3ELIZABETH Ireign of Queen Elizabeth I is often referred to as "The Golden Age" of English history.Elizabeth was an immensely popular Queen, and her popularity has waned little with the passing of four hundred years.
5Elizabeth IElizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn.She was born on 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace.Her birth was possibly the greatest disappointment of her father's life.
6Elizabeth IHer mother failed to provide the King with a son and was executed on false charges of incest and adultery on 19 May 1536.Anne’s marriage to the King was declared null and void, and in 1536 Elizabeth, like her half-sister, Mary, was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the line of succession.
7Elizabeth was sent away from Court, as she was a reminder to Henry of Anne. As a child, Elizabeth was given a very impressive education.She was taught by famous scholars and from an early age it was clear that she was remarkably gifted.She had an special flare for languages, and by adulthood, she could speak five languages fluently.
14Dangerous times for Elizabeth Edward, the son Henry longed for, was finally born in 1537.Young Edward was never a strong child and eventfully contracted what was then called consumption. It is most likely that he had tuberculosis.He succeeded his father, Henry VIII, on his death in 1547 – he was nine yrs. old.
16Dangerous times for elizabeth When it looked inevitable that Edward VI would die without an heir, the struggle for the Crown began.And so began an even more dangerous time in the life of the Princess Elizabeth
17Dangerous times for elizabeth Because Elizabeth was a daughter of the late King Henry, she was in line to the throneShe was therefore a most sought after bride.Edward VI died in 1552 and after an unsuccessful attempt by some to place the Protestant Lady Jane Grey on the throne, Mary I became Queen.
20On the death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey was told that Edward had left the Crown to her instead of his Catholic sister, MaryJane’s father-in-law, the Duke of Northumberland, proclaimed Jane Queen as soon as he learned of Edward’s death.Mary proclaimed herself rightful Queen of England since the will of her father, Henry VIII, had indicated that she should succeed her brother, Edward, if he died without childrenMary gathered an army of loyal supporters and prepared to fight for her Crown.Many English Protestants were fearful of Mary being Queen because they knew she’d try to return England to the Catholic faith – they supported Lady Jane Grey
21Nine days after the death of Edward, Mary and her army rode into London She imprisoned Lady Jane in the Tower of London and took her place as rightful Queen.Most Englishmen, both Catholic and Protestant, supported Mary because they believed her to be the rightful heir to the Throne.Lady Jane is referred to as the “Nine Days Queen” even though she is not counted as being Queen in reality – she does not show up in the lists of English monarchs.Lady Jane Grey was executed for treason on Feb. 12, 1554.Also executed was John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and his son and Jane’s husband, Guilford Dudley
24Dangerous times for elizabeth Shortly after becoming Queen, Mary was married to King Philip II of Spain, which made the Catholic Queen even more unpopularThe persecuted Protestants saw Elizabeth as their savior, since she was seen as an icon of "the new faith”Mary sensed the danger from her younger sister, and imprisoned her (Elizabeth) in the Tower.
25Dangerous times for Elizabeth After a while, Elizabeth was no longer seen as a threat, and the aging Queen let Elizabeth return to Hatfield House, under semi- house arrest.
26News of Mary's death on November 17, 1558 reached Elizabeth at Hatfield House. Elizabeth had survived and was finally Queen of England.
27Threats to ElizabethDuring this time, England and Elizabeth faced several major trials#1, Elizabeth had to deal with the growing threat of Mary Queen of Scots, who had a strong and legitimate claim to the throne of England.
28In November 1542, King James V of Scotland, lay dying. His army had been defeated by the English at Solway Moss and saw little hope for the future.At Falkland, he was told that Mary of Guise, his French-born wife had given birth to a daughter at Linlithgow Palace on December 8.Upon receiving news of Mary's birth, he reportedly said, 'Woe is me. My dynasty came with a lass. It will go with a lass.'Mary's father, James V, believed this lineage had ended with his daughter's birth. He certainly never contemplated that his grandson would one day rule both Scotland and its old enemy, England.James V died within a week of Mary's birth and, before she was even a year old, she was crowned queen of Scots.
31Many believed that Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic, was the rightful Queen of England. Since Mary too was a female sovereign Queen, Elizabeth was careful about how she recognized Mary’s power because she didn’t want to be in the same situation.After Mary was forced out of Scotland and fled to England, Elizabeth locked her up in the Tower of London for 20 years.Mary was executed in 1587, on February 8th, at Fotheringhay Castle, convicted of treason.
32THREAT #2The greatest military threat to England came in 1588 when the Armada (a great fleet of ships) from Spain sailed to EnglandEngland defeated the SpanishIt began the reign of England as a supreme naval power that lasted until World War I.
33Threat # 3: RELIGIOUS PROBLEMS Elizabeth had been raised as a ProtestantShe inherited a country torn between religions and after the rule of her Catholic sister, Mary IHenry had Parliament pass several laws that touched on the subject of religion and the succession.The Act of Supremacy (1534)declared that the King was "the only Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England“
34Elizabeth’s sister, Mary, restored the Catholic Church after the death of Henry VIII After Elizabeth was named Queen, she re-established the Protestant Church in England.She herself believed in toleration of all religions.She was often forced to take a harsher stance on punishment of Catholics because of the schism between the two sects.‘There is only one Christ, Jesus, one faith… all else is a dispute over trifles
35THREAT #3But by not persecuting Catholics, she struck a balance that lasted through much of her reign.The Prayer books of Edward VI were fused into one, and were to be used in every church in the land.Church attendance on Sundays and holy days was made compulsory or you paid a fine.These requirements were part of the Act of UniformityBy this law everyone worshipped in the same manner and was subject to the same religious requirements
36Elizabeth I died in 1603 at the age of 70 after reigning for 46 yrs. On her deathbed, Elizabeth passed the crown to James VI of Scotland.He ruled as James I of England and James VI of Scotland.He was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, Elizabeth’s cousin
37Accomplishments of Queen Elizabeth I She survived and succeeded in a world that was male dominated, proving that a woman could rule as well as any man.She succeeded in uniting her people in a world that was divided by religious conflictWhen she died, the majority of her people were Protestant and content with the church as she established it. The fabric of her church is still in existence today.
38ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF QUEEN ELIZABETH I She gained the popularity and affection of her people, and managed to retain this even when she was in her declining years.She was careful and cautious in her approach to politics. She never acted hastily or embarked on a course of action unpopular with her people.Elizabeth encouraged the arts and patronized scholars. She encouraged the theater accounting for the achievements of William shakespeare.
39Elizabeth managed to successfully lead her people in war Elizabeth encouraged overseas explorationElizabeth believed in the merits of peace rather than the glories of war therefore, her country prospered while others were torn apartWhen she died in 1603, England was one of the most affluent and powerful countries in the world.
40QUOTES"I may not be a lion, but I am a lion's cub, and I have a lion's heart"Here lands as true a subject, being prisoner, as ever landed at these stairs. Before Thee, O God, I speak it, having none other friend but Thee alone. (Said to have been spoken by Elizabeth when she arrived at the Tower of London as a prisoner)
41Much suspected by me, Nothing proved can be Much suspected by me, Nothing proved can be. (Reputedly carved onto a window at the tower of londonI have already joined myself in marriage to a husband, namely the kingdom of England. (Elizabeth to Parliament)I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king. (Tilbury speech, 1588.
42I have no desire to make windows into mens souls (a reference to the Catholic/Protestant issue) I will have here but one mistress and no master. (Elizabeth to Robert Dudley)You are like my little dog; when people see you, they know I am nearby. (Elizabeth to Robert Dudley)