Presentation on theme: "Notes for Final Exam. Dred Scott-Slave who claimed he was free because he lived on free soil. Supreme Court said no, and declared the 36 30 line of the."— Presentation transcript:
Notes for Final Exam
Dred Scott-Slave who claimed he was free because he lived on free soil. Supreme Court said no, and declared the line of the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. This opened up the western territories to slavery. While running for Senator from Illinois, Abraham Lincoln had a series of now famous debates with Stephen Douglas mostly concerning slavery.
John Brown was an radical abolitionist who felt that action instead of talk was needed to free the slaves. He decided to attack the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry Virginia. He would then arm the salves who he hoped would join him. None did. John Brown was captured and after a trial was ordered to be hanged.
Secession Lincoln is elected President of the United States. South Carolina legislature meets to discuss secession the act of formally withdrawing from the Union. South Carolina becomes the FIRST state to secede from the Union. Jefferson Davis is the first and only President of the Confederate States of America. The Constitution of the Confederate States is the almost the same as the U.S. Constitution except that it guarantees their citizens could own slaves.
War Begins Confederate guns of South Carolina open fire on Fort Sumter an island fort. The Confederates take over the fort. Lincoln declares that the South is in open rebellion and requests the states supply 75,000 militiamen to put down the rebellion. With this action, Lincoln caused four more states to join the Confederacy. Slave states that did not secede, the states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri, became known as border states.
Advantages of the North and South North Advantages Larger population-more soldiers for the war. Most of the factories and shipyards. More railroads. Could raise more money for the war. South Advantages More skilled military officers. (Think VMI) South only needed to defend until the North grew tired of the war. Large area for the North to occupy. South tried Cotton Diplomacy thinking that Britain would support them because of their need for cotton. However, Britain had a large supply of cotton and could gain more from their colonies in India and Egypt. Some in the South worry about relying on cotton as it destroys the soil and makes them rely on imports.
First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas The first major battle between armies of the North and South occurred at Bull Run. The South identified this battle as the battle of Manassas. It is at this battle that Thomas J. Jackson received his nickname of Stonewall Jackson. At first the Union army was winning, but the South drove the Union back. This is also the first time the Rebel yell was heard. There is no recoding of this yell.
Antietam and Vicksburg The battle at Antietam Maryland became the bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War. The Union suffered over 12,000 casualties, and the South more than 13,000. Even so, the North claimed victory. The Civil War also experienced the first battle between the ironclads. The Union Monitor and the Confederate Virginia, ships armored with iron. The Siege of Vicksburg Mississippi lasted about six weeks, however, the Union finally prevailed. Ulysses S. Grant commander of the Union forces and later President of the United States gained this victory. This battle is considered a turning point in the war in the west as it gave control of the Mississippi to the Union.
Emancipation Proclamation After the Battle at Antietam, Lincoln issued a military order called The Emancipation Proclamation. This order was responsible for freeing slaves only in areas controlled by the Confederacy. Lincoln did not believe that this could apply to the slaveholding border states. The reaction varied. Some opposed the proclamation as it took away focus from reuniting the Union. Others felt that it did not go far enough. It also caused some Democrats to speak out against the war. Supporters of the war gave the Peace Democrats the nickname of a poisonous snake Copperheads.
Battle of Gettysburg Robert E. Lee The General of the Confederate Army tries an offensive move into Pennsylvania. A Confederate search party looking for shoes starts the three day battle at Gettysburg. During the battles, while there are many specific events, one event is well known: Picketts charge. 14,000 Confederate soldiers charge across an open field, only about 6500 return. After the battle, Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address. New draft law angered many poor southerners as the law would not apply to men to held many slaves.
Shermans March to the Sea William Tecumseh Shermans goal was to take Atlanta Georgia from the Confederates. To do this, Sherman used the concept of total war destroying both civilian and military resources which would ruin the Souths economy and will to fight. Sherman, after burning Atlanta marched to Savannah saying he would make Georgia howl. Later total war would come to the Carolinas.
End of the War/Reconstruction The South surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse in North Carolina. Reconstruction: the process of reuniting the nation and rebuilding the southern states without slavery. President Lincoln offers the first plan called The Ten Percent Plan. Once 10 percent of voters swore an oath of loyalty to the U.S. and accept a ban on slavery, the state would be admitted back into the Union. In January of 1865, Lincoln urges Congress to pass The Thirteenth Amendment making slavery illegal in the United States. April 1865 John Wilkes Booth assainates President Lincoln and Vice President Andrew Jackson becomes President.