2 Essential Questions What is heat and how is it measured? How does thermal energy move?How is thermal energy used?
3 Vocabulary Preview Temperature Celsius Thermal energy Heat Conductor InsulatorInsulationfriction
4 What is temperature? How is it measured? Temperature – how hot or cold something isTemperature can be measured with a thermometerTemperature can be measured on two scales:FahrenheitCelcius
5 Celsius Scientists usually use the Celsius scale Water boils at 100 degrees C and it freezes at 0 degrees C
6 Thermal Energy and Heat Thermal Energy – the form of energy that moves particles of matterIf particles are moving very fast – the temperature is high, and the particles have more energyThe movement of thermal energy is called heatThermal energy flows from hotter to cooler objects
7 Questions:What happens when you heat up a solid – such as an ice cube?What happens when you heat up a liquid?
8 Controlling Thermal Energy in our bodies: Sweating – as the sweat on your skin begin to change into a gas – it carries heat AWAY from your body. This makes you feel cooler.Shivering: If you get too cold – you may shiver. This motion helps warm you upPeople use sweating and shivering to help control their body temperatures
9 Controlling Temperature: People use a thermostat to control the temperature in a roomHeatAir-conditioning
10 How Does Thermal Energy Move? There are 3 ways that thermal energy can move:1. Thermal energy can move from one particle to another in a solid2. Thermal energy can travel through space.3. Particles of a gas or liquid can carry thermal energy from one place to another.
11 Conduction and Conductors Conduction: the movement of thermal energy between objects that touch each other.Example: When you cook food in a pan on the stove, heat moves from the burner to the pan, to the food by conduction.
12 ConductorsConductor: an object that thermal energy can move through easilyA pan is used for cooking because it is made of metal – such as iron or copperThermal energy moves easily through most metals
13 Insulators Insulator – an object that doesn’t conduct heat well Example: When you pick up a hot pan, you use a potholder.Wood, cloth, and plastic are good insulatorsAir is a good insulator too.
14 InsulationInsulation is a material that is used to slow the movement of heat.Insulation may be found in:Walls of your homeA thick jacketThermos or cooler
15 **Thermal energy moves from WARMER objects to COOLER objects In winter, insulation helps keeps warm air inside a homeIn summer, insulation helps keep hot air from getting into the home
16 How is Thermal Energy Used? Friction – a force between moving objectsFriction slows the moving objects and produces heatWhat are some examples of friction?
17 Ways we use Thermal Energy Sitting by a fire to get wormTaking a warm shower or bath – thermal energy is used to heat the waterSolar panels on homes
18 Ways thermal energy can be produced: from electricitymixing of chemicals
19 Vocabulary ReviewTemperature – the measure of how hot or cold something isCelsius – the metric scale for measuring temperatureThermal energy – the form of energy that moves particles of matterHeat – the movement of thermal energy from hotter to cooler objectsConductor – an object that heat can move through easily
20 Vocab. Review Cont.Conduction – the movement of heat between objects that are touching each otherInsulator – an object that doesn’t conduct heat wellInsulation – material used to slow the movement of heatFriction – a force between two objects that slows the objects and produces heat.
21 Review – Answer the following questions: What is heat and how is it measured?How does thermal energy move?How is thermal energy used?