2EvolutionEvolution, or change over time, is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
3Voyage of the Beagle Charles Darwin – born in England Joined the crew of theH.M.S. BeagleSailed around the worldMade numerous observationsand collected evidence thatled him to propose hishypothesis.
4Darwin’s Observations Patterns of Diversity:Puzzled by where different species lived and did not liveAsked:Why were there no rabbits in Australia,despite the presence of habitats thatseemed perfect for them?Why were there no kangaroos in England?
5Darwin’s Observations Living Organisms and FossilsDarwin collected and preserved fossilsFossils resembled organisms that were still alive – other looked completely unlike any creature he had ever seen.He Asked: Why had so many of these speciesdisappeared?
6Darwin’s Observations The Galapagos IslandsMost influenced DarwinAlthough islands were so close together, the islands had very different climates.Fascinated by the land tortoises and marine iguanas.
7Darwin’s Observations Galapagos Islands continuedSaw that giant tortoises varied in predictable ways from one island to another.The shape of a tortoise’s shell could be used to identify which island a particular tortoise lived.
8Natural Selection Questions (Bill Nye) A young man that walked out was __ ___.He quit medical school to become a ___.How long did the Beagle stay in the Galapagos Islands? __ daysFinches had different shaped ___: varied by the environment they inhabited.What was the mechanism that made evolution occur? ___ ____When did he publish his book?Now, every where we look at today, we see something that came from ___.
10An Ancient, Changing Earth James Hutton and Charles LyellRecognized that Earth is many millions of years old.And the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.
11Hutton and LyellVolcanoes release hot lava and gases now, just as they did on an ancient Earth.Erosion continues to carve out canyons, just as it did in the past.Also said that awesome geological features could be built up or torn down over long periods of time.(examples: earthquakes and volcanoes)Darwin then asked:If the Earth could change over time,might life change as well?
12Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution Proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime.These traits could then be passed on to their offspring.Over time, this process led to change in a species
13Lamarck Continued Fiddler Crabs: An Example 1. The male crab uses its small front claw to attract mates and ward off predators2. Because the front claw has been used repeatedly, it becomes larger.3. A larger claw, is then passed on to the crab’s offspring.He was WRONG! He did not realize that the large claw traits were inherited
14Lamark’s TheoryAccording to Lamarck's theory, a given giraffe could, over a lifetime of straining to reach high branches, develop an elongated neck.The long neck is ACQUIRED
15Population GrowthMalthus (an economist) – observed that babies were being born faster than people were dying.He reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient living space and food for everyone.
16Carrying CapacityThe largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support.
17The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection The actual title is:The Origin of Species by Means of Natural SelectionThe book proposed a mechanism for evolution that he called natural selection.Presented evidence that demonstrating the process of evolution has been taking place for millions of year.
18Natural Variation and Artificial Selection Darwin’s ArgumentsNatural Variation and Artificial SelectionArgued that species were not perfect and unchanging.Natural Variation: There are differencesamong individuals of a species.Examples:Some cows gave more milk than others & some plants bore larger fruit than others.
19Darwin’s Arguments Natural Variation and Artificial Selection Artificial Selection: Nature provided the variation among different organisms, and humans selected those variations that they found useful.* Only the largest hogs, fastest horses, and the cows that gave the most milk were selected to breed and produce offspring.
20Evolution by Natural Selection The Struggle for Existence: Means that members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life.A predator that is the fastest or has a particular way of catching prey can catch more prey.Prey that are faster, bettercamouflaged, or better protectedavoid being caught.
21Evolution by Natural Selection Survival of the Fittest: Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called Natural Selection.Darwin called the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment fitness.An adaptation is any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival.
23Survival of the Fittest The concept of fitness, Darwin argued, was central to the process of evolution by natural selection.Example:Baby birds compete for food in the nest. The stronger bird may take food from the weaker siblings.
24Evolution by Natural Selection Descent with Modification: Principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time.Implies that all living organisms are related to one another.Common Descent: The principle that says all species – living and extinct – were derived from common ancestors.
25Evidence of Evolution Fossil Record Fossils that had formed in the different layers of rock were evidence of gradual change over time.One could view how a species had changed and produced different species over time.
26Geographic Distribution of Living Species Evidence of EvolutionSpecies now living on different continents had each descended from different ancestors.However, because some animals on each continent were living under similar ecological conditions, they were exposed to similar pressures of natural selection.They ended up evolving certain striking features in common.This is called Convergent EvolutionGeographic Distribution of Living Species
27Evidence of Evolution Similarities in Early Development In their early stages of development, chickens, turtles, and rats look similar, providing evidence that they shared a common ancestry.
28Evidence of EvolutionHomologous Structures: Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues.
30Evidence for Evolution Vestigial Structures are structures that are the reduced forms of functional structures in different species.Examples:1. Snake Pelvis: The pelvis is the attachment point for legs and is therefore nonfunctional in an animal without legs
31Evidence of Evolution2. Kiwi Wing: The wings of kiwis are too small to be of any use in flight3. Human Appendix: Important for digestion in many mammals, but of limited use in humans & some apes
32Analogous StructuresAnalogous structures can be superficially similar in construction, but are NOT inherited from a common ancestor.Example: The wing of an eagle & the wing of a insect have the same function (both enable the organism to fly) – but are constructed in different ways & from different materials.
33Analogous Structures* While analogous structures do not indicate close evolutionary relationships, they do show that functionally similar features can evolve independently in similar environments.
34Evidence of EvolutionComparative Biochemistry- the more closely related species are the greater the number of amino acid sequences will be shared.Geographic distribution-distributions of fossils and living organisms found around the world.
35AdaptationsMimicry: Adaptation in which one species evolves to resemble another species for protection or other advantages.
36Adaptations: Camouflage: Adaptation that allows organisms to blend into their surrounds.
37AdaptationsBacterial resistance: species of bacteria have developed drug resistance.