# Chapter 1 The Study of Our World. The Way Science Works  Science Observing, studying, experimenting to find the way that things work and why  Technology.

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Chapter 1 The Study of Our World

The Way Science Works  Science Observing, studying, experimenting to find the way that things work and why  Technology The application of science to make our lives easier

The Way Science Works  Scientific theory An explanation of why something happens  Must be tested  Must be repeatable  Must be able to predict  Scientific law A summary of what happens  Does not explain why  Neither are absolute

The Way Science Works  Critical thinking Using logic and reason to make observations and form conclusions  Scientific method Following a series of steps in order to solve a problem Use critical thinking

Scientific Method  Step 1 Make an observation  Write down some observations about the M&M bag  Step 2 Ask a question (form a hypothesis)  Ask a question about what may be inside the M&M bag

Scientific Method  Step 3 Test your hypothesis with an experiment Use different variables  Independent (Manipulated)  What you choose to measure against  Dependent (Responding)  What changes because of your experiment  Constant  What stays the same in the experiment  Control  What you measure against in the experiment  Let’s try it!

Scientific Method  Identify the following in your M&M experiment Independent Dependent Constant Control  Open your bag of M&M (Don’t drop them!) Separate the colors Count the number of each color

Scientific Method  Step 4 Analyze your data  Look at your experiment results  Record all your observations  Answer questions  Analyze your M&M data by answering the following questions Which color had the most? How many were in the bag? Which color had the least? Make comparisons between the colors.

Scientific Method  Step 5 Draw a conclusion  Sum up what you found  Tell whether your hypothesis was true or false  Write 5 sentences about what you found in your M&M experiment Be sure to tell if your hypothesis was true or false and why

Scientific Method  Step 6 Communicate your results  Be sure to let others know what you found  Use graphs, tables, and pictures  Present at a fair or in class  Write a report that people can read  Tell the class what you found in your M&M experiment

Ways of Measuring and Reporting  Use three main types of graphs Line graph  Show change in data over time Bar graph  Comparing data for several different events Pie graph  Showing parts of a whole

Line Graph Independent variable Dependent variable

Bar Graph

Pie Graph

The Way Science Works  Qualitative Data that is reported using statements to describe it  Quantitative Data that is reported using numbers

The Way Science Works  Precision How close together all the measurements are  Accuracy How close you are to what it really should be

Ways of Measuring and Reporting  Use the International System of Units (SI) Known as the metric system  Base units of SI QuantityUnitAbbreviation LengthMeterm MassKilogramkg TimeSeconds TemperatureKelvinK Electric currentAmpereA Amount of substanceMolemol Luminous intensityCandelacd

Measurements in Science  Measurements made with different tools depending on what is needed Time Length Mass Volume Temperature  Weight vs. Mass Mass = amount of matter Weight = Earth’s force pulling on matter

Converting Measurements Kilo (k) Hecto (h) Deka (da) Meters Liters Grams Deci (d) Centi (c) Milli (m) 100010010.1.01.001 54 g to kg62 m to cm93 mL to hL 0.054 0.00093 54 62 6200 93

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