Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OFF WITH HIS HEAD. LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY The motto of the French Revolution The motto of the French Revolution.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OFF WITH HIS HEAD. LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY The motto of the French Revolution The motto of the French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OFF WITH HIS HEAD

2 LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY The motto of the French Revolution The motto of the French Revolution

3 Revolution of Politics The era of revolutions began in North America in 1775 The era of revolutions began in North America in 1775 No country felt the consequences of the American Revolution more than France No country felt the consequences of the American Revolution more than France The French government gave direct aid to the American Colonies – both financially and militarily The French government gave direct aid to the American Colonies – both financially and militarily Hundreds of French officers served in America and were inspired by the experience Hundreds of French officers served in America and were inspired by the experience

4 Revolution of politics The most famous of these officers was the young and impressionable, Marquis de Lafayette. The most famous of these officers was the young and impressionable, Marquis de Lafayette. His initial reasoning for fighting in the American Revolution was only to fight against Frances traditional enemy, Great Britain. His initial reasoning for fighting in the American Revolution was only to fight against Frances traditional enemy, Great Britain. He returned with a love of liberty and very firm republican convictions. He returned with a love of liberty and very firm republican convictions. The American Revolution undeniably hastened the upheaval in France The American Revolution undeniably hastened the upheaval in France

5 Marquis de Lafayette

6 Revolution of Politics The French Revolution, however, was no mirror of the American one. The French Revolution, however, was no mirror of the American one. It was more radical and more complex It was more radical and more complex For Europeans, it was the great revolution of the 18 th century For Europeans, it was the great revolution of the 18 th century It was THE revolution that opened the modern era in politics It was THE revolution that opened the modern era in politics

7 CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Like the American Revolution, the immediate origins are found in the financial difficulties of the government Like the American Revolution, the immediate origins are found in the financial difficulties of the government It began in the reign of Louis XV ( ) It began in the reign of Louis XV ( )

8 CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION The ministers of Louis XV had tried to raise taxes The ministers of Louis XV had tried to raise taxes But the courts and widespread public opposition stopped the effort But the courts and widespread public opposition stopped the effort In 1776 the money to help finance the American Revolution had to be found by borrowing In 1776 the money to help finance the American Revolution had to be found by borrowing By the 1780s 50% of Frances annual budget went for interest payments on the increasing debt By the 1780s 50% of Frances annual budget went for interest payments on the increasing debt

9 Financial Difficulties 25% went to maintain the military 25% went to maintain the military 6% went to pay the costs of a very extravagant king, Louis XVI, and his court at Versailles 6% went to pay the costs of a very extravagant king, Louis XVI, and his court at Versailles <20% was available for administrative functions. <20% was available for administrative functions. Could not declare bankruptcy, could not print money, no paper currency, no central bank, no means of creating credit Could not declare bankruptcy, could not print money, no paper currency, no central bank, no means of creating credit WHAT TO DO????? WHAT TO DO?????

10 Louis XVI

11 Marie-Antoinette Marie-Antoinette Queen of France Queen of France Princess of Austria Princess of Austria

12 Marie-Antoinette

13 The Effects The financial crisis created a huge inflation and a rise in prices. The financial crisis created a huge inflation and a rise in prices. It created great distress, with the peasants. It created great distress, with the peasants. landlords began raising fees on the peasantry when they saw their purchasing power decrease. landlords began raising fees on the peasantry when they saw their purchasing power decrease. By 1789, over 80 percent of an average peasant's household income went to purchasing bread alonejust bread. By 1789, over 80 percent of an average peasant's household income went to purchasing bread alonejust bread. In that same year, unemployment in many parts of France was over 50%. In that same year, unemployment in many parts of France was over 50%.

14 Social Classes & Government Society in France in the 18 th century was still based on feudal society Society in France in the 18 th century was still based on feudal society There were 3 social classes or estates There were 3 social classes or estates First Estate – First Estate – the clergy appx. 100,000 owned 10% of the land paid voluntary taxes or gifts to the government every 5 yrs. Church levied its own tax or tithe amounting to appx. 10%

15 SOCIAL CLASSES AND GOVERNMENT Second Estate – Second Estate – The nobility 400,000 Nobles – men and women Owned 25% of the land Paid very little in taxes but they were allowed to tax the peasants just as in the days of feudalism enjoyed many privileges which gave them a superior standing in society

16 Social Classes and Government Third Estate - Third Estate - - Everybody else – Commoners - Merchants, artisans, lawyers, unskilled laborers, peasants - huge diversity in the members of this estate – united only by their shared legal status as being not nobles or clergy - known as bourgeoisie or middle class

17

18 The Old Regime Old Regime – describes the system in France prior to the Revolution Old Regime – describes the system in France prior to the Revolution Had ceased to correspond with the social realities of 1780 Had ceased to correspond with the social realities of 1780 Legally society was still based rigid orders inherited from the Middle Ages Legally society was still based rigid orders inherited from the Middle Ages In reality, France was moving toward being a society based on wealth and education In reality, France was moving toward being a society based on wealth and education Both were at odds with a monarchy that continued to claim the right to absolute power. Both were at odds with a monarchy that continued to claim the right to absolute power.

19 The Execution of the King Louis XVI, king of France, arrived in the wrong historical place at the wrong time Louis XVI, king of France, arrived in the wrong historical place at the wrong time He soon found himself overwhelmed by events beyond his control. He soon found himself overwhelmed by events beyond his control. Ascending the throne in 1774, Louis inherited a realm nearly bankrupt through the opulence of his predecessors Louis XIV and XV. Ascending the throne in 1774, Louis inherited a realm nearly bankrupt through the opulence of his predecessors Louis XIV and XV. After becoming King, things only got worse After becoming King, things only got worse

20 The Execution of the King The people were not happy. The people were not happy. To top it off, To top it off, Louis had the misfortune to marry a foreigner, the Austrian Marie Antoinette. Louis was only 18 when he inherited the throne from his grandfather, Louis XV; he was very inexperienced Louis was only 18 when he inherited the throne from his grandfather, Louis XV; he was very inexperienced The anger of the French people, fueled by xenophobia, targeted Marie as a prime source of their problems. The anger of the French people, fueled by xenophobia, targeted Marie as a prime source of their problems. Xenophobia? Hatred of all foreigners

21 The Execution of the King In July 1789, the mobs of Paris stormed the Bastille – a symbol of the monarchy In July 1789, the mobs of Paris stormed the Bastille – a symbol of the monarchy Feeling that power was shifting to their side, the mob forced the imprisonment of Louis and his family forcing them to return to paris from versailles Feeling that power was shifting to their side, the mob forced the imprisonment of Louis and his family forcing them to return to paris from versailles Louis attempted escape in 1791 but was captured and returned to Paris. Louis attempted escape in 1791 but was captured and returned to Paris. In 1792, the newly elected National Convention declared France a republic In 1792, the newly elected National Convention declared France a republic brought Louis to trial for crimes against the people. brought Louis to trial for crimes against the people.

22 The Execution of the King On January 20, 1793, the National Convention condemned Louis XVI to death, his execution scheduled for the next day. On January 20, 1793, the National Convention condemned Louis XVI to death, his execution scheduled for the next day. Louis spent that evening saying goodbye to his wife and children. The following day dawned cold and wet. Louis arose at five. At eight o'clock a guard of 1,200 horsemen arrived to escort the former king on a two-hour carriage ride to his place of execution. Accompanying Louis, at his invitation, was a priest, Henry Essex Edgeworth, an Englishman living in France. Edgeworth recorded the event and we join his narrative as he and the fated King enter the carriage to begin their journey: Louis spent that evening saying goodbye to his wife and children. The following day dawned cold and wet. Louis arose at five. At eight o'clock a guard of 1,200 horsemen arrived to escort the former king on a two-hour carriage ride to his place of execution. Accompanying Louis, at his invitation, was a priest, Henry Essex Edgeworth, an Englishman living in France. Edgeworth recorded the event and we join his narrative as he and the fated King enter the carriage to begin their journey:

23 Eyewitness Account The path leading to the scaffold was extremely rough and difficult to pass; the King was obliged to lean on my arm, and from the slowness with which he proceeded, I feared for a moment that his courage might fail; but what was my astonishment, when arrived at the last step, I felt that he suddenly let go my arm, and I saw him cross with a firm foot the breadth of the whole scaffold; silence, by his look alone, fifteen or twenty drums that were placed opposite to me; and in a voice so loud, that it must have been heard it the Pont Tournant, I heard him pronounce distinctly these memorable words: 'I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I Pardon those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France.' The path leading to the scaffold was extremely rough and difficult to pass; the King was obliged to lean on my arm, and from the slowness with which he proceeded, I feared for a moment that his courage might fail; but what was my astonishment, when arrived at the last step, I felt that he suddenly let go my arm, and I saw him cross with a firm foot the breadth of the whole scaffold; silence, by his look alone, fifteen or twenty drums that were placed opposite to me; and in a voice so loud, that it must have been heard it the Pont Tournant, I heard him pronounce distinctly these memorable words: 'I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I Pardon those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France.'

24 Eyewitness Account Many voices were at the same time heard encouraging the executioners. They seemed reanimated themselves, in seizing with violence the most virtuous of Kings, they dragged him under the axe of the guillotine, which with one stroke severed his head from his body. All this passed in a moment. The youngest of the guards, who seemed about eighteen, immediately seized the head, and showed it to the people as he walked round the scaffold; he accompanied this monstrous ceremony with the most atrocious and indecent gestures. At first an awful silence prevailed; at length some cries of 'Vive la Republique!' were heard. By degrees the voices multiplied and in less than ten minutes this cry, a thousand times repeated became the universal shout of the multitude, and every hat was in the air." Many voices were at the same time heard encouraging the executioners. They seemed reanimated themselves, in seizing with violence the most virtuous of Kings, they dragged him under the axe of the guillotine, which with one stroke severed his head from his body. All this passed in a moment. The youngest of the guards, who seemed about eighteen, immediately seized the head, and showed it to the people as he walked round the scaffold; he accompanied this monstrous ceremony with the most atrocious and indecent gestures. At first an awful silence prevailed; at length some cries of 'Vive la Republique!' were heard. By degrees the voices multiplied and in less than ten minutes this cry, a thousand times repeated became the universal shout of the multitude, and every hat was in the air."

25 Louis execution

26

27

28 THE FATE OF THE OTHER ROYALS Louis was executed in Louis was executed in Marie Antoinettes son, the Lost Dauphin or Louis the XVII was taken from her and sent to prison. He was 8. He died two years later. Marie Antoinettes son, the Lost Dauphin or Louis the XVII was taken from her and sent to prison. He was 8. He died two years later. Marie was put on trial. She was accused of all sorts of horrid things, including child abuse. She was called Prisoner 280 or Antoinette Capet. Marie was put on trial. She was accused of all sorts of horrid things, including child abuse. She was called Prisoner 280 or Antoinette Capet. Condemned to death for high treason. Condemned to death for high treason. Louis XVIs sister, Elisabeth, is guillotined Louis XVIs sister, Elisabeth, is guillotined Louis and Maries daughter, Marie-Therese, survives, but is emotionally scarred by all the things she saw during her imprisonment. Louis and Maries daughter, Marie-Therese, survives, but is emotionally scarred by all the things she saw during her imprisonment.

29 TRIAL OF MARIE ANTOINETTE

30 Execution of Marie Antoinette She has to ride to her execution in a public cart with dozens of other prisoners. She has to ride to her execution in a public cart with dozens of other prisoners. Her final words Her final words Priest: This is the moment, Madame, to arm yourself with courage. Priest: This is the moment, Madame, to arm yourself with courage. M-Antoinette: Courage? The moment when my troubles are going to end is not the moment when my courage is going to fail me. M-Antoinette: Courage? The moment when my troubles are going to end is not the moment when my courage is going to fail me. Her head is displayed. Her body dumped in a mass grave. Her head is displayed. Her body dumped in a mass grave. Many, many executions are to follow…. Many, many executions are to follow….

31 The Reign of Terror Events of this period Events of this period 1. execution of the King and Queen 2. war – In an effort to spread the ideas of the Revolution, France declared war on several countries with monarchies

32 The Reign of Terror 3. French success led to Spain and Britain joining the war against France ; foreign troops march towards Paris 4. food prices soaring out of control - caused looting 5. In Western France, clergy and nobles led a counterrevolution movement 6. disputes among revolutionaries –a. Jacobins - most radical group, centered in Paris –b. Girondists - more moderate group support came mostly from outside of Paris

33 7. Dictatorial Government 7. Dictatorial Government 1. a peoples army - first European national draft 2. The Reign of Terror a. Committee of Public Safety - Robespierre as leader a. Committee of Public Safety - Robespierre as leader b. executed anyone who disagreed with Jacobins b. executed anyone who disagreed with Jacobins

34 Return to Moderation led mostly by the bourgeoisie - they did not want the monarchy restored nor did they want the common people to have political power led mostly by the bourgeoisie - they did not want the monarchy restored nor did they want the common people to have political power established the Directory - a republic headed by five men established the Directory - a republic headed by five men weak government - fall from power 1799 weak government - fall from power 1799

35 Robespierre Maximilien Robespierre Maximilien Robespierre

36 Robespierre was elected to the Estates General in was elected to the Estates General in He attached himself to the extreme left wing, and soon commanded attention. He attached himself to the extreme left wing, and soon commanded attention. His influence grew daily, and the mob greatly admired his earnestness and his apparent incorruptibility. His influence grew daily, and the mob greatly admired his earnestness and his apparent incorruptibility.

37 Became the leader of the twelve man Committee of Public Safety Became the leader of the twelve man Committee of Public Safety The Committee was elected by the National Convention, and it governed France at the height of the radical phase of the revolution. The Committee was elected by the National Convention, and it governed France at the height of the radical phase of the revolution. He had once been a fairly straightforward liberal thinker - reputedly he slept with a copy of Rousseau's Social Contract at his side. He had once been a fairly straightforward liberal thinker - reputedly he slept with a copy of Rousseau's Social Contract at his side. But his own purity of belief led him to impatience with others. But his own purity of belief led him to impatience with others.

38 Robespierre was frustrated with the progress of the revolution. Robespierre was frustrated with the progress of the revolution. After issuing threats to the National Convention, he himself was arrested in July After issuing threats to the National Convention, he himself was arrested in July He tried to shoot himself but missed, and spent his last few hours with his jaw hanging off. He tried to shoot himself but missed, and spent his last few hours with his jaw hanging off. He was guillotined, as a victim of the terror, in July He was guillotined, as a victim of the terror, in July 1794.

39 in the five months from September, 1793, to February 5, 1794, the revolutionary tribunal in Paris convicted and executed 238 men and 31 women and acquitted 190 persons in the five months from September, 1793, to February 5, 1794, the revolutionary tribunal in Paris convicted and executed 238 men and 31 women and acquitted 190 persons by February 1794 there were 5,434 individuals in the prisons in Paris awaiting trial. by February 1794 there were 5,434 individuals in the prisons in Paris awaiting trial.

40 Results of the French Revolution 1. absolute monarchy came to an end in France 1. absolute monarchy came to an end in France 2. church and nobility lost their special privileges 2. church and nobility lost their special privileges 3. decline of the nobles aided the rise of the Bourgeoisie 3. decline of the nobles aided the rise of the Bourgeoisie 4. ideals of liberty and individual rights echoed in other lands 4. ideals of liberty and individual rights echoed in other lands 5. introduction of new style of warfare 5. introduction of new style of warfare 6. Advanced nationalism 6. Advanced nationalism

41 Jean-Paul Marat Marat, friend of Robespierre, Jacobin deputy to the Convention, a fiery orator; he was also a violent man, quick to take offense. Marat, friend of Robespierre, Jacobin deputy to the Convention, a fiery orator; he was also a violent man, quick to take offense.

42 On July 13, 1793, a young Royalist, Charlotte Corday, managed to gain entry into his apartment. On July 13, 1793, a young Royalist, Charlotte Corday, managed to gain entry into his apartment. When Marat agreed to receive her, she stabbed him in his bathtub, where he was accustomed to sit hour after hour treating the disfiguring skin disease from which he suffered. When Marat agreed to receive her, she stabbed him in his bathtub, where he was accustomed to sit hour after hour treating the disfiguring skin disease from which he suffered.

43 Portrait of Marats Death

44

45 The French Revolution results in another dictator assuming absolute power


Download ppt "THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OFF WITH HIS HEAD. LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY The motto of the French Revolution The motto of the French Revolution."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google