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Night 1 – Tuesday February 10, 2015 Session I An Overview of Management and Leadership.

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1 Night 1 – Tuesday February 10, 2015 Session I An Overview of Management and Leadership

2 Management The process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. It characterizes the process of planning, leading, and directing all or part of an organization, through the deployment or manipulation of resources.

3 Leadership Leadership is the ability to influence others towards the achievement of goals

4 Leadership and Management Leadership may sound like another name for management, but the terms are generally viewed as distinct. Management aims to give consistency and order to organizations; leadership seeks to provide constructive and adaptive change. Management is directed toward coordinating activities in order to get the job done; leadership is concerned with the process of developing mutual purposes. Management relies more on a one-way authority relationship, while leadership relies more on a multidirectional influence relationship. “Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right things.”

5 Three Competences of Leadership Diagnosing – Understanding the situation you are trying to influence Adapting – Altering your behavior and the other resources you have available to meet the contingencies of the situation Communicating – Interacting with others in a way that people can easily understand and accept

6 The Need for Management Skills The Need for Management Skills Managerial Skills and Life Success Managerial Skills and Hiring Managerial Skills in the New Work Environment

7 The 16 Basic Skills Employees Need Knowing How to Learn Reading Writing Mathematics Listening Oral Communication Problem Solving Creative Thinking Self-Confidence Motivational Goal Setting Personal and Career Development Interpersonal Skills Negotiation Teamwork Organizational Effectiveness Leadership

8 Managerial Skills in the New Work Environment Demand for Managerial Skills Entrepreneurship Downsizing and Delayering Job Enrichment and Empowerment Self-Managed Work Teams Hiring for the Second Job Growth in Management Positions

9 Managerial Skills Sets Technical skills include knowledge about methods, processes, and techniques needed to carry out some specialized activity as well as the ability to use tools and equipment related to the activity. Human skills deal with human behavior and interpersonal processes, communication, cooperation, and social sensitivity. Conceptual skills include analytical ability, creativity, efficiency in problem solving, and ability to recognize opportunities and potential problems. Thus, the typology distinguishes between abilities to deal with things, people, and ideas and concepts.

10 Management Skills Needed for Success by Organizational Level Conceptual Human Technical Top-Level Managers Middle-Level Managers First-Level Managers

11 Night 1 – Tuesday February 10, 2015 Session II Motivation and Behavior and Theories of Motivation

12 Fundamentals of Motivation Motivation comes from the Latin movere, “to move” Motivation requires: – *Initiation (arousal to initiate behavior toward a goal) – *Inclination (direction to properly focus that behavior) – *Industriousness (persistence to ultimately attain the goal) The motivation “toolkit” contains: – content or need theories to help us understand what people want – process theories to understand the motivation process

13 The Relationship of Motivation to Performance Motivation Performance Ability Situation

14 Understanding Employee Needs A need is something that people require. Satisfaction is the condition of need fulfillment Motivation is the attempt to satisfy a need.

15 The Need Satisfaction Process Need Deficiency Search for Potential Need- Satisfying Goal Perception of Potential Need- Satisfying Goal Attempt to Attain Goal Goal Attainment or Frustration

16 Some Theories Of Motivation Need (or Content) Theories – Maslow’s Need Hierarchy – Alderfer’s ERG Theory – McClelland’s Manifest Needs Process Theories – Learning Theory – Goal Setting Theory – Equity Theory – Expectancy Theory

17 Maslow’s Needs Physiological: the need for food, sleep, water, air, and sex Security: the need for safety, family, stability, and economic security Social or affiliation: the need to belong, to interact with others, to have friends, and to love and be loved Esteem: the need for respect and recognition of others Self-actualization: the need to realize one’s potential, to grow, to be creative, and to accomplish

18 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Self- Actualization Esteem Social Security Physiological Satisfaction Progression

19 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

20 Maslow’s Hypotheses Needs cluster into five sets Needs at the lowest unsatisfied level are most salient A satisfied need is not a motivator There is a hierarchy of successive prepotency -- once needs at a given level are satisfied, those at the next higher level become most important

21 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Criticisms overly simplistic ignores the intensity of needs ordering of needs may not be consistent across cultures

22 Evidence Concerning Maslow’s Need Hierarchy People do have a variety of needs which vary in levels of satisfaction and importance. Satisfaction of lower level needs is generally necessary before higher level needs become more important. Other than this, people don’t move up the hierarchy in any predictable fashion. It appears that people have two or three distinct sets of needs, not five. For higher level needs, satisfaction and importance are positively related.

23 Alderfer’s Sets of Needs (ERG) Existence -- all forms of material and physical desires (Physiological and Safety needs) Relatedness -- all needs involving relationships with significant other persons (Social needs) Growth -- All needs involving a person making creative and productive efforts on the self and the environment (Esteem and Self-Actualization needs)

24 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs Frustration Regression Satisfaction Progression

25 Differences Between Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Alderfer’s ERG Theory Alderfer collapses Maslow’s five levels into three Alderfer says growth need strength is positively related to growth need satisfaction Alderfer sees a hierarchy only in terms of increasing abstractness Alderfer recognizes frustration regression as well as satisfaction progression

26 McClelland’s Manifest Needs Need for Achievement: The need to do well no matter what goal is pursued. Need for Affiliation: The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people. Need for Power: The desire to control other people, to influence their behavior, and to be responsible for them.

27 Characteristics of Individuals with Strong Need for Achievement Desire to attain goals. Desire for personal responsibility. Desire for quick feedback on performance.

28 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene factors Motivators: The job itself (affect willingness) – Achievement, Recognition for accomplishment, Challenging work, Increased responsibility, and Growth and development Hygiene factors: The environment (affect ability) – Policies and administration, Supervisions, Working conditions, Interpersonal relations, and Money, status, and security

29 The Bottom Line: Need Theories Assess Employee Needs Assess Employee Needs Identify the Most Active Needs of Employees Identify the Most Active Needs of Employees Develop Specific Strategies to Satisfy Active Employee Needs Develop Specific Strategies to Satisfy Active Employee Needs Implement Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate the Plan Evaluate the Plan

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