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The 13 Colonies 4th Grade Class.

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Presentation on theme: "The 13 Colonies 4th Grade Class."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 13 Colonies 4th Grade Class

2 The New England Colonies
Massachusetts (1620) Rhode Island (1636) Connecticut (1636) New Hampshire (1638) The New England Colonies

3 Life in New England Most New Englanders were farmers
They work small plots of land growing crops such as wheat, oats, and peas They grew only enough to feed their families Large farms were difficult so the New Englanders had to find another way to earn a living They specialized in fishing and ship building The coast had many good harbors Thick forest provided wood for building ships The harbors and forest helped develop a great shipbuilding industry

4 Fishing and Whaling The ocean water off the New England coast was full of fish Many colonists made their money by catching and selling fish Merchants sold most of their fish as exports to Europe The colonists also hunted whales The trading between the colonists were voluntary which means the trading helped everyone

5 Triangular Trade The products of the New England colonies were often traded to other places They shipped fish and lumber to Europe, Africa, and the West Indies They also brought in goods from these countries (Import) The trading between North America, Europe, and Africa formed an imaginary triangle across the Atlantic Ocean

6 Triangular Trade

7 Slavery Some traders in the triangular trade made money by selling human beings Many Africans died of disease or hunger along the way to North America Africans were sold to colonists and forced to work Slave trade was the business of buying and selling human beings

8 Home and Community Life
New England families were large They lived in small wooden houses Most light came from candles and lamps with whale oil Many homes had one main room Families slept on mattresses near the fire to keep warm

9 Work in the House Almost everything a family needed had to be grown or made by hand at home Men and boys spent most of their time in the fields tending to the farms Women and girls spent their time preparing and preserving food for the winter Women and girls also made household items like clothing, soap, and candles

10 Education and Recreation
Puritans wanted everyone to read the bible Some parents taught their children to read and write at home Many New England colonies had schools The families worked hard in the fields, but they also made time for play

11 The Great Awakening Religion was a central part of New England Life
Many ministers began moving throughout the New England colonies to convince the colonists to renew their faith Many colonists joined the Protestant groups

12 The Middle Colonies New York (1626) Delaware (1638) New Jersey (1664)
Pennsylvania (1682) The Middle Colonies

13 New York and New Jersey The middle colonies settlements began in 1664
The King of England gave land to his brother James, Duke of York, to start a colony The Duke of York, was a proprietor, person who owns and controlled the land James Kept part of the land and gave the rest to two friends, John Berkeley and George Carteret They divided the land into East Jersey and West Jersey They combined the land in 1702 to form New Jersey

14 New York and New Jersey The proprietors of New York and New Jersey wanted to make money They divided the fertile land into smaller lots and sold them to colonists to farm They proprietors lived in England so it was difficult to control the property They picked governors to rule the colonies for them They also allowed the colonists to choose a representative to attend the assembly meetings to give voice to the colonies

15 Pennsylvania and Delaware
William Penn decided to began the colony of Pennsylvania He was a member of the religious group, the Quakers The Quakers believed that all Christians should be free to worship in their own way King Charles II owed Penn money and repaid him with land which he used to begin the colony of Pennsylvania Penn created laws that allowed colonists to voice their opinions and worship freely

16 Pennsylvania and Delaware
The colonists were also allowed to elect a representative to the assembly Penn treated the Indians with respect Penn also made fair treaties with the Native Americans of the Delaware

17 Philadelphia Philadelphia is Pennsylvania’s first large city
The city was located on the Delaware and Schuykill Rivers The rivers allowed ships to bring goods from other colonies and from Europe Philadelphia soon became a center of trade Benjamin Franklin was Philadelphia’s most famous citizen He published newspapers and books, started libraries fire companies, and hospitals, and developed many inventions

18 Life in the Middle Colonies
A Mix of People People in the Middle Colonies came from many lands Many were Quakers or Protestant churches, Jews and Catholics The population was diverse because of religious tolerance There was a large population because the land was inexpensive People came to the Middle Colonies to escape punishment for their religious beliefs, to farm their own land, to find a better way of lice

19 Making a Living The climate and soil of the Middle Colonies were excellent for farming Men and women spent long hours in the fields farming Children helped out as soon as they were old enough Boys help plant and harvest and girls helped cook, sew, and do housework They grew vegetables, fruits, and grains (wheat, corn, and barley) They were known as the “breadbasket” of the thirteen colonies

20 Making a Living Farming was so good in the Middle Colonies, that the families often had a surplus which they sold for a living They used the long rivers to ship their surplus to other colonies The Middle Colonies had a free market economy where the people decides what will be produced Colonists in the Middle Colonies were free to make decisions they believed would earn them the most money

21 City Life Philadelphia and New York were the two largest cities and most important cities in the Middle Colonies Both cities had ports and were the centers for shipping and trade Laborers found work in the cities Some of the laborers in the Middle Colonies were enslaved Africans Many people in the city became apprentices who studied with a master to learn a skill Many children in the Middle Colonies learned to read and write, but work was more important

22 The Southern Colonies Maryland (1632) Virginia (1607)
North Carolina (1729) South Carolina (1663) Georgia (1732) The Southern Colonies

23 Virginia In 1607 Virginia became the first permanent English colony in North America A plantation is a large farm on which crops are raised by workers who live on the farm Most plantation workers were indentured servants or enslaved Africans Plantation owners became wealthy by growing cash crops (tobacco, rice, indigo)

24 Governing the Colony As the colony of Virginia grew, the people wanted to have a voice in the laws of the colony In 1619, they created the first elected legislature, people with the power to make and change laws This legislature was called the House of Burgess Most members of the House of Burgess were members of the Church of England which became the official church. Other religions had to leave the colony

25 New Colonies in the South
Between 1632 and 1732, four more colonies were established in the south

26 Maryland The colony of Maryland began in 1632
King Charles gave land to Cecilius Calvert, also known as Lord Baltimore Calvert wanted to make Maryland a refuse, safe place, for Catholics In 1649, Maryland passed a Tolerance Act which promised Christians free worship

27 The Carolinas During the late 1600’s, England, Spain, and France claimed land south of Virginia King Charles II wasted to start another colony on this land In 1663 King Charles began a colony south of Virginia called Carolina Colonists settled in the southern part of the Carolinas Farming was good and there were many harbors When the colony grew too large, it became two colonies in 1729 (North Carolina and South Carolina)

28 Georgia In 1732 King George II started another colony to keep the Spanish and French away from South Carolina He gave the land to James Oglethorpe The colony was named Georgia to honor King George Oglethorpe wanted the land to be a place for poor people and debtors (who owed money) He offered them free trips to Georgia and small farms to own Oglethorpe made strict rules for this colony Colonists did not like the rules

29 Georgia The laws were later changed
Slaves were brought in to work the large farms Georgia became a wealthy plantation colony

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