Presentation on theme: "Civics: Government and Economics in Action 1 Chapter 4: Americas Political Heritage."— Presentation transcript:
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 1 Chapter 4: Americas Political Heritage
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 2 Chapter Links Section 1 The Colonial Experience Section 2 Roots of American Government Section 3 Moving Towards Nationhood
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 3 Main Idea: During the colonial period, Americans established traditions of freedom and self- government. Key Terms: Heritage Legislature Charter Tyranny Section 1 The Colonial Experience Section Outline: I. A Voice in Government II. Citizenship in the Colonies III. Some Roots of Freedom IV. Signs of Discontent
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 4 A Voice in Government Legislature –A group of people chosen to make the laws –From the beginning the colonists were used to having a voice in government Royal Authority –The English monarch established each colony through charter, or document giving permission to create a government. Preserving Rights –The Colonists were resistant to rule from England
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 5 Citizenship in the Colonies Differences –Being an English citizen in the colonies during the 1600 and 1700s was very different than being an American citizen today Voting –Very few colonists were allowed to vote Common Good –The colonists had the responsibility to work toward the common good of their society.
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 6 Some Roots of Freedom Many of the freedoms we enjoy in America today have been unknown throughout history Religious Freedom –Many early colonists came to America to escape religious persecution and find religious freedom Freedom of the Press & The Zenger Trial (1735) –The colonists could not print anything that was critical of the government. –The John Peter Zenger trial inspired Freedom of Speech
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 7 Signs of Discontent England and the Colonists –By the mid 1700s, England had tightened control over the colonies –Many colonists accused England of tyranny, or the abuse of power. –A growing number of colonists began to wonder if England planned to strip them of their rights and silence their voice in government.
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 8 Section Outline: I.Looking to Ancient Greece and Rome II.English Tradition III.Relying on Reason Main Idea: American colonists began to think about what they wanted from their government. They looked to models from ancient Greece and Rome, English history, and European philosophers. Key Terms: Direct Democracy Republic Natural Rights Separation of Powers Section 2 Roots of American Government
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 9 Looking to Ancient Greece and Rome Athens –Created the worlds first democracy; a form of government in what laws are made directly by the citizens. –Citizens were allowed to vote to pass laws or make decisions. Rome –In 509 B.C. founded a republic; a government in which representatives are elected to pass laws.
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 10 English Tradition The Magna Carta –In 1215 empowered English noblemen forced King John to sign a document listing rights that even the monarch could not take away from nobles. The English Bill of Rights –In 1689 the English legislature, called Parliament, passed a Bill of Rights which further limited the Monarchs power. –This listed the rights of all English citizens.
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 11 Relying on Reason Europe in the 1600 and 1700s –Philosophers wrote the people have the power of reason; the ability to think clearly. –Natural Rights: Rights people are born with and that no government can take away. –Famous Philosophers: John Locke & Montesquieu Separation of Powers –Dividing government power among legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
Social Contract Theory Civics: Government and Economics in Action 12
Journal assignment On the back of your chart, explain in 4-5 sentences which influence you think is the most important for our government and why. Civics: Government and Economics in Action 13
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 14 Main Idea: After becoming dissatisfied with English rule, the colonies declared themselves an independent nation. After winning the American Revolution, they turned to task of strengthening and improving their new government. Key Terms: Compact Ratification Section 3 Moving Towards Nationhood Section Outline: I. A Clash of Views II. The Declaration of Independence III. Organizing a New Government IV. A Limping Government
Open note Pop quiz 1.What is an oligarchy? 2.How was John Locke an influence on U.S. government? 3.How is a unitary and confederate government different in terms of who or what holds most of the power? 4.What freedom did the John Peter Zenger trial inspire? 5.Would you describe the U.S. as a melting pot or mosaic? Why? 15
French and Indian War From , the colonists fought alongside the British –England felt as if it was the reason they won the war After the war, England began taxing the colonists to repay its debts –Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, etc. Civics: Government and Economics in Action 16
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Civics: Government and Economics in Action 18 A Clash of Views English View –Parliament represented all English citizens, including the colonists. Colonists View –Since no colonists served in Parliament, nor could colonists vote for Parliament, English government did not attend to colonial needs. Trade Conflict –Parliament only allowed the colonists to trade with England.
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 19 A Clash of Views (cont.) No Taxation Without Representation –When Parliament decided to raise money to pay its debts by taxing the colonies. –This enraged many colonists. Steps Toward Independence –1774: The First Continental Congress –1775: The Second Continental Congress –1775: Fighting breaks out in Massachusetts –1776: Common Sense is published
1 st Continental Congress 1774 in Philadelphia –Decided a course of action to deal with tyranny Cut off trade w/England Meet again in 1 year Civics: Government and Economics in Action 20
2 nd Continental Congress 1775 in Philadelphia –Many radicals wanted independence Not everyone agreed –Began organizing army and government Made Washington Commander of Cont. Army Appointed ambassadors, generals, printed money Could not levy taxes Civics: Government and Economics in Action 21
Common Sense Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine (1776) –Explained independence in common terms Britain was too detached geographically Did not take colonists point of view into account Civics: Government and Economics in Action 22
Assignment Find a partner –Create a speech of ½ - 1 page in length supporting either the English or Colonial view of the new taxes –Create a poster to be posted in the town hall to advertise your position Civics: Government and Economics in Action 23
Journal What are 5 ideas or grievances or topics which will be in the D.o.I? Civics: Government and Economics in Action 24
Declaration of Independence Author Purpose Examples of Enlightenment thought1. 2. Audience Civics: Government and Economics in Action 25 Read The Declaration of Independence on p.97-98
Journal Does the D.o.I. succeed at explaining the colonists issues with England? Put it this way…if you were a colonist fighting in the revolution, would this give you reason to keep fighting? Explain. Civics: Government and Economics in Action 26
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 27 The Declaration of Independence We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 28 The Declaration of Independence …whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and institute new Government. Writers –The Second Continental Congress; Including: Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams. Signed on July 4 th 1776 –As the American Revolution was being fought
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 29 Organizing a New Government Compact –A written agreement to make and obey laws for the welfare of the group State Constitutions –During and after the Revolution, each state had its own constitution The Articles of Confederation –1777: The original compact between the soon-to- be independent colonies.
Civics: Government and Economics in Action 30 Articles of Confederation Outline –Allowed for a national legislature, with each state having one vote. –There was no judicial branch. Problems –The Articles of Confederation needed the ratification or approval of all 13 states. –Many of the states had different opinions on whether there should be a strong central government or strong state governments.
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Civics: Government and Economics in Action 32 A Limping Government Post-war Problems with Debt and Trade –Congress had borrowed a large amount of money to pay for war supplies, but could not pay these debts back. –Congress was unable to regulate trade with England and other English colonies Shays Rebellion –1786: Hundreds of angry Massachusetts farmers lead by Daniel Shays revolted to show their anger over poor trade conditions. This exposed a weak American government.