# 3RD Grade Science Chapter 4

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HEAT 3RD Grade Science Chapter 4

Essential Questions What is heat and how is it measured?
How does thermal energy move? How is thermal energy used?

Vocabulary Preview Temperature Celsius Thermal energy Heat Conductor
Insulator Insulation friction

What is temperature? How is it measured?
Temperature – how hot or cold something is Temperature can be measured with a thermometer Temperature can be measured on two scales: Fahrenheit Celcius

Celsius Scientists usually use the Celsius scale
Water boils at 100 degrees C and it freezes at 0 degrees C

Thermal Energy and Heat
Thermal Energy – the form of energy that moves particles of matter If particles are moving very fast – the temperature is high, and the particles have more energy The movement of thermal energy is called heat Thermal energy flows from hotter to cooler objects

Questions: What happens when you heat up a solid – such as an ice cube? What happens when you heat up a liquid?

Controlling Thermal Energy in our bodies:
Sweating – as the sweat on your skin begin to change into a gas – it carries heat AWAY from your body. This makes you feel cooler. Shivering: If you get too cold – you may shiver. This motion helps warm you up People use sweating and shivering to help control their body temperatures

Controlling Temperature:
People use a thermostat to control the temperature in a room Heat Air-conditioning

How Does Thermal Energy Move?
There are 3 ways that thermal energy can move: 1. Thermal energy can move from one particle to another in a solid 2. Thermal energy can travel through space. 3. Particles of a gas or liquid can carry thermal energy from one place to another.

Conduction and Conductors
Conduction: the movement of thermal energy between objects that touch each other. Example: When you cook food in a pan on the stove, heat moves from the burner to the pan, to the food by conduction.

Conductors Conductor: an object that thermal energy can move through easily A pan is used for cooking because it is made of metal – such as iron or copper Thermal energy moves easily through most metals

Insulators Insulator – an object that doesn’t conduct heat well
Example: When you pick up a hot pan, you use a potholder. Wood, cloth, and plastic are good insulators Air is a good insulator too.

Insulation Insulation is a material that is used to slow the movement of heat. Insulation may be found in: Walls of your home A thick jacket Thermos or cooler

**Thermal energy moves from WARMER objects to COOLER objects
In winter, insulation helps keeps warm air inside a home In summer, insulation helps keep hot air from getting into the home

How is Thermal Energy Used?
Friction – a force between moving objects Friction slows the moving objects and produces heat What are some examples of friction?

Ways we use Thermal Energy
Sitting by a fire to get worm Taking a warm shower or bath – thermal energy is used to heat the water Solar panels on homes

Ways thermal energy can be produced:
from electricity mixing of chemicals

Vocabulary Review Temperature – the measure of how hot or cold something is Celsius – the metric scale for measuring temperature Thermal energy – the form of energy that moves particles of matter Heat – the movement of thermal energy from hotter to cooler objects Conductor – an object that heat can move through easily

Vocab. Review Cont. Conduction – the movement of heat between objects that are touching each other Insulator – an object that doesn’t conduct heat well Insulation – material used to slow the movement of heat Friction – a force between two objects that slows the objects and produces heat.

Review – Answer the following questions:
What is heat and how is it measured? How does thermal energy move? How is thermal energy used?

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