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Center for Applied Linguistics 1 The Item-Writing Process for ACCESS for ELLs Online Involvement by ESL Teachers January 2005 Illinois 28th Annual Statewide.

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Presentation on theme: "Center for Applied Linguistics 1 The Item-Writing Process for ACCESS for ELLs Online Involvement by ESL Teachers January 2005 Illinois 28th Annual Statewide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Center for Applied Linguistics 1 The Item-Writing Process for ACCESS for ELLs Online Involvement by ESL Teachers January 2005 Illinois 28th Annual Statewide Conference for Teachers Serving Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students Jim Bauman Center for Applied Linguistics Washington, DC

2 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 2 Presentation Outline The WIDA Assessment Framework Structure of ACCESS for ELLs The Item Writing Course

3 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 3 WIDAs Foundation Standards Clear expectations for students and schools Motivation to work hard Professional Development Improved teaching Higher levels of learning Adapted from: National Research Council, 1999 Testing, Teaching, and Learning: A Guide for States and School Districts Assessment Accountability

4 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 4 WIDA Enhanced Assessment System Specifications Standards Task Blueprint ELP Standards Classroom Assessment State Content Standards Lesson Plan Assessment Framework ELP Standards Large-scale Assessment Specifications Test Blueprint English Language Proficiency Test (ACCESS for ELLS) Alternate Assessment of Academic Achievement (Alternate ACCESS) Classroom Assessments

5 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 5 Organization of the WIDA Standards Frameworks for Classroom & Large-Scale Assessment (2) English Language Proficiency Standards (5) Language Domains (4) Grade Level Clusters (4) Language Proficiency Levels (5) Model PIs are the lowest level of expression of the standards Model Performance Indicators (>800) SI LA MA SC SS LRWSLRWS K

6 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 6 WIDA Standards Examples Social Studies, Listening, 6-8 English language learners process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations. Level 1: Identify icons on maps or graphs from oral statements. Level 3: Categorize resources or products of regions from oral descriptions. Level 5: Draw conclusions about resources or products in various regions based on oral descriptions. Social & Instructional, Writing, 6-8 English language learners engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences. Level 4: Suggest ideas for making changes in school, such as rearranging a schedule or adding subjects. Language Arts, Reading, 6-8 English language learners process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency. Level 5: Draw conclusions from explicit and implicit text.

7 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 7 Aligning State Content Standards with WIDA ELP Standards MIDDLE/JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Illinois State Social Science Standards STATE GOAL 17: Understand world geography and the effects of geography on society, with an emphasis on the United States. 17.B.3a Explain how physical processes including climate, plate tectonics, erosion, soil formation, water cycle, and circulation patterns in the ocean shape patterns in the environment and influence availability and quality of natural resources. 17.C.3b Explain how patterns of resources are used throughout the world. 17.A.3b Explain how to make and use geographic representations to provide and enhance spatial information. WIDA Social Studies Standards Listening English language learners process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations. Level 1: Identify icons on maps or graphs from oral statements. Level 3: Categorize resources or products of regions from oral descriptions. Level 5: Draw conclusions about resources or products in various regions based on oral descriptions.

8 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 8 Presentation Outline The WIDA Assessment Framework and Standards Structure of ACCESS for ELLs The Item Writing Course

9 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 9 Structure of ACCESS for ELLs Grade Level and Tier K A (adaptive) A B C 100 (roll-out Spring 2005) 999 (used to produce screener) 200 (roll-out Spring 2006) Listening group admin, machine scored Reading group admin, machine scored Speaking individual admin, adaptive, TA scored Writing group admin, rater scored Domains Forms

10 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 10 Theme and Item Structure Theme Item Model Item StimulusQuestion and Response Options

11 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 11 Expression of the Thematic Folder Orientation Contextualizes the items Engages background knowledge Stimulus Text and/or Graphic Presents new information Organizes information visually Reduces memory load 3 or more items at same or scaffolded proficiency levels Item levels determined by specs Address single strand of PIs

12 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 12 Sample Listening Theme Script: Look at the map. It shows some of the important economic activities in different regions of modern Russia. Each symbol in the legend shows a different economic activity. A fish indicates fishing, a factory heavy industry, logs forestry, wheat agriculture, a pick and shovel mining, and an oil rig petroleum. The Russian Economy

13 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 13 Sample Listening Items Script: Find the symbol for oil. 1 Western SiberiaEastern SiberiaFar EastUrals 3 Script: Russia has many kinds of natural resources. These include coal and iron ores from mining, oil from drilling, and wood from logging. Which region in Russia has the greatest variety of natural resources? Script: The part of Russia from Siberia east is extremely cold for much of the year and is sparsely populated. The western part of the country, particularly in the south, has a milder climate and a longer growing season. Almost 80 percent of the population lives in the western part. Since factories require a large labor force to run them but they also need raw materials and energy, where would you probably find the greatest concentration of Russias heavy industry? In the southern part of the country where food is plentiful In the northern part of the country where the population is large In the eastern part of the country where raw materials are abundant In the middle part of the country where raw materials and people are abundant 5

14 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 14 Sample Writing Theme Changes in Cafeteria Menu ItemOld PriceNew Price Hamburger Soda Milk Apple Banana Pie Ice Cream Yogurt The principal at your school has decided to change the prices of some foods in the school cafeteria. Some students like the changes and some do not.

15 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 15 Sample Writing Item Look at the new cafeteria price list. Suggest changes you would make to the prices for these or other foods. Write a short paragraph of at least 8 sentences. Write about changes you would make to cafeteria prices.

16 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 16 Goals of an Item Specification State the assessment objective By grade By PI Describe the item stimulus Use of graphics/text Mode of presentation to test taker Describe the test takers task Method of selecting a correct response Method of constructing a scorable response Properties of response options Assessment Objective Assessment tasks will allow ELLs in the 6th to 8th grade to demonstrate the ability to identify icons on maps or graphs from oral statements by selecting the corresponding picture. Stimulus Description Stimulus is a simple oral statement or command (no more than one sentence) that requires the students to identify an icon (e.g., stars, trees, compass rose, ) on a map. The teacher will read the stimulus aloud from the test administration book. The stimulus will not be printed in the student's test booklet. Task Description Description: Given four pictures on a map, the student selects the picture that matches the oral statement. The map can be of a fictitious country. Response Options: There are four options. Options consist of pictures of icons on a map. There is a single, correct answer. One picture is the key; the others are distractors representing other icons commonly confused with the key. Social Studies, Listening, 6-8, Level 1

17 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 17 Life Cycle of a Test Item 1.Receive theme & items from item writer 2.Submit items to external review 3.Commission illustrations 4.Check thematic folder for internal consistency 5.Submit folder and items to bias review 6.Layout folder in test form 7.Field test to establish item properties 8.Operationalize for one year 9.Retire the folder and items

18 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 18 What the Item Writer Does Read the scope of the item in the specs statement Read the stimulus description & identify an appropriate content area Write or describe the theme stimulus and/or model Write the item stimuli or prompts Read the task description & write response options for the items R e v i e w & RevIseRevIse

19 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 19 Item Creation & Review Item Writers Internal Reviewers Bias & Content Reviewers Specifications Raw Items Cleaned Items Approved Items (ready for field testing)

20 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 20 Raw Item Selected-Response Item Language Arts, Reading, Grade 6-8, Level 5 In your test booklet are some sentences that tell why something happened in the story I will read. Orientation Leo and his father went to the grocery store. They bought food for a party they are having. At the grocery store, they picked out a cake and some ice cream. When they got home, Leos father put the cake on the table in the kitchen and walked away. Then, Leos dog, who had not eaten all day, came into the kitchen and ate the whole cake! Theme Stimulus A. Because he was hungry B. Because he was a bad dog C. Because Leo told him to eat it D. Because he was thirsty Options A. Because he was hungry Key Why did Leos dog eat the cake? Question None Stimulus Performance Indicator Draw conclusions from explicit and implicit text Assessment Objective Assessment tasks will allow ELLs in the 6th to 8th grade to draw a text supported conclusion from a reading passage by selecting the corresponding text option. Stimulus Description Stimulus is a fictional story of 4 to 6 sentences, some of which may show complex sentence structures. Vocabulary is familiar. Specification (in part)

21 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 21 Cleaned Item Item is reconceived as part of a thematic folder with items at levels 3, 4, and 5 (only level 5 is shown here) The Brown family is going to have a party for their friends and neighbors to celebrate the Fourth of July. Orientation Generic picture of a family making preparations for a party. Theme Stimulus A. Because he was hungry B. Because he was happy C. Because Leo took him to the grocery store D. Because Leo did not buy him dog food Options A. Because he was hungry Key Why did Rambo eat the cake? Question Leo and his father went to the grocery store to buy food for the party, but they forgot to feed their dog Rambo before they left. At the grocery store, they picked out a cake, some ice cream, and soda. When they got home, Leo put the food on table in the kitchen and went to help his father. When he got back, he was horrified to see that Rambo had his nose in the cake, happily eating away. Item Stimulus (Level 5)

22 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 22 Approved Item Item after review by content and bias committee. The Rodriquez family is going to have a party for their friends and neighbors to celebrate Cinco de Mayo, an important holiday in Mexico. Orientation Generic picture of a family making preparations for a party. Family members should look Hispanic. Theme Stimulus A. Because he was hungry B. Because he was happy C. Because Leo took him to the grocery store D. Because Leo did not buy him dog food Options A. Because he was hungry Key Why did Cabo eat the cake? Question Leo and his father went to the grocery store to buy food for the party, but they forgot to feed their dog Cabo before they left. At the grocery store, they picked out a cake, some ice cream, and soda. When they got home, Leo put the food on table in the kitchen and went to help his father. When he got back, he was horrified to see that Cabo had his nose in the cake, happily eating away. Item Stimulus (Level 5)

23 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 23 The Review Process Check for fit to PIs Does length of stimulus match spec? Does linguistic complexity of stimulus match spec? Is vocabulary appropriate to spec? Check response options properties Is there only one correct response option? Are distractors motivated and equally attractive? Are response options balanced in length & complexity? Check for inter-item balance & integrity Are items consistent with theme? Are items independent? Check for content accuracy Check for language, culture, and gender bias

24 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 24 Presentation Outline The WIDA Assessment Framework and Standards Structure of ACCESS for ELLs The Item Writing Course

25 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 25 Course Goals Understand and apply established principles of language test construction, including notions of test validity and reliability Develop test items which accord with guidelines established for determining item difficulty, bias and authenticity Develop test items which accurately address a set of predetermined item specifications (the WIDA specifications), including writing test prompts and scoring rubrics Develop test items across the range of item formats designated by the WIDA specifications Develop test items that target specific levels of English language proficiency Develop test items that are aligned with the functional language requirements of social and classroom language and of the content areas: English language arts, mathematics, science and social studies.

26 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 26 Course Work Requirements Study and apply the specifications for the participants designated grade level Write test items in each of the four language domains for the designated grade level Communicate with the class on substantive issues via discussion boards Communicate with the class on procedural issues via chat room Interact with other members of designated grade level Take and pass quizzes and final exam

27 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 27 Course Participants Lead Instructor: Jim Bauman Associate Instructors: Jessica Motz & Ellen Parkhurst Teaching Assistants: George Motz (1-2), Lee Gough (3-5), Jennifer Himmel (6-8), Ellen Daniels (9-12) Active Participants (28) From IL: Marion FlamanSD54 Michael SafinaCCSD59 Diane WilkinSD99 Delia RodriguezCUSD300 Irene PelcCCSD15 Deb GrantHSC220 Auditors (5)

28 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 28 Course Grading Structure Item submission 60% Participation in chat sessions and discussions 20% Quizzes 20% Successful completion of course requirements at an 80% level earns 2 university credits from the University of Wisconsin

29 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 29 Course Home Page Course Menu

30 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 30 Structure of the Course

31 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 31 Structure of a Module Each module contains: Readings Self-Paced Exercises Interactive Exercises Discussions Chats Assignments Quizzes

32 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 32 Documents

33 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 33 Discussion Boards

34 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 34 Discussion Board Results Discussion ForumResponsesPagesWords Exploring the item specifications 41153,000 Sources of difficulty in listening items ,700 How to evaluate constructed responses ,700 Assessing language vs assessing content ,725 Sources of reading errors97359,225 Total ,350

35 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 35 Completing an Assignment 1.Download appropriate set of item specs from Documents area 2.Download data entry form from Documents 3.Conceive & research folder and items 4.Complete item data entry form 5.Submit completed form to Dropbox 6.Revise per instructors feedback 7.Resubmit to Dropbox Specification Blank Data Entry Form Content Standards Dropbox Completed Data Entry Form

36 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 36 The Dropbox

37 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 37 Test Item Results Number of Items Produced Standard Language DomainGradeLevelLAMASCSISS Grand Total Listening Listening Total Reading Reading Total Grand Total

38 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 38 What Teachers Got as Item Writers University credit or CEUs Direct experience with on-line learning Professional development on the WIDA standards and writing items for large-scale assessments Informed discussion on how to apply WIDA standards to the curriculum Professional contacts with other teachers across the consortium The deep gratitude of the ACCESS for ELLs development staff!!

39 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 39 What WIDA Got from Teacher Item Writers Approximately 1600 raw items A nucleus in each state of WIDA informed staff A pool of talent to serve as test coordinators, administrators, and future item reviewers Valuable insight on teachers perspectives on standardized testing Important clues on how to build professional development to apply the WIDA framework in the classroom

40 IRC Conference Jan 24-27, 2005 ACCESS for ELLs Item WritingJim Bauman 40 Questions, Discussion, Feedback?


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