on wealth & converting Indians to CatholicismYellow = French missions
19 Most French colonists profited from the fur trade, small-scale farming, or lumbering Because the French needed furs, they were the most friendly with the local Indians……French colonists had to be Catholic & few people immigrated to AmericaLike the Spanish colonies, the French colonial gov’ts were strictly controlled by the King of France who ruled via royal governors
20 Use these documents to guess what the Dutch colonies in North America were like
21 Why did the Dutch colonize in America? The Dutch created a colony in present-day New York City called New Amsterdam that became New NetherlandNew Amsterdam was created by private investors of a joint-stock company who hoped to profit from trade in AmericaWhy did the Dutch colonize in America?To attract settlers, the Dutch gov’t allowed anyone, regardless of religion or nation, to immigrate & granted political freedom to their colonists…...As a result, New Netherland was one of the most free & diverse colonies in America
22 Use these documents to guess what the British colonies in North America were like
23 British colonists came to America for a wide variety of reasons: Like the Dutch, the British settled in America through joint-stock companies of private investorsBritish colonists came to America for a wide variety of reasons:Some colonists came to America to escape poverty, gain wealth, or gain landSome came for religious freedom & to flee religious persecutionSome colonists came to escape violence during the English Civil War
24 As a result, the British colonies were very different from each other & were never very unified
25 …Royal governors were sent by the king, but they had little power Britain developed a policy called salutary neglect that allowed colonists could create local laws & taxes in colonial assemblies……Royal governors were sent by the king, but they had little power
26 The societies & economies of the British colonies were dependent upon the reasons people settled Unlike the Spanish & French, the British colonists never tried hard to convert, marry, or trade with local Indians, although conflicts over land were commonNew England colonies, like Massachusetts, were closely connected by religion & families with an economy based largely on subsistence farmingSouthern colonies, like Virginia, had cash crop economies, large gaps between rich & poor farmers, & slave labor
27 Closure ActivityTo review the Spanish, French, Dutch, & British colonies, students will be presented with a series of “potential immigrants” to North America.For each “potential immigrant”Determine the best colonial region for that person to move toGive a brief explanation that supports your decisionThis activity would work well with student pairs or groups of three
28 Potential Immigrant #1: A poor, unmarried man looking to make his fortune
29 Potential Immigrant #2: A person with very religious beliefs
30 Potential Immigrant #3: A woman looking for new opportunities in America
31 Potential Immigrant #4: A person looking for political freedom & the ability help make laws
32 Potential Immigrant #5: A Native American looking for freedom from European control
33 Potential Immigrant #6: A person who enjoys living “where the action is” (a place where something exciting is always happening)
34 Potential Immigrant #7: A father looking for safety & security for his family
35 Potential Immigrant #8: An entrepreneur looking for a location to open a business specializing in shipping
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.