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Reducing Idling Locomotives Emissions Jessica Montañez and Matthew Mahler NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Air Quality.

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Presentation on theme: "Reducing Idling Locomotives Emissions Jessica Montañez and Matthew Mahler NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Air Quality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reducing Idling Locomotives Emissions Jessica Montañez and Matthew Mahler NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Air Quality

2 Agenda Railroads Basic Information North Carolina Railways Data Idling Reduction Technologies Funding Resources Examples of Partnerships or Collaborative Acknowledgments

3 What is a Railroad Switching Yard? A place where a diesel railroad locomotive that has seen its better days on the mainline is used for the assembly of trains. The old diesel railroad locomotive is used to attach and detach rail cars and position them in sequence to travel to different sites. Place where switch locomotives are left idling. CN S4s 8193 and 8192 switch cars. ©Pat and David Othen

4 Why do Locomotives Idle? Locomotives are left idling when operators: –Wait for further instructions, work assignments or orders –Need to keep engine warm to be sure that: Water and fuel doesnt freeze, –Antifreeze generally not used Oil doesnt become stiff for cranking The engine starts (below 40°F) Battery charge is maintained –Need heating or cooling for their cab –Need to heat toilet water –Provide power for other systems –Are used to do this operation

5 Why dont Locomotives Use Antifreeze? Antifreeze: –Can damage bearings in large diesel engines –Would reduce horse power output because water: Is a better heat transfer fluid Allows 20% smaller radiators –May leak, impacting the environment

6 Why is Idling a Problem? Idling: –Increases overall transportation costs by increasing: Fuel consumption Lubricating oil consumption Engine wear –Generates unnecessary diesel emissions and noise Diesel emissions contribute to unhealthy levels of: –Particulate Matter - PM (respiratory and cardiovascular diseases) –Nitrogen Oxides – NOx (respiratory diseases) Long-duration locomotive switcher idling emits 12,000 tons of NOx and 500 tons PM annually (EPA estimate) Without new controls, EPA estimates that by 2030, locomotives and marine diesel engines will contribute 27% of the NOx and 45% of the PM2.5 overall mobile sources emissions.

7 Why its Idling a Problem? (cont.) Some statistics and information: Idling engines will burn 3 to 4 gallons of fuel per hour. (EPA estimate) Locomotive switchers idling consumes 60 million gallons of diesel fuel annually. (EPA estimate) Switchers idle about 60% of total engine operating time – about 2,500 to 3,000 hours per year. (EPA estimate) Class I railroads represent the largest number of locomotives in the country. There are about 20,000 Class I locomotive engines and, of this number, about 5,000 are switchers. (EPA estimate) The time of maximum carbon accumulation is when locomotives are idling or operating at minimum power output. The time of maximum carbon ejection is when prower is applied after a period of idling. (Railroad Fire Prevention Guide)

8 Idling Percentages by Notch Information from: Reduction of Impacts from Locomotive Idling, Railroad Environmental Conference, Urbana, IL (November 2003)

9 EPA Rules Emission Regulations for Railroad Locomotives – December 17, 1997 –Introduced Tier 0 to Tier 2 emission standards for NOx, HC, CO, PM and smoke for newly manufactured and remanufactured railroad locomotives and locomotive engines Tier 0 – apply to locomotives and locomotive engines originally manufactured from 1973 through 2001, any time they are manufactured or remanufactured Tier 1 – apply to locomotives and locomotive engines originally manufactured from 2002 through 2004 – required to meet standard at time of manufacture and each subsequent remanufacture Tier 2 – apply to locomotives and locomotive engines originally manufactured after 2005 and later – required to meet standard at time of manufacture and each subsequent remanufacture –Standards are met through engine design methods, without the use of exhaust gas after-treatment –The regulation contains several other provisions: production line testing (PLT) program, in-use compliance testing, as well as averaging, banking and trading (ABT) of emissions

10 EPA Rules Exhaust Emission Standards for Locomotives Tier and duty-cycleGaseous and Particle Emissions (g/bhp-hr) HC 1 CONO x PM Tier 0 line-haul duty-cycle Tier 0 switch duty-cycle Tier 1 line-haul duty-cycle Tier 1 switch duty-cycle Tier 2 line-haul duty-cycle Tier 2 switch duty-cycle HC standards are in the form of THC for diesel, bio-diesel, or any combination of fuels with diesel as the primary fuel Smoke Standards for Locomotives (percent opacity – normalized) Steady -state 30-sec peak 3-sec peak Tier Tier Tier

11 EPA Rules Clean Air Non-road Diesel Rule – May 11, 2004 –Exhaust emissions and fuel standards Emissions standards do not apply to locomotives and marine vessels Fuel standards (locomotives and marine vessels): –500 parts per million (ppm) of sulfur starting in 2007 –15 ppm of sulfur starting in 2012 Clean Diesel Program for Locomotives and Engines - May 11, 2004 –EPA is considering emission standards: based on the application of high-efficiency catalytic after treatment enabled by the availability of clean diesel fuel (sulfur content, 15 ppm) –EPA expects to reduce NOx and PM levels by about 90%

12 Miles of Railroad in NC (excluding trackage rights) 3,253 miles

13 North Carolina Railroads* *Best information to date

14 NC Switchyards Locations * Apex - CSX Asheville – NS Bostic - CSX Charlotte - CSX Chocowintiy - NS Durham (2) - CSX and NS Eastbrook - CSX East Marion - CSX Ecusta (Pisgah Forest) - NS Fayeteville - CSX Fort Bragg – US Military RR Fuquay-Varina - NS Goldsboro (2) - NS and CSX Greenville - CSX Hamlet - CSX (Major Facility) Leland – CSX Linwood - NS (Major Facility) Monroe - CSX Morehead City – NS/State Ports Authority – Carolina Rail Services New Bern - NS Raleigh (3) – CSX, NS and NCDOT Roanoke Rapids - CSX Rocky Mount - CSX (Major Facility) Southport - US Military RR, Sunny Point Army Ocean Terminal Wilmington – States Ports Authority – Carolina Rail Services *Best information to date

15 EPA Listed Idling Reduction Technologies Technology that allows engine operators to refrain from long-duration idling of the main propulsion engine by using an alternative technology. Examples: –Automatic Engine Start-Stop Control (AESS) –Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) –Diesel-driven heating system (DDHS) Benefits: –Fuel, Oil and Engine Maintenance Savings –Emissions Reductions

16 Automatic Engine Start-Stop Control (AESS) Turns the main engine off or on after a set parameter is out of range –water temperature –brake pressure –battery charge and –idling time No operator intervention required Advantage: –Can reduce idling by up to 70% for a switcher Disadvantage of AESS: –Starter motor may wear out faster Comment: –If ambient temperature below 40 F - the engine stays on; thus greatest savings occur in warm climates Most widely used AESS: ZTR SmartStart

17 Monitors existing conditions against a preprogrammed set of values –Reverser and throttle position –Air brake cylinder pressure –Engine coolant, ambient air and water temperature Restarts engine if water temperature drops to 100 F (alarm sounds to warn about restart) –Battery voltage and charging amperage Additional Costs: –Installation – Man hours (about $2,500) –No maintenance costs other than replacing a battery. There are no moving parts. Cost: $9,000 ZTR – Smart Start

18 Auxiliary Power Units (APU) Shut off and restart the main engine and supply heat for: –the water (including the toilet) oil, coolant and the cab No operator intervention required They also can: –Maintain brake air pressure –Keep batteries charged Optional: –May supply 60 Hz electric power for air conditioning (optional) and for cost-effective reliable appliances, lighting and communication Advantages: –Can be installed behind main engine, or on the walkway, if space is tight –Reduces one overhaul for the life of the engine (average life: 30 years) Disadvantages: –More costly than AESS, but provide additional services and greater fuel savings Comment: –Operate well even down to -30º F in Alaska (a year-round system) Most widely used APUs: EcoTrans K-9 and DDHS

19 EcoTrans K-9 APU System protects the main locomotive engine during shutdown times –Monitors and maintains the lube oil and water temperatures –Starts and stops based on inputs from water temp. –Optional Products (not provided by EcoTrans): 110/220 house current for cab heating and air conditioning (requires additional products) - $12-15K Additional costs: –Hose/wiring kit: $1,100 – free for first unit –Maintenance costs are generally low and occur: every 6 months for replacement of 4 filters every 12 months for air filter replacement every 2 years for the replacement of belts, to drain oil and other actions. Cost: $23,000 - $25,000

20 Kim Hotstart - APU Diesel Driven Heating Systems (DDHS) Allows an idling locomotive to be shut-down by: –heating the locomotive engine water, oil and coolant (if any) –charging the batteries –powering the cab heaters Small enough to install on the walkway of a switcher or inside the car body where space allows. Can be linked to the ZTR Smart Start system Additional costs: –Installation Kit: pluming, wiring, tubing and brackets –Minimal maintenance costs: filters, oil, alternator brushes No major overhauls registered yet for DDHS Cost: $30,000

21 What are the Main Differences between the Start-Stop Systems and the APUs (include DDHS)? Start-Stop –Starts and stops the engine only –No heat provided APU –Starts and stops the engine –Provides: Heat Cab Comfort –Most popular APU: DDHS –Older units dont start and stop the engine, but newer units do Start-Stop and DDHS: Usually used in combination

22 Other Available Technologies Locomotive Shore Power –Plugs locomotive into an external power source of three-phase AC –Circulates the locomotive coolant and oil –Can be linked to the the ZTR SmartStart System –Optional: Charges the batteries –Advantages Proven Technology –1st installation in 1965, over 2,000 installations Low Maintenance –Disadvantage Have to park near external power source to shutdown Cost: $4,000 - $14,000

23 Other Available Technologies Cost: $750K on old locomotive bed Hybrid switcher locomotive – Manufacturer: RailPower –Battery-diesel hybrid switcher - The Green Goat –Currently, replaces 1, HP yard switchers: 300 HP diesel genset engine (standard) –It NEVER idles. The genset only runs to recharge batteries. –When the switcher is not working a small heater runs to keep the genset engine warm sealed Pb-acid batteries expected to last a minimum of years - kept at 80% state-of-charge –Battery warranty program for first 5 years –Advantages: Does more work with 30+% better tractive effort Cut NOx and dangerous PM by 80-90% Road/branchline switchers will cut fuel use by 35% Ultra quiet –Comment: Road/branchline long-range variants for 2006

24 Other Available Technologies Cost: $6,000 Low Emission Idle system (LEI) – Manufacturer: Energy Conversions Inc. –Alternating bank idle system –Runs the engine on half of its cylinders when the engine is at idle or low RPM –Can be installed on EMD engines and GE FDL engines –Advantages: Non-firing cylinders place additional load on the engine and cause the firing cylinders to burn diesel fuel more efficiently Can be used on diesel and natural gas combustion engines. –Additional Costs: Installation Man Hours – 2 Maintenance: lubrication of the air cylinders

25 Idling Reduction Technologies Payback Times * SystemEnergy Savings (gal/d) Annual Savings ($1000s) Cost ($1000s) Payback Time (months) Start/stop APU or DDHS Plug-in Green Goat Basis: GP38-2 with EPA switcher cycle for all technologies, 330 d/y, 50% idle replacement by AESS (will be less in cold climate), 90% by APU, DDHS or plug-in unit, 0.05 gal oil used/gal fuel, $0.10/KWh Information from: Reduction of Impacts from Locomotive Idling, Railroad Environmental Conference, Urbana, IL (November 2003) Caveats: Energy savings depend on climate, duty cycle and locomotive type. *Costs depend on vendor and options included. Updated prices, when available, are included in the previous slides.

26 Idling Reduction Technologies Comparison Summary SystemReduction in Energy Use and Emissions Working Noise Non-working Noise Advantages/ Disadvantages IdlingNoneNoisy ---- Start/stopMinimumNoisyAlternates noisy/silent No cab comfort, Minimal benefit in winter APU or DDHSGoodNoisySilentAnywhere, any time; APU supplies all services Plug-inGoodNoisySilentRequires equipped location HybridMaximumQuietSilentSwitcher only Information from: Reduction of Impacts from Locomotive Idling, Railroad Environmental Conference, Urbana, IL (November 2003)

27 Funding Resources North Carolina Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Grants –Purpose: To achieve actual reductions from on- and off- road mobile source related emissions in NC and assist the State in maintaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for primarily ozone and carbon monoxide –Funding for these grants is provided by a tax of 1/64 of a cent per gallon of gasoline sold –Project must emphasize mobile source emissions reduction, (i.e. particulates, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) for a new project –Project must emphasize actual emission reductions as opposed to planning - grant holders must report back to DENR on actual benefits of completed project –No matching funds required –More information at: –Application Deadline: Fall 2005

28 Funding Resources Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) –Funds transportation projects and programs to help achieve and maintain NAAQS for Ozone, CO, and PM-10 –Jointly administered by the FHWA and FTA in consultation with EPA –Must be used in non-attainment or maintenance areas – if there are any. If not, can be used anywhere in the State –Must be a transportation project and demonstrate emissions reductions –Must be creditable under the transportation conformity process –20% match is required – higher is encouraged. Must be non-Federal funding. –More information at: –Application Deadline: Spring 2006 (2005 deadline passed)

29 Examples of Partnerships or Collaboratives EPA SmartWay –voluntary partnership between various freight industry sectors and EPA that establishes incentives for fuel efficiency improvements and greenhouse gas emissions reductions –Three primary components of the program: Creating Partnerships Establishing the National Transportation Idle-Free Corridors Program Maximizing Rail Efficiency and Intermodal Operations –More information at:

30 West Coast Collaborative –Partnership between leaders from federal, state, and local government, the private sector, and environmental groups in California, Oregon, Idaho and Washington, Alaska, British Columbia and Mexico –Goal: To leverage significant federal funds to reduce emissions from the most polluting diesel sources in the most affected communities and to significantly improve air quality and public health –To establish the goal the collaborative: raises awareness of the need for diesel emissions reductions projects creates a forum for information sharing among diesel emissions reductions advocates works to leverage significant new resources to expand voluntary diesel emissions reductions efforts implements projects that are regional in scope and achieve measurable emissions reductions –More information at: Examples of Partnerships or Collaboratives

31 Acknowledgements EPA –Michelle Roos DOE –Linda Gaines NCDOT –Alan Paul

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