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North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org PART 3 Calculation Methods and Example.

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1 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org PART 3 Calculation Methods and Example Calculations for GHGs Calculation Methods and Example Calculations for GHGs 1

2 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 2 Review: Industries/emission sources that emit GHGs Combustion – boilers, turbines, engines, ovens, furnaces, kilns, incinerators Including sorbents used in combustion control technology Certain uses of miscellaneous carbonates (limestone/dolomite) Anaerobic decomposition (landfills, manure management, anaerobic wastewater treatment) Oil and natural gas production, transmission and distribution

3 Review: Industries/emission sources emit GHGs (contd) Use of GHGs for as substitute for Ozone Depleting Substances, e.g.: refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, solvent cleaning, foam production, sterilization, fire extinguishing, and aerosols Other very specific industrial processes – certain electronics manufacturing, mfg of specific petroleum products, metals, chemicals 3 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org

4 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 4 Examples of Processes that dont emit GHGs (but may emit volatile organic compounds and air toxics) Coating processes If you dont use GHGs as the solvents Combustion processes (drying ovens, thermal oxidizers) used in curing/drying do emit CO 2, CH 4, N 2 0 Storage tanks If you dont store a product with dissolved methane in it Refined products dont contain dissolved methane If you dont have a flare or any other combustion Applying/Curing polyester resins If use combustion, then would emit Reactors/Mixing vessels If they dont involve extra fuel or destruction of carbonates If not used in listed industries (e.g., phosphoric acid, adipic acid, etc.) Soy Crushing/Grain handling If you dont use GHGs for sterilization Combustion/ anaerobic wastewater treatment do emit

5 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 5 Key Reference for Calculation Methods 2008 NC GHG Emission Inventory Instructions, Table 3 http://daq.state.nc.us/monitor/eminv/forms/GHG_Emi ssion_Inventory_Instructions.pdf http://daq.state.nc.us/monitor/eminv/forms/GHG_Emi ssion_Inventory_Instructions.pdf Provides links to DAQ guidance/spreadsheets and other references When EPA rule is final, we will align calculation methods with those in EPA rule; can use either EPA or DAQ guidance for voluntary reporting

6 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org6

7 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Calculation Methods In Table 3 Cover the following Stationary Combustion (DAQ guidance/spreadsheets) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Adipic Acid Production Aluminum Production Ammonia Production Cement Production Electricity Transmission and Distribution HCFC-22 Production Iron and Steel Production Lime Production Landfills Pulp and Paper Refrigeration and AC Equipment Manufacturing Semiconductor Manufacturing Oil and Natural Gas Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Soda Ash Consumption Limestone and Dolomite Use 7

8 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Additional Calculation Methods Provided in EPAs Proposed Rule, not in Table 3 Electronics Manufacturing Ethanol Production Food Processing Ferroalloy Production Fluorinated Gas Production Glass Production HCFC-23 Destruction Hydrogen Production Lead Production Magnesium Production Manure Management Systems Petrochemical Production Phosphoric Acid Production Silicon Carbide Production Titanium Oxide Production Underground Coal Mines Wastewater Treatment (industrial) Zinc Production 8

9 Industries Represented Today and their GHG emitting processes Food/tobacco: combustion, wastewater, industrial landfill Health/Education: combustion, R&D Waste management: landfills, combustion Coating/Furniture: combustion Plastics/chemicals/resins/fibers (non-petrochemicals and assume not chemical on industry list): combustion Pulp and paper: combustion, make-up carbonates, industrial landfills, wastewater Natural gas transmission: fugitives (equip leaks), combustion North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 9

10 Focus Today on the Following Methods Stationary source combustion Landfills Wastewater Natural gas transmission & distribution Pulp and paper North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 10

11 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Stationary Source Combustion- the Universe is Large EPAs Proposed Rule Definition: Produce electricity, steam, useful heat, or energy for industrial, commercial, or institutional use; or Reduce the volume of waste by removing combustible matter. Includes: boilers, turbines, internal combustion engines, incinerators, furnaces, ovens, kilns, burners, flares 11 More than 90% of NC Title V facilities have stationary source combustion sources

12 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Stationary Source Combustion Expected GHGs Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Nitrous Oxide (N 2 0) Methodology: Stationary Source Combustion Guidelines http://daq.state.nc.us/monitor/eminv/forms/Stationary_Combustio n_Sources.pdf DAQ Spreadsheets available to assist in calculations (Utilizes DAQ methodology) Can also use EPA proposed rule procedures, Subpart C, if you convert to tons Can also use EPA proposed rule procedures, Subpart C, if you convert to tons 12

13 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 13 Stationary Source Combustion GHG Emission Estimation Methods Direct Measurement via Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) Calculation using Emission Factors (EFs) Both Approaches used by DAQ and EPA proposed rule

14 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 14 CEMS Method Two approaches for CO 2 emissions CO 2 CEMS -report same as reported to satisfy Title IV requirements O 2 CEMS requires fuel analysis - report the same CO 2 emissions as outlined in 40 CFR Part 75 Appendix G, Section 3 Can use CEMS to get heat input for use in emission factor calculations for CH 4, N 2 0 If CEMS applied to stack burning multiple fuels, separate out the emissions by fuel type and report in AERO under the appropriate operating scenario CEMS may not account for all combustion emissions at facility - use calculation method for stacks without CEMS

15 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Emissions = Activity Level x Emission Factor Tons/yr Quantity of Fuel Combusted Tons Emitted / Gallon, ton, or ft 3 For CO 2 Activity Level: Based on quantity of fuel combusted Emission Factor: Based on fuel carbon content and heating value For CH 4 and N 2 O Activity Level: Based on quantity of fuel combusted Emission Factor: Based on fuel type and combustor technology type Calculations using Emission Factors 15

16 Stationary Source Combustion Calculation of CO 2 - DAQ Approach 1/907.2 Tons/yr CO 2 = Fuel x Heat Content x Carbon Content x Oxidation Factor x x C MW CO2 MW C kg C per MMBtu MMBtu per quantity of fuel 1.0 If you know either the Heat Content (Higher Heating Value or HHV) or Carbon Content of the Fuel Default Values in Table 1 44/12 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 16 tons, or Scf, or gallons

17 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org PART of Table 1 Table 1. Emission Factors for Calculating CO 2 Emissions – Fuel Analysis Approach Fuel TypeHeat Content (Based on HHV) Carbon ContentFraction Oxidized Fossil Fuel Combustion Coal and CokeMMBtu/tonkg C/MMBtu Anthracite Coal25.0928.261.00 Bituminous Coal24.9325.491.00 Sub-bituminous Coal17.2526.481.00 Lignite14.2126.301.00 Unspecified (residential/commercial) 22.0526.001.00 Unspecified (industrial coking)26.2725.561.00 Unspecified (other industrial)22.0525.631.00 Unspecified (electric utility)19.0525.761.00 Coke24.8031.001.00 Natural Gas (by Higher Heating Value) MMBtu/scfkg C/MMBtu 975 - 1,000 Btu/scf975 - 1,000 x 10 -6 14.361.00 1,000 - 1,025 Btu/scf1,000 - 1,025 x 10 -6 14.431.00 1,025 - 1,050 Btu/scf1,025 - 1,050 x 10 -6 14.471.00 1,050 - 1,075 Btu/scf 1,050 – 1,075 x 10 -6 14.581.00 1,075 - 1,100 Btu/scf 1,075 – 1,100 x 10 -6 14.651.00 > 1,100 Btu/scf> 1,100 x 10 -6 14.921.00 U.S. Weighted Average (1,029 Btu/scf) 1,029 x 10 -6 14.471.00 Petroleum ProductsMMBtu/Barrelkg C/MMBtu Asphalt and Road Oil6.63620.621.00 Aviation Gasoline5.04818.871.00 Distillate Fuel Oil (#1, 2, and 4)5.82519.951.00

18 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 18 Stationary Source Combustion Calculation of CO 2 - DAQ Approach Tons/yr CO 2 = Fuel x Emission Factor x C If you dont know either the Heat Content (HHV) or Carbon Content of the Fuel kg CO 2 /MMBtu, Or Kg CO 2 /quantity of fuel Table 2 contains Emission Factors 1/907.2

19 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 19 Table 2. Emission Factors for Calculating CO 2 Emissions – Generalized Approach Fuel TypeCO 2 Emission Factor (Per Unit Energy) CO 2 Emission Factor (Per Unit mass or Volume) Fossil Fuel Combustion Coal and Cokekg CO 2 /MMBtukg CO 2 /ton Anthracite Coal103.622,599.83 Bituminous Coal93.462,330.04 Sub-bituminous Coal97.091,674.86 Lignite96.431,370.32 Unspecified (residential/commercial) 95.332,012.29 Unspecified (industrial coking)93.722,462.12 Unspecified (other industrial)93.982,072.19 Unspecified (electric utility)94.451,884.53 Coke113.672,818.93 Natural Gas (by Higher Heating Value) kg CO 2 /MMBtukg CO 2 /scf 975 - 1,000 Btu/scf52.56Varies 1,000 - 1,025 Btu/scf52.91Varies 1,025 - 1,050 Btu/scf53.06Varies 1,050 - 1,075 Btu/scf53.46Varies 1,075 - 1,100 Btu/scf53.72Varies > 1,100 Btu/scf54.71Varies U.S. Weighted Average (1,029 Btu/scf) 53.060.0546 Petroleum Productskg CO 2 /MMBtukg CO 2 /gallon Asphalt and Road Oil75.6111.95 Aviation Gasoline69.198.32 Distillate Fuel Oil (#1, 2, and 4)73.1510.15 PART of Table 2

20 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 20 Combustion Emission Estimation Methods For CH 4 and N 2 O: Use Emission Factors EFs from Table 3 are based on Fuel type, sector, and configuration of device EFs from Table 4 are based on Fuel type and sector = Fuel * Emission Factor * C1 1/907,200 CH 4 or N 2 O (tons/yr) = g CH 4 /MMBtu, Or g N 2 O/MMBtu Use EFs from Table 3 or Table 4 MMBtu

21 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Part of Table 3 21

22 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 22 All of Table 4

23 What if Fuel isnt in the Tables? Options EPA Subpart C table contains some additional fuels Do you have source test? Call us/or Regional Office contact EXAMPLE: Saleable Animal Fat EPA Subpart C has CO 2 EF for Waste Oil in Table C-2 (kg CO 2 /mmBtu) We found heat content from DAQ permit analysis: 124,586 Btu/gal We just added fuels (like this) to DAQs tables North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 23

24 CH 4 from Landfill Gas Flaring DAQ provides method for CH 4 due to incomplete combustion North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Tons/yr CH 4 = Vol Flared x CH 4 Vol Fraction x Residual CH 4 x 0.0416/2000 ft3 of landfill gasCan assume 0.5 1-destruction efficiency/100 Lb/ft3 CH4 Lb/ton Emissions from the actual combustion process are additional: compute using CH 4 and N 2 0 EFs 24

25 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org EPA Proposed Rule Calculation Approach Similar For CO 2, there are 3 calculation tiers: Use fuel-specific carbon content (kg C per quantity of fuel) Use fuel-specific HHV – use defaults for Emission Factor (kg CO 2 /MMBtu) Heat content & fuel content measured on periodic basis (e.g., month) Use defaults for HHV (MMBtu/quantity of fuel) and Emission Factor For CH 4 and N 2 0, only 1 set of EFs (independent of device type) 25

26 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 26 Combustion Calculation Spreadsheets for DAQ Approach Natural Gas boilers Coal combustion Fuel Oil Combustion (distillate & residual) LPG Combustion - Liquefied Petroleum Gases Boilers Wood Waste Combustion Internal combustion - small gasoline and diesel engines Internal Combustion – large gasoline and diesel engines

27 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 1020 BTU/ SCF 14.43 KG/ MMBtu and Fraction Oxidized = 1 (Table 1) 27 21.16 Million SCF (actual yearly)

28 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 28

29 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 29 Output screen continued GREENHOUSE GAS POLLUTANT ACTUAL EMISSIONS Emission Factor (AFTER CONTROLS / LIMITS) tons/yrlb/MMBtu Carbon Dioxide 1258.78116.64 Methane 2.14E-021.98E-03 Nitrous oxide 2.14E-021.98E-03

30 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Computing GHGs from Thermal Oxidizers That Destroy VOC? Can use spreadsheet to calculate CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from the fossil fuel used A few options for the solvent combustion Are stack test results readily available Can you estimate the carbon content? EPA has an EF for solvent in [kg/MMBtu], you will need Higher Heating Value 30

31 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 31 QA/QC of Combustion Results For combustion, CO2 >> CH 4 and N 2 0 Check units – need short tons (tons) per year- NOT metric tons (tonnes) If site-specific fuel parameters used, check against Table 1 values Btu content of fuel (remember, we use higher heating value--HHV) Carbon content

32 Landfills 2 nd largest CH 4 source in the U.S. in 2006 Dozen or more Title V Municipal Solid Waste landfills Industrial Landfills use similar approach Expected GHGs CH 4 CO 2 and N 2 O (if on-site combustion) DAQ references EPA Climate Leaders document (2004) EPA proposed rule (subpart HH) has similar methodology 32 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org

33 33 Landfill Guidance Addresses CH 4 emissions from 2 Cases No landfill gas collection systems With landfill gas recovery and control systems North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org

34 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 34 Landfills – no recovery Use Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) to compute CH 4 generated http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/products.html#soft ware http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/products.html#soft ware Compute emissions as follows: CH 4 emissions = CH 4 generated *(1 – oxidation factor) Oxidation factor accounts for amount of CH 4 oxidized while passing through landfill cover; 10% is default (factor=0.1)

35 35 Example Landfill calculation Landgem Model Inputs ( see http://www.epa.gov/ttncatc1/dir1/landgem-v302-guide.pdf, section 3, for additional default values that can be used )http://www.epa.gov/ttncatc1/dir1/landgem-v302-guide.pdf Landfill Specific Waste disposal = 80,000 Mg annual tonnage of MSW for each filling year Year opened 1982 Current Year: 2003 Capacity: 2,400,000 Mg Can use Defaults ( more defaults available in Users Guide ): Lo (generation potential) = 100 AP-42 default (100 m3/Mg) k (rate constant) = 0.02 AP-42 default (arid 0.02/yr; non-arid 0.04/yr) Methane concentration = 50% by volume (default)

36 Example Landfill Calculation (cntd) LandGEM Model output: For the year 2003, CH 4 generated = 1850 tonnes/yr Assume 10% oxidation factor (default) Therefore, CH 4 Emissions = 1850 tonnes/yr * (1- 0.1) = 1660 tonnes/yr Convert to short tons for AERO: 1660 tonnes/yr * 1.10231131 tons/tonnes = 1830 tons CH 4 /yr North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 36 which is more than 25,000 metric tons CO2e

37 Landfill with Collection/Recovery (use only for the part of the Landfill with collection) CH 4 Emissions = - CH 4 Collected CH 4 Collected Coll eff *(1 – OF) + (CH 4 Collected * Vent) where: CH 4 Collected = CH 4 Collected by active gas collection system (should have measurement of this) Coll eff = collection system efficiency (Can use 0.75 as default) OF = oxidation fraction (use 0.10 as a default) Vent = fraction vented (Can use 0.01 to account for startup/shutdown/malfunction) 37

38 38 Example Landfill Calculation with Collection Is in the reference. http://www.epa.gov/climateleaders/documents/r esources/protocol-solid_waste_landfill.pdf North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org

39 EPA proposed rule differences EPA proposed rule requires that you calculate generated CH 4 (whether or not you have recovery) – eqn same as 3.01 version of LandGEM model If you have collection/recovery: Measure recovered LFG and other parameters Calculate emissions based on amt generated minus recovered (account for oxidation and destruction efficiency), and Calculate emissions based on collection efficiency North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 39

40 Wastewater DAQ doesnt reference an approach in Table 3 Use the approach in the EPA proposed rule -subpart II Addresses CH 4 resulting from anaerobic wastewater treatment; separate equation for anaerobic digester Aerobic treatment doesnt emit CH 4 Amount of CH 4 generated based on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of wastewater COD is a widely used parameter of organic pollution in industrial wastewater. It is a measure of the capacity of water to consume oxygen during the decomposition of organic matter and the oxidation of inorganic chemicals such as ammonia and nitrite. The basis for the COD test is that nearly all organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 40

41 Wastewater CH 4 – EPA proposed rule, subpart II Where: CH 4 = Annual CH 4 mass emissions from the wastewater treatment system (metric tons) Flow = Monthly flow treated through anaerobic treatment system (m3/month) COD = Average monthly value for chemical oxygen demand of wastewater entering anaerobic treatment systems other than digesters (kg/m 3 ) Bo = Maximum CH 4 producing potential of industrial wastewater (default value of 0.25 kg CH 4 /kg COD) MCF = CH 4 correction factor, indicating the extent to which the organic content (measured as COD) degrades anaerobically. DEFAULT values provided in Table II-1, based on lagoon type and system design. CH 4 (industrial wastewater) = 41

42 42 Pulp and Paper DAQ references the GHG PROTOCOL INITIATIVE http://www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/pulp-and-paper http://www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/pulp-and-paper (you must register to download) Document: Calculation Tools for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Pulp and Paper Mills (version 1.1, July 2005) Excel Workbook: ICFPA/NCASI Spreadsheets for Calculating GHG emissions from pulp and paper manufacturing (version 1.3) Copyright: Portions of the spreadsheets and associated materials were developed by WRI, WBCSD or NCASI, are copyrighted, and are published here with the permission of those developers. The User acknowledges these copyrights.

43 43 Pulp and Paper Workbook Can skip the Combustion Operations sheet (use DAQ guidance) Other P&P Sheets of interest Direct - Make-up Carbonates: CO 2 from make-up carbonates used in the pulp mill Waste Mngmt: CH 4 from mill-owned landfills or anaerobic treatment operations North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org

44 44 Pulp and Paper – can also use Subpart AA EPA rule Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (inc. those that burn spent pulping liquor) Chemical recovery combustion units at sulfite facilities Pulp mill lime kilns at kraft and soda facilities Systems for adding make up chemicals (CaCO 3, Na 2 CO 3 ) Other onsite combustion (subpart C) Onsite landfills (subpart HH) On-site watewater treatment (subpart II) North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org

45 45 Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution DAQ Provides Reference – work done by Calif. Addresses CH 4 emitted from fugitives (CO 2 may also be emitted if gas stream has it and via oxidation) Non-routine activities (Upsets/ equipment venting) Equipment leaks (valves, flanges) Relies on API compendium (2004) and Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA) Guidelines (2005) http://www.climateregistry.org/resources/docs/protocols/progress/natural-gas/CCAR- WRI_NG_Protocol_DiscussionPaper_Final.pdf North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org

46 Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution (contd) EPAs Proposed rule provides calculation methods (subpart W) Note not all emission points are included – the Technical Support Document discusses this further http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads/tsd/TSD%20Oil %20and%20Natural%20Gas%20Systems%20EPA%20-%2001-29- 09.pdf EPAs proposed rule also requires suppliers to report (Subpart NN) North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org 46

47 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org If you are unsure if your sources emit GHGs or need help calculating, contact the appropriate Regional Office or Central Office Need Help? 47

48 North Carolina Division of Air Quality 1641 Mail Service Center - Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 (919) 733-3340 www.ncair.org Part 3 Discussion/Questions 48


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