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1 Ozone And Fine Particle Attainment Issues In NC Attainment Planning Technical Exchange Session 1 NCDENR, Division of Air Quality September 30 th, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Ozone And Fine Particle Attainment Issues In NC Attainment Planning Technical Exchange Session 1 NCDENR, Division of Air Quality September 30 th, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Ozone And Fine Particle Attainment Issues In NC Attainment Planning Technical Exchange Session 1 NCDENR, Division of Air Quality September 30 th, 2004

2 2 Ozone (O 3 )

3 3 What Is Ozone ? Stratospheric and Ground-Level Good Up High – Bad Nearby Ozone is not emitted directly into the atmosphere Formed through complex photochemical reactions involving: Sunlight Precursor pollutants VOC - Volatile Organic Compounds NOx - Nitrogen Oxides Critical meteorological conditions

4 4

5 5 Ozone – Public Health Risks When inhaled, even at low levels, ozone can: Cause inflammation of lung tissue Cause acute or chronic respiratory problems Aggravate, possibly trigger asthma Decrease lung capacity Repeated exposure in children may lead to reduced lung function as adults

6 6 Ozone Standard 1-hour ozone standard 0.12 ppm (124 ppb) Over a 3-year span, the average number of exceedances per calendar year must be less than or equal to 1 8-hour ozone standard 0.08 ppm (84 ppb) 3-year average annual 4 th highest daily maximum 8-hour average greater than 0.08 ppm is a violation of the standard

7 7 Ozone Design Value Calculation (8-hour) Step 1: Sort all daily 8-hour average maximums in order from highest to lowest into a list for year #1 Step 2: Repeat Step 1 for the next two consecutive years (#2 & #3) creating a total of three lists Step 3: Average the 4 th highest from each list or across the 3-year span This average is truncated three significant figures or the thousandth decimal place

8 8

9 Ozone Design Values (Highest Value Per County)

10 Ozone Design Values – Each Monitor

11 11 State sends initial recommendations for boundaries to USEPA USEPA responds back with their recommendations State follows up with additional data to support their recommendations if different from USEPA USEPA designates - Does not have to follow state recommendations How Are Nonattainment Boundaries Set?

12 12 Evaluate which monitors are violating Determine appropriate boundaries Conduct public meetings Coordinate with other agencies impacted by nonattainment designations (NCDOT and NCDOC, Local Government) State Process For Nonattainment Boundaries Recommendation

13 13 State Recommendation State follows USEPA guidance (11 criteria) in the technical analysis AQ data Emissions Population density / degree of urbanization / commercial development Location of emission sources Traffic / commuting patterns Expected growth Meteorology (transport patterns) Geography / topography Jurisdictional boundaries Level of control of emission sources Regional emission reductions

14 14

15 15 Example: Edgecombe And Nash Counties Situation: Part of Rocky Mount MSA Emissions are ~ one seventh of Triangle emissions Majority of emissions from mobile sources… To be addressed as part of Federal and State strategy Trajectory analysis strongly suggests ozone transport from Triangle NCDAQ Recommendation: Municipal boundary of Leggett where monitor is located

16 16 Criteria 1: Emissions & AQ Percent NOx that county contributes to the areas total NOx emission in 2000 Edgecombe = 38% Nash = 62 % HOWEVER…Edgecombe and Nash are the only counties in the Rocky Mount MSA; thus each county contributes a high percentage of emissions to the MSA as compared to counties in larger MSAs

17 17 Criteria 1: Emissions & AQ Compare to Triangle…

18 18 Criteria 1: Emissions & AQ

19 19 Criteria 5: Traffic & Commuting Patterns VMT and commuting patterns were evaluated. The percent of workers commuting from the partial or recommended attainment county into the core urbanized counties in each area is presented Edgecombe to Wake = 0.1% Nash to Wake = 0.8%

20 20

21 21 Criteria 7: Meteorology (Transport Patterns) Leggett monitor is impacted by transported pollution from the Triangle under westerly flow There is also a strong correlation between high ozone concentrations in Raleigh and high ozone concentrations at the Leggett Leggett can also be impacted by emissions from Fayetteville and the I-95 corridor (southwest flow) 36 hour back trajectories (starting at 20 GMT of each exceedance day) were run at heights of 10, 300, 1000 meters

22 22

23 23 Criteria 10: Control Of Emission Sources Motor vehicle Inspections and Maintenance program (I/M) will be implemented in by January 2005 in Nash and Edgecombe

24 24

25 25 Designations Based designations on MSA boundaries USEPA designated less than an entire county the monitor(s) in the county was(were) attaining the standard Mountain Area designated on GSMNP boundaries since: Violating monitor is high elevation Nighttime exceedances

26 26 Ozone Nonattainment Requirements – Timeline Immediate (June 15, 2004) New source review General conformity One year Transportation conformity Three years State Implementation Plan (SIP) – attainment demonstration Five years (or as expeditiously as practicable) Attain standard (Triangle, RMT, GSMNP) Six years (or as expeditiously as practicable) Attain standard (Charlotte)

27 27 New Source Review Becomes effective June 15, 2004 Minimum thresholds for various pollutants and activities Existing facilities dont have to do anything unless they modify! New or modified facilities Adopt LAER ( Lowest Achievable Emission Rate) Emissions offsets

28 28 Transportation Conformity Becomes effective June 15, 2005 Transportation plan must conform to air quality plans Analysis to ensure that transportation projects dont make the air worse Doesnt necessarily have to reduce air pollution Failure to conform means Federal highway funding is withheld

29 29 State Implementation Plan (SIP) Must be submitted to EPA within three years Details the States plan to bring the area into attainment of the Federal standard Most significant features are already underway Clean Smokestacks Act Vehicle emissions testing Low sulfur fuels Cleaner Engines

30 30 Fine Particulates (PM 2.5 )

31 31 What Is PM2.5 ? Human Hair (70 µm diameter) Hair cross section (70 m) PM 2.5 (2.5 µm) PM 10 ( 10µm )

32 32 Primary & Secondary PM2.5 Primary SourcesSecondary Formation Combustion - Fire places, wood stoves, opening burning, vehicles, and industry Chemical Transformation - Gases (e.g. SO2, Carbon, NH3, & NOx) condense and combine in the atmosphere

33 33 PM2.5 Speciation In NC

34 34 PM2.5 – Public Health Risks Are Significant Particles are linked to: Premature death from heart and lung disease Aggravation of heart and lung diseases Hospital admissions Doctor and ER visits Medication use School and work absences And possibly to Lung cancer deaths Infant mortality Developmental problems in children, such as low birth weight

35 35 PM2.5 Standard Annual PM2.5 standard 3-year average of the spatially averaged annual means is less than or equal to 15.0 μg/m 3 Daily PM2.5 standard 3-year average of the 98 th percentile values at each monitoring site is less than or equal to 65 μg/m 3

36 36 PM2.5 Design Value Calculation (Annual) Step 1: Average 24-hour measurements to obtain quarterly means at each monitor Step 2: Average quarterly means to obtain annual means at each monitor Step 3: Average across designated monitoring sites to obtain an annual spatial mean for an area Step 4: Average 3 years of annual spatial means to obtain a 3-year average of spatially averaged annual means

37 37 Statewide PM2.5 Annual Design Values

38 38 Hickory Back Trajectories High Days Only

39 39 Lexington Back Trajectories High Days Only

40 40 NCDAQs Recommended PM2.5 Nonattainment Boundaries

41 41 USEPAs Recommended PM2.5 Nonattainment Boundaries

42 42

43 43 PM2.5 Nonattainment Requirements – Timeline November/December 2004 Designations January/February 2005 Effective date of designations New source review + General conformity One year Transportation conformity Three years State Implementation Plan (SIP) – attainment demonstration Five years (or as expeditiously as practicable) Nonattainment areas must attain

44 44 What Is NC Doing To Solve The Air Quality Problems? Participation in the Southern Appalachian Mountain Initiative Adoption of Clean Air Bill of 1999 Adoption of NOx SIP Call Rule Adoption of Clean Smokestacks Act Section 126 Petition Participation in Southeasts Regional Haze Planning Organization (VISTAS)

45 45 North Carolina Clean Smoke Stacks Act NOx & SO2 Caps on emissions Tons / year Caps per Company - They decide on controls Phased compliance; 1 Jan 07, 09, 13 Actual reductions in NC Unique cost recovery feature Recommendations on Hg & CO2; Sep 05 Reduction credits held by the State SAMI: Greatest AQ benefit for a state comes from reductions in that state; but, controls in all states needed to fully solve AQ problems

46 46 Emissions Reductions Under Clean Smokestacks Bill 50, , , , , , , , , , NOx (tons/year) SO 2 (tons/year) 245,000 60,000 56, , , ,000

47 47 What Is EPA Doing To Solve The Air Quality Problems? Cleaner car and light truck standards Cleaner gasoline Cleaner heavy duty engine standards Cleaner diesel Cleaner Nonroad Engines Clean Air Interstate Rule

48 48 What Are Some Local Measures? Focus on categories of major emissions Reduction in vehicle miles traveled Nonroad Engines – fleet turnover How growth is handled Episodic controls

49 49 For More Information: Visit our web site: Contact:


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