Presentation on theme: "Kentucky Core Academic Standards"— Presentation transcript:
1 Kentucky Core Academic Standards Assessment LiteracyKentucky Core Academic StandardsCharacteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and LearningCareer and College ReadinessPODCAST 3-Elementary[Advance Animation]This is the third in a series of podcasts designed to provide district staff with a basic foundation for Kentucky Core Academic Standards, Highly Effective Teaching and Learning, Assessment Literacy, and Leadership, and how these components support Senate Bill 1 requirements.The summer conferences and future professional development for all levels and content areas will focus on these components in much greater depth.
2 College & Career Readiness HighPodcast 3AssessmentPodcast 4SENATE BILL 1HIGHLY EFFECTIVE TEACHING & LEARNINGMiddleAs we said in the previous podcasts:[Advance Animation]No one grade level or content area is responsible for preparing a student for life after 12th grade;however we can ensure that we are providing the most effective teaching and learning experiences for all students while we have them.We can ensure that what we are teaching is grounded in standards that are rigorous, coherent and equitable.We can ensure that at every level teachers AND students assess learning and make adjustments.[Advance Animation] [Advance Animation]While the focus of the first podcast was Senate Bill 1,the focus of the final podcast will be the Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and Learning and the connection to Balanced Assessment,podcast number 2 focused on an introduction to the Kentucky Core Academic Standards,this third podcast will take a closer look at the Kentucky Core Academic Standards for English Language Arts and Math .Kentucky Core Academic StandardsAssessmentPodcast 1Podcast 2ElementaryAssessment
3 Today’s Objective Gain a deeper understanding of: The design and organization of the Kentucky Core Academic Standards for ELA and Math.How the Kentucky Core Academic Standards define what students should know and be able to do at each grade level.How to clarify our understanding of the intent of the Kentucky Core Academic Standards.[Advance Animation]Today, we are going to gain a deeper understanding of the design and organization of the Kentucky Core Academic Standards for both English Language Arts and Math. You will have the opportunity to discuss the standards with your grade level teams and become more familiar with the standards.
4 Learning TargetsI can articulate how the Kentucky Core Academic Standards are designed and organized.I can recognize what students are expected to know and be able to do for a given standard.I can identify areas in the Standards for further study.As we move into using the new Kentucky Core Academic Standards, teachers are encouraged to use student friendly learning targets.[Advance Animation]As described in the text Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, by Rick Stiggins and his colleagues, learning targets provide the student with information about what they are learning and how they will know they have learned the content. Students who understand the intended learning outperform those who do not.Here we have given examples of what student friendly learning targets can look like.
5 Common Core to KCASThe Common Core State Standards (CCSS)for Mathematics are organized by grade level in Grades K–8. At the high school level, the standards are organized by conceptual category (number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, modeling and probability and statistics), showing the body of knowledge students should learn in each category to be college and career ready, and to be prepared to study more advanced mathematics.The Common Core State Standards (CCSS)for English Language Arts (ELA) The College and Career Ready standards anchor the document and define general, cross-disciplinary literacy expectations that must be met for students to be prepared to enter college and workforce training programs ready to succeed. The K–12 grade-specific standards define end-of-year expectations and a cumulative progression designed to enable students to meet college and career readiness expectations no later than the end of high school.At the elementary level, all teachers must know and understand both the Kentucky Core Academic Standards for English Language Arts and Math.[Advance Animation]This is no small feat. This process will take time and a lot of dedication on the part of our schools and teachers. In learning both sets of standards, it is always helpful to think about the similarities and differences. While there are definite differences between the Math and English Language Arts Standards, there are also similarities. During the last podcast, you had the opportunity to read the introduction documents and highlight some of those similarities and differences.Both the Common Core State Standards for Math and English Language Arts were designed to ensure that students will be college and career ready. Both address minimum content expectations from K-12. Both sets of standards were written for student mastery by the end of the specified grade. Both emphasize the need to allow students to think creatively and complexly in order to be successful in life after 12th grade.As we move through this presentation and you continue the hard work of learning the new standards, continue to look for similarities and differences between the two sets of standards. Also, think about how what you are learning fits with your current practice and instruction, but keep in mind changes you may need to make. While this process won’t be easy, doing so will make this daunting task seem somewhat less formidable.
6 Math Mathematical Content Standards Number and Quantity Algebra FunctionsModelingStatistics and ProbabilityGeometry[Advance Animation]We are going to begin with the design and structure of the Kentucky Core Academic Standards for Math.The mathematical content standards addressed are: number and quantity, algebra, functions, modeling, statistics and probability, and geometry.Through mastery of these content standards students will be ready and able to complete the more advanced mathematics required in college and/ or the career of their choice.
7 Math Mathematical Practices Standards Make sense of complex problems and persevere in solving them.Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.Model with mathematics.Use appropriate tools strategically.Attend to precision.Look for and make use of structure.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.[Advance Animation]The Standards for Mathematical Practices are applicable to all grades K-12 and describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students.These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. It is imperative that these practices are connected to mathematical content in mathematics instruction.Expectations that begin with the word “understand” are often especially good opportunities to connect the practices to the content. Students who lack understanding of a topic may rely on procedures too heavily.As we move forward in our learning over the next several months, you will have opportunities to look more closely at these standards. The summer conference will include a focus on these practices.[Pause for 3 seconds for reading]
8 Clusters are used to organize the standards of a particular Domain. Standards must be taught as part of the cluster and not as individual skills.Clusters are used to organize the standards of a particular Domain.In reading the grade level standards, you need to first understand the three terms at the top of the slide.[Advance Animation]Standards define what student should understand and be able to do. Such as with this third grade example. Standard 1 states: Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or The standards do not represent isolated skills, but must be taught as part of the cluster.Clusters are groups of related standards and are used to organize the standards of a particular domain. For example: The three standards in this example are listed under the cluster heading of “use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic”.Domains are larger groups of related standards. For this example: The domain number and operations in base ten is the umbrella under which the cluster and standards fall.The domains for each level are listed at the bottom of this slide. You will have a chance to look more closely at your grade level’s standards in a minute.K5 DomainsCounting & CardinalityOperations & Algebraic ThinkingNumber & Operations in Base TenNumber & Operations/ FractionsMeasurement & DataGeometry6-8 DomainsRatios & Proportional ReasoningNumber SystemExpressions & EquationsGeometryStatistics & ProbabilityFunctions9-12 Conceptual CategoriesNumber & QuantityAlgebraFunctionsModelingGeometryStatistics & Probability
9 The Number System NSApply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g. by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) – (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) – (3/4) = 8/9 because ¾ of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) – (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share ½ lb. of chocolate equally? How many ¾-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length ¾ mi and area ½ square mi?Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.2. Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.3. Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standardalgorithm for each operation.Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and theleast common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the leastcommon multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 13. Use the distributiveproperty to express a sum of whole numbers with a common factor as a multiple ofa sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36+8 as4(9+2)To help us better understand that idea. Here you can see a sample of the sixth grade standards. Take a couple of seconds to identify the standards, clusters, and domain. Also, where do you see the grade level indicated?[Pause for 5 seconds]
10 Where are the Domain, Grade Level, Cluster and Standards? The Number System NSApply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g. by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) – (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) – (3/4) = 8/9 because ¾ of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) – (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share ½ lb. of chocolate equally? How many ¾-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length ¾ mi and area ½ square mi?Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.2. Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.3. Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standardalgorithm for each operation.Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and theleast common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the leastcommon multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 13. Use the distributiveproperty to express a sum of whole numbers with a common factor as a multiple ofa sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36+8 as4(9+2)CLUSTERSTANDARDSWhere are the Domain, Grade Level, Cluster and Standards?CLUSTERSTANDARDSTake another second to see if you were right.[Advance Animation]The domain is “The Number System”The grade level is in the upper right hand corner with the abbreviation for the domain.The clusters are in bold.The standards are listed below the clusters.You are well on your way to understanding the design and organization of the math standards.
11 Math Grade Level Reading Kindergarten-p. E13 and E14 First Grade- p. E17 and E18Second Grade- p. E21 and E22Third Grade-p. E25 and E26Fourth Grade- p. E30 and E31Fifth Grade- p. E36 and E37Think, Pair, Share: Questions to discuss:What are the critical areas for your grade level?How might this affect your decision-making as you plan your students’ math instruction?At this time, you are going to take a few minutes to do some reading and have some conversation about the content, as well as the design and organization, of your grade level’s standards.[Advance Animation]You should be sitting in your grade level teams, so you can have conversation about the specific expectations of your grade level for both math and English Language Arts today. You should have your complete set of standards materials with you. Please note the page number for your grade level on the slide.After you have taken a few minutes to read quietly, think about the two questions on the slide and be prepared to share with your grade level team.We are going to take about 5 minutes to read AND another 5 minutes to discuss the main points from the reading. Please pause the podcast for 10 total minutes.[Pause for 10 seconds. Insert music.]
12 Math Mathematical Practices Standards Standards Cluster Domain Common LanguageMathematical Practices StandardsStandardsClusterDomain[Advance Animation]As we move into our next section, here are some terms to know specific to the Kentucky Core Academic Standards for Math. In the previous podcasts, we highlighted the common language at the end. For this podcast, we want you to be able to better compare the two sets of standards and the language specific to each.
13 English Language Arts Design and Organization Quick Read Quickly read and familiarize yourself with the document titled “How to Read this Document” on page 18 in your KCAS materials.Highlight important information as we continue the presentationWe are now going to begin to look at the design and organization of the English Language Arts standards.[Advance Animation]You are going to take just 2 minutes to quickly skim and scan the document titled “How to Read this Document” from the English Language Arts introduction.Please realize you will not have time to read it in its entirety, but should be familiar with its structure. As we move through the next few slides, go back to highlight where the information is addressed in the handout.Please pause the podcast for 2 minutes as teachers read the one-page handout.[Pause for 10 seconds. Insert music.]
14 English Language Arts Three main sections: Design and Organization K-5 English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (cross-disciplinary)6-12 English Language Arts6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsShared responsibility for students’ literacy development.[Advance Animation]The Kentucky Core Academic Standards contain English Language Arts standards for Kindergarten through 12th grade. For K-5, they are referred to as English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects.Currently, science and social studies do not have new content standards. However, it is the responsibility of teachers of all subject areas to utilize the Kentucky Core Academic Standards to teach their content, including math. Literacy standards in history/social studies, science and technical subjects complement rather than replace content standards in these subjects. Students are more likely to master subject area content through the use and application of the English Language Arts standards.A student’s literacy development and preparedness for college is dependent upon every one in this room. All classroom teachers, ECE teachers, special area teachers, and administrators. All personnel within a building are responsible for each student’s success.
15 English Language Arts Design and Organization College and Career Readiness (CCR) Anchor Standards:Define the minimum literacy expectations for students to be prepared for the college or career of their choiceEach section (K-5, 6-8, 9-12) is divided into Strands for ELA:Reading – 9 Literature Standards, 10 Informational Standards, and 4 Foundational Skills Standards for K-5Writing – 10 StandardsSpeaking & Listening – 6 StandardsLanguage – 6 StandardsEach Strand is organized by a strand-specific set of CCR Anchor Standards that is consistent across all grades and content areas.[Advance Animation]The English Language Arts are all linked by the College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards. The standards for each grade level are all mapped backwards from the College and Career Readiness Anchor standards.These anchor standards define the minimum literacy expectations for students to be prepared for the college or career of their choice.The anchor standards are divided into strands.Each grade level has standards for theReading Literature strand andReading Informational strand.Reading Literature has 9 anchor standards, Reading Informational has 10 anchor standardsElementary has an additional strand titled Reading Foundational Skills. There are NO anchor standards for these standards. While they are essential for a student’s reading success regardless of grade or age, they are not defined for any grade levels beyond 5th grade.Each grade level also has standards for Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language strands.These strands are headed by a strand-specific set of College and Career Reading Standards that help to guide each grade level and content area as they implement the grade-specific standards.
16 English Language Arts Design and Organization Grade Level Specific StandardsDefine end-of-year expectations;What students should know and be able to do by the end of the specified gradeAre developmentally appropriate, cumulative progression of skills and understandings designed to enable students to meet College and Career Readiness (CCR) expectations;Provide a one-to-one correspondence with CCR standardsAre specific to each grade level in grades K-8;Use two-year bands in grades 9-12 (9-10, 11-12)Maintain a focus on results rather than the means.With the Kentucky Core Academic Standards,[Advance Animation]each grade level has its own set of standards tied to the anchor standards mentioned previously.The standards provide a clear expectation for what students should know and be able to do by the end of the specified grade.The standards also provide a clear progression designed to enable all students to meet the College and Career Readiness expectations.Again, these standards provide WHAT we are teaching, not the HOW or the means.
17 English Language Arts Design and Organization Clusters Found within each strandHelp to define the intent of the standards[Advance Animation]As you will notice, the document you have been referencing does not mention the term cluster. However, the state of Kentucky, like other states, has decided to use that term to refer to the headings preceding related standards.These cluster headings help to define the intent of the standard by further clarifying the meaning of the standard, and group or “cluster” the standards.
18 One more look… Abbreviation Strand Grade Band Standard Cluster Let’s look at a page from the English Language Arts standards to help us better understand the structure and terminology. Take just a few seconds to visually identify the strand, the strand abbreviation, grade band, clusters, and standards.[Pause for 5 seconds.]The strand is Reading Foundation Skills (K-5) [Advance Animation]In the upper right hand corner is the abbreviation for the strand. In this case: RF. [Advance Animation]There are two grade bands on this page: Kindergarten and First Grade [Advance Animation]There are two clusters in gray: Print Concepts and Phonological Awareness [Advance Animation]There are standards listed below the clusters. [Advance Animation]Some standards also have indicators listed beneath them. They are preceded by a lowercase letter.You are now well on your way to understanding the design and organization of the English Language Arts standards.
19 English Language Arts Design and Organization Referencing the StandardsExample: RL.3.6=Reading Literature, Third Grade, Standard 6College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard: 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.Cluster: Craft and StructureThird Grade Literature Standard: 6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.[Advance Animation] [Advance Animation]When referencing the new standards, the strand is written first in an abbreviated form, then the grade level, then the standard number. It is the job of the educator to look at the corresponding College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard and the cluster when reading the standards.For example: RL.3.6 stands for Reading Literature, third grade, standard 6.[Advance Animation]The college and Career Readiness Anchor Standard 6 is “Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.” Before students leave 12th grade, they should know and be able to do that standard.Reading Standard 6 is under the cluster heading of “Craft and Structure”, because standards 4, 5, and 6 all relate to the craft and structure of reading, both literature and informational.Finally, this specific third grade standard reads “distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.”By the end of third grade, students should know and be able to do this, so they are able to access the 4th grade standard in the next year and so on. You should see the connectedness to the College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard on point of view.
20 English Language Arts Design and Organization Three Appendices: A. Research and evidence; glossary of key termsB. Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasksC. Annotated student writing samples[Advance Animation]Your standards materials also contain some invaluable resources in the appendices.Appendix A contains the research and evidence supporting the standards movement, including the increased expectations as students enter college or the workforce.Appendix B contains text exemplars, both listed and as excerpts, to help guide you as you choose instructional materials. An increase in text complexity is a cornerstone of the new academic standards.Appendix B also contain sample performance tasks. While these performance tasks are listed alongside the reading text exemplars, you will find that they each address multiple English Language Arts standards.The final appendix contains annotated student writing samples. While Appendix B included exemplars, the writing samples in Appendix C represent the minimum requirement for meeting the new standards. They are representative of various writing genres and contexts.All of the appendices will be invaluable as you implement the new standards.
21 English Language Arts Progressions Compiled and provided by the District to support understanding of how the standards change and progress from grade-to-gradeShow each grade specific standard for the College and Career Readiness Anchor StandardsHelp to clarify the intent of the standardsProvide support for determining instructional next steps for both intervention and extension[Advance Animation]In your KCAS materials, there is a tab labeled “progressions”. This document was compiled by the District to help you better understand how the expectations change for each grade level. It can be used to help clarify the intent of the standards. For example: If you are feeling uncertain about a standard at your grade level, you can look ahead at the next grade or back at the previous grade to feel more certain about the intent. This document can also help as you design instruction for students who are struggling with grade-level content or who are ready to go beyond their assigned grade level. The progressions will be especially helpful for teachers of multi-age classrooms and special areas teachers who serve all grade levels.
22 English Language Arts College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards Common LanguageCollege and Career Readiness Anchor StandardsStrandsReading Literature, Reading Informational, Reading Foundational Skills, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and LanguageClustersStandardsGrade Bands (i.e., Kindergarten, First Grade, etc.)[Advance Animation]Here is some common language specific to the Kentucky Core Academic Standards for English Language Arts.[Pause for 3 seconds.]
23 Take a Closer Look Getting to Know Your Standards Each grade level divide into two groupsOne group for ELA and one for MathProcedure:Math: Read the first page of your standards.K-E151st-E192nd-E213rd-E274th-E325th-E38English Language Arts: Read the Reading Literature Standards for your grade band.For our final group activity today, we are going to take a closer look at your grade level specific standards.[Advance Animation]You will NOT have time to read all of the new standards. However, you can use this activity or one like it each time you do. Again, it is important to make connections between our new and prior knowledge.You will need to divide your grade level team into two groups. One group will work on ELA and one will work on Math.The group working on the math will read the first page of the standards or as much as time allows. The group working on English Language Arts will read the Reading Literature Standards for your grade band. These standards start on page 21 in your KCAS materials. The anchor standards are on page 20.
24 Take a Closer Look Getting to Know Your Standards As you read, use Post-It Notes to jot down a standard or standards for each category:GO!-ComfortableWOAH!-A little uncomfortableNO!-Very uncomfortableDiscuss your findings with your team.Leave your Post-It notes on the anchor chart as your exit slip when you leave today.[Advance Animation]As you read, use Post-It notes to capture your thoughts about the standards. If a standard feels very comfortable or familiar, write it on a post-it note labeled “Go”. This indicates that this standard is very similar to our previous core content and/or instruction in your classroom. If a standard feels a little uncomfortable or a little unfamiliar, write it on a post-it note labeled “woah”. These standards are ones that will need a closer look or some conversation with our colleagues to determine the intent of the standard or how to best instruct students in this standard. Finally, if a standard feels very uncomfortable or unfamiliar, write it on a post-it note labeled “no”. Standards in this category seem very foreign. They may be standards that are more similar to content previously addressed in another grade level or they may just be much higher expectations that we were used to. These standards are ones that will definitely need a closer look and time to really determine the intent of the standard and the best methods of instruction to ensure student mastery. We are all in the same boat as we learn these new standards. Please do not hesitate to indicate that there are standards with which you are uncomfortable. That is part of this learning process.After you have taken about 5 to 7 minutes to read and categorize the standards. Take another 5-7 minutes to discuss your findings with your team.When you exit today’s session in a little while, leave your post-it notes on the anchor chart to serve as your exit slip for today. Your facilitator will use them as a guide for determining next steps for your learning.Please pause the podcast for a total of 15 minutes of work time.[Pause for 10 seconds. Insert music.]
25 Very Important Information Deconstructed StandardsKDE has been working with teachers and teacher leaders to further define the standards.The standards have been deconstructed into learning targets.KnowledgeReasoningPerformance SkillProductBefore we leave today, there is one more important piece to the puzzle.[Advance Animation]The English Language Arts and Math Standards are being deconstructed by the state to better illuminate the intent of the standards.KDE has been working with teachers and teacher leaders from across the state to deconstruct the standards into learning targets. The work of these educators is based upon the text Classroom Assessment for Student Learning and the work of Rick Stiggins and his colleagues.These learning targets are in language intended for the teacher. It will be the role of the teacher, in collaboration with students, to further define the targets into student-friendly language.
26 Divide into grade levels El MS HS – Photo DavidHere is an example of the form the state is using for the English Language Arts Standards. Notice that it has a place for the College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard, the Strand, Cluster, Grade, and Standard. Below you will be able to find the targets written in language intended for the teacher.Copyright 2007 ETS, Portland, OR and Leadership, Learning and Assessment, LLC
27 Very Important Information Deconstructed StandardsCurrently undergoing revisionShould be available by the end of MayWill be part of the summer conference and on- going professional development[Advance Animation]The deconstructed standards for ELA and Math are currently undergoing revision. You will be able to find the deconstructed standards on KDE’s website. The use of these deconstructed standards will be a part of the summer conference, as well as on-going professional development as we all continue learning about the standards.
28 Next StepsFinal Podcast-Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and LearningSummer Professional Development – KCAS, CHETL, Assessment Literacy (preparation for first weeks of the school year)Continuing Professional Development – differentiated to meet the needs of individual schools[Advance Animation]During the past two podcast, we have taken a closer look at WHAT we will be teaching with the new Kentucky Core Academic Standards. In the final podcast, we will examine the Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and Learning which provide a common understanding of HOW to effectively teach the new standards. All of this learning will be continued through professional development this summer, as well as into the next school year. We must keep in mind that this process will not be completed in a few months or even one year. We must continue to use our patience as we grow as professionals.
29 Analytical & Applied Sciences Cultural Studies Gheens WelcomeAnalytical & Applied SciencesCultural StudiesEnglish as a Second LanguageEnvironmental ScienceGuidance ServicesProfessional Library/CRCLibrary Media ServicesLiteracyProfessional DevelopmentStudent DevelopmentTitle I/ESSCommunities of Practice(COPS)BasementBookitCurriculum MapsGheens FacilitiesGheens Water CoolerInfo WarehouseSUMMER CONFERENCESAll of this information and more is available on the Gheens Website. Go to the Communities of Practice Link.[Advance Animation]
30 Learning TargetsI can articulate how the Kentucky Core Academic Standards are designed and organized.I can recognize what students are expected to know and be able to do for a given standard.I can identify areas in the Standards for further study.[Advance Animation]Today, you have had the opportunity to take a closer look at your grade-level specific standards and engage in conversations with your colleagues about the standards. Hopefully, you are beginning to feel more comfortable with this process. If you have any questions, please contact the Literacy or Analytical and Applied Sciences Departments.
31 that a small group of thoughtful, it is the only thing that ever has." Closing Thought"Never doubtthat a small group of thoughtful,committed peoplecan change the world. Indeed,it is the only thing that ever has." ~ Margaret Mead[Advance Animation]As we close today, please realize that your commitment to education and the students of JCPS is noticed and greatly appreciated. Thank you for all you do!