2Essential Questions What is heat and how is it measured? How does thermal energy move?How is thermal energy used?
3Vocabulary Preview Temperature Celsius Thermal energy Heat Conductor InsulatorInsulationfriction
4What is temperature? How is it measured? Temperature – how hot or cold something isTemperature can be measured with a thermometerTemperature can be measured on two scales:FahrenheitCelcius
5Celsius Scientists usually use the Celsius scale Water boils at 100 degrees C and it freezes at 0 degrees C
6Thermal Energy and Heat Thermal Energy – the form of energy that moves particles of matterIf particles are moving very fast – the temperature is high, and the particles have more energyThe movement of thermal energy is called heatThermal energy flows from hotter to cooler objects
7Questions:What happens when you heat up a solid – such as an ice cube?What happens when you heat up a liquid?
8Controlling Thermal Energy in our bodies: Sweating – as the sweat on your skin begin to change into a gas – it carries heat AWAY from your body. This makes you feel cooler.Shivering: If you get too cold – you may shiver. This motion helps warm you upPeople use sweating and shivering to help control their body temperatures
9Controlling Temperature: People use a thermostat to control the temperature in a roomHeatAir-conditioning
10How Does Thermal Energy Move? There are 3 ways that thermal energy can move:1. Thermal energy can move from one particle to another in a solid2. Thermal energy can travel through space.3. Particles of a gas or liquid can carry thermal energy from one place to another.
11Conduction and Conductors Conduction: the movement of thermal energy between objects that touch each other.Example: When you cook food in a pan on the stove, heat moves from the burner to the pan, to the food by conduction.
12ConductorsConductor: an object that thermal energy can move through easilyA pan is used for cooking because it is made of metal – such as iron or copperThermal energy moves easily through most metals
13Insulators Insulator – an object that doesn’t conduct heat well Example: When you pick up a hot pan, you use a potholder.Wood, cloth, and plastic are good insulatorsAir is a good insulator too.
14InsulationInsulation is a material that is used to slow the movement of heat.Insulation may be found in:Walls of your homeA thick jacketThermos or cooler
15**Thermal energy moves from WARMER objects to COOLER objects In winter, insulation helps keeps warm air inside a homeIn summer, insulation helps keep hot air from getting into the home
16How is Thermal Energy Used? Friction – a force between moving objectsFriction slows the moving objects and produces heatWhat are some examples of friction?
17Ways we use Thermal Energy Sitting by a fire to get wormTaking a warm shower or bath – thermal energy is used to heat the waterSolar panels on homes
18Ways thermal energy can be produced: from electricitymixing of chemicals
19Vocabulary ReviewTemperature – the measure of how hot or cold something isCelsius – the metric scale for measuring temperatureThermal energy – the form of energy that moves particles of matterHeat – the movement of thermal energy from hotter to cooler objectsConductor – an object that heat can move through easily
20Vocab. Review Cont.Conduction – the movement of heat between objects that are touching each otherInsulator – an object that doesn’t conduct heat wellInsulation – material used to slow the movement of heatFriction – a force between two objects that slows the objects and produces heat.
21Review – Answer the following questions: What is heat and how is it measured?How does thermal energy move?How is thermal energy used?