3Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual DifferencesGenes: Our Codes for LifeTwin StudiesTemperament StudiesHeritabilityGene-Environment InteractionThe New Frontier: Molecular Genetics
4Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human NatureNatural SelectionAn Evolutionary Explanation of Human SexualityCritiquing the Evolutionary Perspective
5Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Parents and PeersParents and Early ExperiencesPeer InfluenceCultural InfluencesVariations Across CulturesCulture and the Self
6Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Cultural InfluencesCulture and Child-RearingDevelopmental Similarities Across GroupsGender DevelopmentGender Similarities and Differences
7Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Gender DevelopmentThe Nature of GenderThe Nurture of GenderReflections on Nature and Nurture
8Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity SimilaritiesDifferencesGenes: Same set of chromosomesGenes: Genetic anomalies may make us differentBiology: Organs and body functions sameBiology: May change during developmentBrain: Same brain architectureBrain: Asymmetry of brain across gendersBehaviors: Speak languageBehavior: Speak different languagesOBJECTIVE 1| Give examples of differences and similarities within the human family.
9Behavior GeneticsStudying our differences and weighing the relative effects of heredity and environment (every non-genetic influence on our thought, feelings and actions from pre-natal nutrition, to the people and things around us) is the job of the Behavior Geneticist.OBJECTIVE 2| Describe the type of questions that interest behavior geneticists.
10Genes: Our Codes for Life Chromosomes are the threadlike structures, made up mostly of DNA molecules, containing the genes. DNA is a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. DNA is made up of the chemicals: A, T, C & G called nucleotides.OBJECTIVE 3| Define chromosome, DNA, gene, and genome, and describe their relationships.
11Genes: Our Codes for Life Segments within DNA consist of genes, the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes which produce the proteins, that determine our development.
12GenomeHuman Genome is the set of complete instructions for making an organism, containing all the genes in that organism. Gene complexes are those genes that group and work together for a specific function, or to form a structure of the body.
13Twin BiologyStudying the effects of heredity and environment on two sets of twins, identical (developed from a single sperm and egg that divide after conception) and fraternal (separate sperm and eggs) has come in handy for establishing a genetic link to psychological phenomena.OBJECTIVE 4| Explain how identical and fraternal twins differ, and ways that behavior geneticists use twin studies to understand the effects of environment.
14Twins and ProceduresBehavior geneticists’ effects of shared and unique environments on total or partial genetic makeup.
15Personality, Intelligence Separated TwinsA number of studies compared identical twins raised separately from birth, or close thereafter, and found numerous similarities.Separated TwinsPersonality, IntelligenceAbilities, AttitudesInterests, FearsBrain Waves, Heart Rate
16Separated TwinsCritics of separated twin studies note that such similarities can be found between strangers.Researchers point out that differences between fraternal twins are greater than identical twins.Bob Sacha
17Adoption StudiesAdoption studies, as opposed to twin studies, suggest that children who have been adopted tend to be different from their adoptive parents and siblings.OBJECTIVE 5| Cite ways that behavior geneticists use adoption studies to understand the effects of environment and heredity.
18Adoptive StudiesAdoptive studies strongly point to the simple fact that biologically related children turn out to be different in a family. So investigators ask:Do siblings have differing experiences?Do siblings, despite sharing half of their genes, have different combinations of the other half of their genes?Ultimate question: Does parenting have an effect?
19Parenting Influences children’s Parenting does have an effect on biologically related and unrelated children.Parenting Influences children’sAttitudes, ValuesManners, BeliefsFaith, Politics
20Temperament StudiesTemperament refers to a person’s stable/instable emotional reactivity and intensity. Identical twins express similar temperaments, suggesting heredity predisposes temperament.OBJECTIVE 6| Discuss how the relative stability of our temperament illustrates the influence of heredity on development.
21HeritabilityHeritability refers to the extent to which the differences among people are attributable to genes.OBJECTIVE 7| Explain heritablity’s application on individuals and groups, and explain what we mean when we say genes are self-regulating.
22Group DifferencesIf genetic influences help explain individual diversity in traits, can the same be said about group differences?Not necessarily. Individual differences in weight and height are heritable and yet nutritional influences have made westerners heavier and taller than their ancestors were a century ago.
23Nature and NurtureSome human traits are fixed, such as having two eyes. However, most psychological traits are liable to change with environmental experience.Genes provide choices for the organism to change its form or traits when environmental variables change. Therefore, genes are pliable or self-regulating.
24Gene-Environment Interaction Genes can influence traits which affect responses, and environment can affect gene activity.A genetic predisposition that makes a child restless and hyperactive evokes an angry response from his parents. A stressful environment can trigger genes to manufacture neurotransmitters leading to depression.OBJECTIVE 8| Give and example of a genetically influenced trait that can evoke responses in others, and give another example of an environment that can trigger gene activity.
25Gene-Environment Interaction Genes and environment affect our traits individually, but more important are their interactive effects.Alessia Pierdomenico/Reuters/CorbisRex FeaturesPeople respond differently toRowan Atkinson (Mr. Bean) than Orlando bloom.
26The New Frontier: Molecular Genetics Molecular genetics is a branch extension of behavior genetics that asks the question, “Do genes influence behavior?”OBJECTIVE 9| Identify the potential promise and perils of molecular genetics.
27Molecular Genetics: Promises and Perils Molecular geneticists are trying to identify genes that put people at risk for disorders. With this kind of knowledge, parents can decide to abort pregnancies in which the fetus is suspected of having such disorders (PGD).However, this opens up a real concern, as Aldous Huxley wrote about in, Brave New World, or as Ethan Hawke pointed out in, Gattaca.
28Evolutionary Psychology Molecular genetics (what we just studied) examines why we as organisms are distinct.Evolutionary psychology studies why we as humans are alike. In particular, it studies the evolution of behavior and mind using principles of natural selection (survive and reproduce).OBJECTIVE 10| Describe the areas of psychology that interests evolutionary psychologists
29Natural SelectionNatural selection is an evolutionary process through which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing generations because these traits help animals survive and reproduce. Those that nature deems unfit to survive will be purged.OBJECTIVE 11| State the principle of natural selection, and point out some possible effects of natural selection in the development of human characteristics.
30L.N. Trur, American Scientist (1999) 87: 160-169 Artificial SelectionBiologists like Belyaev and Trut (1999) were able to artificially rear and domesticate wild foxes, selecting them for friendly traits.L.N. Trur, American Scientist (1999) 87:Mutations are random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the organism.
31Human TraitsCharles Darwin’s, On the Origin of Species, has served as an organizing principle of biology, and is now being applied to psychology as well.Why do infants fear strangers when they become mobile?Why are most parents so passionately devoted to their children?Why do people fear spiders and snakes and not electricity and guns?
32Question (summarized) GenderGender Differences in SexualityMales and females, to a large extent, behave and think similarly. Differences in the sexes arise in regards to reproductive behaviors.Question (summarized)MaleFemaleCasual sex60%35%Sex for affection25%48%Think about sex everyday54%19%OBJECTIVE 12| Identify gender differences in sexuality.
33Natural Selection & Mating Natural selection has caused males to send their genes into the future by mating with multiple females since males have lower costs involved.However, females select one mature and caring male because of the higher costs involved with pregnancy and nursing.OBJECTIVE 13| Describe evolutionary explanations for gender differences in sexuality.
34Mating PreferencesMales look for youthful appearing females in order to pass their genes into the future. Females, on the other, hand look for maturity, dominance, affluence and boldness in males.Data based on 37 cultures.
35Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary psychologists take a behavior and work backward to explain it in terms of natural selection.Evolutionary psychology proposes genetic determinism and undercuts morality in establishing society.Where genders are unequal, gender preferences are wide, but when they are closely equal, preferences narrow down.OBJECTIVE 14| Summarize the criticisms of evolutionary explanations of human behavior, and describe the evolutionary psychologists’ responses to those criticisms.
36Evolutionary Psychologists Reply Evolutionary psychologists argue that we need to test behaviors that expound evolutionary principles.Evolutionary psychologists remind us how we have adapted, but do not dictate how we ought to be.Males and females are more alike than different, and if we study these differences we can establish their causes.
37Parents and Peers Parents and Early Experiences We have looked at how genes influence our developmental differences. What about the environment? How do our early experiences, our family, our community and our culture affects these differences?We begin with the prenatal environment.
38Prenatal EnvironmentIdentical twins who share the same placenta (b) are more alike than those who do not (a), suggesting prenatal influences on psychological traits.OBJECTIVE 15| Describe some of the conditions that can affect development before birth.
39Experience and Brain Development Early postnatal experiences affect brain development. Rosenzweig et al. (1984) showed that rats raised in enriched environments developed thicker cortices than those in impoverished environment.OBJECTIVE 16| Describe how experience can modify the brain.
40Experience and Faculties Early experiences during development in humans shows remarkable improvements in music, languages and the arts.Courtesy of C. Brune
41Brain Development and Adulthood Brain development does not stop when we reach adulthood. Throughout our life, brain tissue continues to grow and change.Both hotos courtesy of Avi Kani and LeslieUngerleider, National Institue of Mental HealthA well-learned finger-tapping task leads tomore motor cortical neurons (right) than baseline.
42Parental Credit/Blame Parents influence their children. However, often they receive too much credit for their child’s successes, and too much blame for their failures.Miquel L. FairbanksOBJECTIVE 17| Explain why we should be careful about attributing children’s successes and failure to their parents’ influence.These kids were not taught to, “train surf” by their parents.
43Peer InfluenceChildren, like adults, attempt to fit into a group by conforming. Peers are influential in such areas as learning to cooperate with others, gaining popularity, and developing interactions.OBJECTIVE 18| Evaluate the importance of peer influence on development.Ole Graf/ zefa/ Corbis
44CultureCulture is composed of behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group. Humans have the ability to evolve culture, and cultural influences can change the thoughts, feelings, or actions of individuals.OBJECTIVE 19| Discuss the survival benefits of culture.Kevin R. Morris/Corbis
45Variation Across Culture Cultures differ. Each culture develops memes – common practices like handshakes or saying, “Bless you” after someone sneezes, or even storylines and/or fads; and norms – rules for accepted and expected behavior, such as respecting personal space (the buffer-zone that we maintain around us) or not doing the wave at a funeral.OBJECTIVE 20| Describe some ways that culture differ.
46Variation Over TimeCultures change over time. The rate of this change may be extremely fast. In many Western countries, culture has rapidly changed over the past 40 years or so.This change cannot be attributed to changes in the human gene pool because genes evolve very slowly.OBJECTIVE 21| Explain why changes in the human gene pool cannot account for culture over time.
47Culture and the SelfIf a culture nurtures an individual’s personal identity, it is said to be individualist, but if a group identity is favored then the culture is described as collectivist.A collectivist support system can benefit groups who experience disasters such as the 2010 floods in Pakistan. However, individualist cultures are responsible for more inventions and innovationsOBJECTIVE 22| Identify some ways a primarily individualist culture differs from a primarily collectivist culture, and compare their effects on personal identity.Kyodo News
49Culture and Child-Rearing Individualist cultures (North American, European) raise their children as independent individuals; whereas collectivist cultures (Asian, African) raise their children as interdependent.OBJECTIVE 23| Describe some ways that child-rearing differs in individualist and collectivist cultures.Jose Luis Palaez, Inc./ Corbis
50Culture and Child-Rearing Westernized CulturesAsian-African CulturesResponsible for your selfResponsible to groupFollow your consciencePriority to obedienceDiscover your giftsBe true to family-selfBe true to yourselfBe loyal to your groupBe independentBe interdependent
51Developmental Similarities/Differences Despite diverse cultural backgrounds, humans are more similar than different in many ways. We share the same genetic profile, life cycle, capacity for language, and biological needs, yet culturally we may differ in many ways such as memes and normsOBJECTIVE 24| Describe some ways that humans are similar, despite their cultural differences.Copyright Steve Reehl
52Developmental Similarities/Differences Based on genetic makeup, males and females are alike, since the majority of our inherited genes (45 chromosomes are unisex) are similar.Males and females differ biologically in body fat, muscle, height, onset of puberty, and life expectancy.OBJECTIVE 25| List one way males and females are similar, and other ways they differ.
53Gender Differences in Aggression Men express themselves and behave in more aggressive ways than do women. This aggression gender gap appears in many cultures and at various ages. In males, the nature of this aggression is often physical.NBA FightsOBJECTIVE 26| Summarize gender gap in aggression.
54Gender and Social Power In most societies, men are socially dominant and are perceived as such. However women are gaining ground. In 2005, men accounted for 84% of the members in governing parliaments. In 2011, that percentage was down to 80%.OBJECTIVE 27| Describe some gender differences in social power.
55Gender Differences and Connectedness Young and old, women form more connections (friendships) with people than do men. Men emphasize freedom and self-reliance.OBJECTIVE 28| Discuss gender differences in connectedness, or the ability to “tend and befriend.”Oliver Eltinger/ Zefa/ CorbisDex Image/ Getty Images
56Biology of SexBiological sex is determined by the twenty-third pair of chromosomes. If the pair is XX, a female is produced. If the pair is XY, a male child is produced.OBJECTIVE 29| Explain how biological sex is determined, and describe the role of sex hormones in biological development and gender differences.
57Sexual Differentiation In the mother’s womb, the fetus is exposed to testosterone (the primary male sexual hormone) (because of the Y chromosome). If the levels of testosterone are sufficient, the baby will be male.If low levels of testosterone are released in the uterus, the result is a female.
58Sexual Differentiation Sexual differentiation is not only biological, but also psychological and social.However, genes and hormones play a very important role in defining gender, especially in altering the brain and influencing gender differences as a result.
59Gender RolesRoles are the guidelines for expected behavior Our culture shapes our gender roles — expectations of how men and women are supposed to behave.OBJECTIVE 29| Discuss the relative importance of heredity and environment on gender development, and describe two theories of gender-typing.Gender Identity — means how a person views himself or herself in terms of gender. Gender Typing refers to the process of acquiring (learning) a gender identity.
60Gender Roles: Theories Gender Schema Theory suggests that children learn about what it means to be male and female from the culture in which they live. According to this theory, children adjust their behavior to fit in with the gender norms and expectations of their society.Social Learning Theory proposes that we learn gender behavior like any other behavior—through Operant Conditioning methods such as: reinforcement, punishment, and observation.
61Reflections on Nature and Nurture OBJECTIVE 30| Describe the biopsychosocial perspective on development.